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Electric Railway 





January to June, 1910 

McGraw Publishing Company 
239 West 39th Street 
New York 





Jan. i.. . 
Jan. 8. . . 
Jan. 15. 
Jan. 22 . . 
Jan. 29. 
Feb. 5. . 
Feb. 12. 
Feb. 19. 
Feb. 26. 
Mar. 5.. 
Mar. 12. 
Mar. 19. 
Mar. 25. 
Apr. 2.. . 
Apr. 9. . 
Apr. 16. 
Apr. 23.. 
Apr. 30. . 
May 7. . 
May 14.. 
May 21. . 
May 28. . 
June 4. . 
June 11. 
June 18. 
June 25. 

Aberdeen, Wash., Gray's Harbor Railway & 

Light Co., Sale, 677 
Accelerometer, Direct-reading [Moore], *22y 
Accident claim department: 

Investigating reports and claims [Hand- 
Ion], 905 

Medical department [McLaughlin], 777 

■ Organization [Cole], 1025 

Relation with law department [Falkner], ' 







T 1 A 

J 34 























C T A 



c cfS 


■ C c*7 



" 6zlo 






■ • " 727 



■ ■ " 767 






•• " 855 



... " 893 



■ ■ " 929 



• • " 965 



• • " 1013 

to 1048 

. . " 1049 

to 1084 

. . " 1085 


1 120 


-Team accidents, 
1 67 


to employees, 
Association ; 

(See also Claim Agents' 

Accident claims: 

Double claim for damages, 381 

Fraudulent, Baltimore, 721 

Fraudulent, New York. 1043 

Importance of engineering details in dam- 
age suits, 810 
Accident insurance policies and damages, 218 

(See also Employees; Employers' liability) 


Cascade Tunnel snow slide, Gt. Northern 

R. R., *494 
— - — Chicago, 1042 

New York City, February and March, 

642, 800 

Booklet for Children, Cincinnati, 1105 


Baltimore, 800 

Booklet for Children, Cincinnati, 1105 
Educating the public [Schneider], 
617; Discussion, 975 

— Prize essays on, Illinois Traction Co., 

S ' ' 'I, . 748 

Protection of linemen working on high- 
tension transmission lines, Practice of 
various railways. 1068 

Reduction of, by pay-as-you-enter cars, 

Chicago, 102, 152 

Accountants' Association: 

Executive committee meeting, 240 

Shop accounting committee, Meeting of, 

747, 832 

Work of 1909 [Swift], 28 


Auditor's relation to the operating execu- 
tive [Lamb], 492 

Depreciation [Duffy], 185; [Weeks], 782; 

Discussion, 779 
Allowance . for income tax, London, 

Cleveland, Depreciation and main- 
tenance in [Davies], 614 

Electrical properties, Depreciation and 
reserve funds of [Jackson], 903 

Nebraska Commission, Testimony of 

E. W. Bemis, 441 
New York Public Service Commission, 

Inquiry by, 793. 
St. Louis depreciation reserve, 433 
Statistics from different companies 

I Ford 1, 284 
Treatment of. I Ford], 284 

Issue of securities to provide working 

capital in Massachusetts, 663 

Milwaukee, Handbook Riving classification 

of accounts, 278 


Accounting: (Continued) \ ^ 

Philadelphia, for power plant maintenance 

and operation, 1020 ^^>v_ f 6 

Seat-mile unit [Foster], C198; Comment! ' ' 


Shop accounting, Meeting of Committee 

on, 747, 832 
— —Transportation records in Berlin, *229 

(See also Auditing; Blanks and forms) 

Accounting Conference (See Central Electric 

Accounting Conference) 
Accounting department, Relations with the 

operating department [Elkins], 944; 

Comment, 929; Discussion, 979 
Ackley Brake Co., Organization of, 82 
Adelaide. South Australia, Report of Munici- 
pal Tramways Trust, 519 

Cleveland, Street car talks to public, '874 

Dasher advertising, 304 

Educating the public [McGraw], 73; Dis- 
cussion, 71 

Farming special train operated in Massa- 
chusetts, *738 

Hudson River tunnel advertisements, *IS4 

London methods [McGraw], 73 

Minneapolis advertisement for trainmen, 


Pay-as-you-enter car service in Baltimore, 


— —Street railway advertising [Sylvester], 
[Faulkner], 196 

(See also Publicity) 

Air brakes (See Brakes, Air) 
Akron, Ohio: 

Cars, One-side convertible, *io72 

Pension fund for employees of Northern 

Ohio Traction & Light Co., 759 
Albany, N. Y.: 

Limiting number of passengers on cars, 

191; Comment; 173; Discussion, 406 

Strike, 965 

Traffic agreement with Schenectady Ry., 


Albany Southern Ry. (See Hudson, N. Y.) 
Allentown, Pa., Lehigh Valley Transit Co.: 

Bond issue, 370, 957, 799 

Operation into Philadelphia, 848 

Refinancing plan, 641 

Alliance, Ohio, Stark Electric R. R. : 
Dividend, 330 

Increase of stock and dividend, 508 

Alternating current, Change to direct current, 

Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis 

Ry-> *392; Comment, 380 
Aluminum wire for railway motor field coils, 

Experiments in Germany [Pauls- 

meier], 67; Comment, 62, 1051 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 

Convention, 990 
American Railway Engineering & Maintenance 

of Way Association, Convention, 488, 

498. 541 

American Street & Interurban Railway Ac- 
countants' Association (See Account- 
ants' Association) 

American Street & Interurban Railway Asso- 
ciation : 

Atlantic City for Convention, 965, 1000 

Committee on insurance, Meeting, 902 

Committee meetings in January. 239 

Cominittee on membership, Work of, 97 

— ■ — Committee on transportation of United 

States mail. Meeting of, 82 
Committees, 117. 157 

Convention hall, Permanent, Offer of 

Saratoga Springs, 893 

Distribution of blanks and folders, 797 

— — Executive committee meeting, 903 

Midyear meeting, 82, 197, 216, *24i, 269, 


— —New members, 288 

Pennsylvania R. R. a member. 1029, 1049 

President's address, Midyear meeting, 241 

Success and future work [Shaw], 7 

American Street & Interurban Railway Claim 
Agents' Association (See. Claim 
Agents' Association) 
American Street & Interurban Railway Engi- 
neering Association : 

Committee on buildings and structures, 


Committee on equipment, Meetings of, 

361, 1026 

Committee on heavy electric traction, 855, 


Committee on power distribution. Meeting 

of, 832 

Committee on power generation ; Meeting 

<>f. 36S 

Committee on shop accounting, Meeting 

of, 747. 832 

Committee on standards. Meeting of 102ft 

Committee on way matters, Meeting of, 

79 . 3 

Committees, 316 

— Executive committee meeting, 1 1 1 

Work of 1909 [Lincoln], 27 

American Street & Interurban Railway Manu- 
facturers' Association : 
— Convention, T099 

Financial report, 909 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated. c Correspondence.) 

American Street & Interurban Railway Trans- 
portation & Traffic Association: 
1 — ^-"Circulars on transfer information and 
l ™ 1 ' eify rules, 993 

Committee on construction of schedules 

and time tables, 1102 

Committee on express and freight, Meet- 
ing of, 979 

Committee on interurban rules, Circulars 

to railroad commission, 710; Meeting 
of, 1031 

■ Committee on subjects. 157 

— ■ — Committee on training of employees, 
Meeting of, 993 

Committee on transfers, Meeting of, 531 

Committees, 541 

Executive committee meetings, 240, 793 

Work of 1909 [Todd], 12 

Anchor for pole guy wires [Miller], *6$6 
Anderson, Ind., Indiana Union Traction Co.: 
— — Annual report, 424 
Shop schemes, *788 

Appraisal of railway property [Williams], 76; 

[Nethercut], 945; Discussion, 976 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., Testimony of 

B. J. Arnold, 156; of T. S. Williams, 


Coney Island & Brooklyn R. R. [Ford], 

104; Hearing, 460 

Coney Island case, Ten-cent fare, 457 

Detroit, Arbitration, 674, 709, 755, 796, 

843, 881, 916, 1038, 1074, 1112 
— — Third Avenue R. R., New York, 228 
Valuation of private property [Whit- 
ridge], 1 10 

Valuation of public service industries 

[Adams], 314 

(See also Accounting) 

Apprentice courses: 

Boston Elevated Ry., 247; Comment. 218 

Car repair men, Action of the Engineer- 
ing Association Committee, 115; Com- 
ment, 136 

Public Service Ry., Cadet and apprentice 

courses, 908 

Technical graduates and the electric rail- 
way [Richey], 995 

Arbitration boards in London, 63 

Arbitration of labor troubles [Pierce], 736; 
Comment, 728 

Ardmore (Okla.) Traction Co., Sale, 507 

Arkansas Association of Public Utility Oper- 
ators, Convention, 831 

Armature bearings, Lathe attachment for bor- 
ing and facing, *62g 

Armature coils: 

Impregnating plant, Cincinnati shops, *$8i 

Manufacture of. *578 

Manufacture of, in substations, 649 

Winding, Cincinnati shops, *s8o 

Armature repair and field coil winding ma- 
chine (American), *999 
Armature truck, Handy, Pittsburgh, *834 
Armature testing, Portable transformer for, 

Aroostook Valley R. R. (See Presque Isle, 

Asheville, N. C., Pole and tie preservation, 

Atchison (Kan.) Railway, Light & Power Co. : 

Extension proposed, 1076 

Reported sale, 957 

Athens (Ga.) Railway & Electric Co.: 

Bond issue. 1004 

Incorporation, 799 

Atlanta, Ga. : 

Cast-iron and steel wheels, 909 

Pole and tie preservation, 605 

Atlantic City (N. J.) & Shore R. R. : 

Fare increase, 1078 

Purchase, 1004 

Atlantic & Suburban Ry. (See Pleasantville, 
N. J.) 

Auditing conductors' returns, Methods [Col- 
lins], 411 

Auditing express and railroad expense bills 

[Doerr], 226 
Auditing. (See also Accounting.) 
Auditor's relation to the operating executive 

[Lamb], 492 
Augusta, Ga., Pole and tie preservation, 605 
Austria, Trackless trolley lines, * 225 
Automobile drivers. Legal liability of, 434 
Automotoneers, Use of, in the South, 913 

Discussion at Wisconsin Electrical Asso- 
ciation, 186. 

Mounting pressures. Report of M. C. B. 

Association, 1098 

Babbitt melting stove, "789 
I t.-ilt itnore : 

Accident claim, Fraudulent, 721 

Accident prevention, 800 



[Vol. XXXV. 

Baltimore: (Continued) 

Pay-as-you-enter car service, posters, "72 

Pay-as-you-enter cars. *42 

— ■ — Sprinklers in car houses, 672 

United Railways & Electric Co., Annual 

report, 1040 
P.avarian State Railways, Electrification of, 287 
Bearing metals in Richmond, Va., 666 
Bearings, Wear of, Discussion, 435 
Bell circuits, Methods of testing, 270 
Bellingham, Wash^ Whatcom County Railway 

& Light Co., Stock sale, 52 


Highway crossing (Hoeschen), *952 

Pneumatic, (Keystone), *2oo 

Belton (Tex.) & Temple Traction Co.: 

Receivership, 423 

Sale, 677, 8S4 

Berkshire Street Ry. (See Pittsfield, Mass.) 
Berlin, Germany: 

Car equipment and shops of the Grosse 

Berliner Strassenbahn, 981 

Emergency devices on cars, '836 

— Exposition of American art and industry 

proposed, 75 

Franchise, fare and traffic conditions, 229 

Pension system of employees, 396 

Subways proposed, *io3 

Transportation records, *22g 

Binghamton (N. Y.) Ry., Exchange of bonds, 

Birmingham (Ala.) Railway, Light & Power 

Co., Dividend, 126 
Blanks and forms: 
— — Cincinnati repair shops, 584 

Complaint slips, Utica, N. Y.,'938 

Deed and contract record, Terre Haute, 

Equipment department, Massachusetts 

Electric Companies, 970 
Fire protection, Metropolitan Street Ry., 


Indianapolis, Crawfordsville & Western 

Traction Co., 936 

Interurban agents, Indianapolis, Ind., 701 

London Underground Electric Rys., 814 

— — Maintenance forms, Coney Island & 

Brooklyn R. R., 441 

Metropolitan Street Ry., New York, 1089 

Painting cars, London Underground Rys., 


Philadelphia, Time cards, 1020 

Printed explanations of forms, 1086 

Progress reports, London County Council 

Tramways, 1066 

Public Service Ry., 1055 

Repair shops, Indianapolis, 588, 590 

Revising forms, Necessity for, 768; [Steb- 

bins], C873; C910 

St. Clair tunnel operation, 595 

Snow fighting, Metropolitan Street Ry., 


Track maintenance, 612 

Transportation records in Berlin, 229 

Block signals. (See Signals) 

Bloomington (111.) & Normal Railway & Light 

Co., Pay-as-you-enter cars, '879 
Boarding and leaving cars, Time required in 

different cities, 665 
Boone (la.) Electric Co., Sale of, defeated, 


Booster, Entz, abroad, 47 

Boring bar, Expansion [Buck], '632 

Boston : 

Electrification of steam roads: 

Hearing on,' 674 

Joint commission report, 122, 151 

Prospects for, 339 
Elevated Ry. : 

Annual report, 85 

Apprentice course, 247; Comment, 218 
Average and critical haul [Parker], 

2 .3S 

Distribution of rewards to employees, 


Holding bill filed, 677 
Inspection of employees, 993 
Instruction of car employees, 107 
Intoxicated persons, Handling of, 246 
Motor maintenance, '652 
Snow cost, 466 

Station at Jamaica Plain, Cost of 

establishing, 950 
Substation at Egleston Square, *4o8 
Traffic capacity of terminal, 848 
Trolley wheel practice and casting 

formula, 877 
Utilization of old equipment [Win- 

sor], 106 

Fare, Distribution of each 5-cent, 329 

Massachusetts Electric Companies," Stock 

sale, 1076 

Mayor Fitzgerald on transit matters, 326 

Public Service Investment Co., Stock is- 
sue, 371 

Railway & Light Securities Co.: 

Bond sale, 295 

Dividend, 165 
Suburban Electric Companies, Dividend, 


Subway, Riverbank, proposed, 546 

Transfers, Objections to, 1049 

Boston & Eastern Electric R. R., Tunnel un- 
der Boston harbor, Hearing on, 717 

Boston, Lowell & Lawrence R. R., Certificate 
of exigency, 367, 422 

Boston & Northern and Old Colony Street Rys: 

Car equipment progress, 622 

Boston & Northern: (Continued) 

Cost of improvements on Salem Division, 


Fare hearings by Massachusetts Commis- 
sion, 153, 332, 1070 

Fares in Raynham, Mass., Hearing, 873 

— — -Freight service proposed, 11 14 

Issue of securities to provide working 

capital, 663 

Repair shop practice, '858 

— —Rolling stock maintenance organization, 

Semi-convertible car, Light, *s 7 1 ; Com- 
ment, 560 

Tabulating car equipment progress, 622 

Boston & Worcester Electric Companies, Divi- 
dend, 1 1 1 3 

Boston & Worcester Street Ry.: 

Issue of securities to provide working 

capital, 664 

■ Stock issue, 464 

Bow collector, Bellinzona-Mesocco Ry., '307 

(See also Pantograph) 

Brake hanger, Richmond, Va., *no6 
Brake hanger jig, *495 

Brake riggirfg, Resiliator for [Streeter], *i072 
Brake shoes: 

Adjustment [Beebe], *447, *448 

Report, M. C. B. Association, 1099 

Richmond, Va., 570 

Wear of wheels by, 1087 

Brake valves, Motorman's (N. B. & E. Co.), 

Brakes, Air: 

Cost of maintaining the Magann system, 


■ Maintenance, Indianapolis shops, 587 

Principles and constructional features 

[Turner], 535 
Brakes, Momentum Mabco, Improvements in, 


Brakes, Track, Self-tightening tumbler 

(Freund), *8^7 
Braking, Electric, in Glasgow, 872 
Brass, Composite, for journal bearings, *20i 
Bridges : 

Concrete, built in freezing weather, Public 

Service Ry., "1054 
Inspection of, 488 

McKinley, over Mississippi River at St. 

Louis, *I38 

Maine Electric Rys., over Kennebec River, 

♦178, 180 

Overhead construction on movable bridges, 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., *io6i 

Reinforced concrete vs. steel, for short 

span bridges, 488 

Reinforcement, with steel and concrete, 

Fulmer Creek, Mohawk, N. Y., '526 

Brill, J. G., Co.: 

Annual report, 329 

Prizes for essays on car design, 45 

Brooklyn : 

Coney Island & Brooklyn R. R. : 

Appraisal of property, Testimony by 
F. R. Ford, 104; Hearing, 460 

Bond issue, 52, 508 

Corporation tax law, Constitutionality 
of, 277, 827 

Fare case decision, 506 

Fenders and wheel guard order, 549 

Fire insurance rate reduced, 252 

Rolling stock improvements, 440 
Drawbridges and traffic, Investigation by 

Public Service Commission, 166 
■ Rapid Transit Co.: 

Annual meeting, 260 

Appraisal of property, Testimony of 
B. J. Arnold, 156; of T. S. Wil- 
liams, 248 

Bond payments, 700 

Bonds listed on Stock Exchange, 548 

Dividend, 921 

Employees' Association, Report of, 11 14 
Instruction car on elevated lines, 

*22o; Comment, 215 
Instruction in use of air brake, 535 
Iron-bar overhead construction, *ioi6 
Tudgment reversed by Brooklyn 

Heights R. R., 424 
Overhead work at movable bridges. 


Ten-cent fare to Coney Island upheld 
by Public Service Commission, 
456: Comment, 475; [Calder- 
wood], 490 

Snow conditions, use of freight locomo- 
tive, *68 

Snow fighting facilities, Investigation of, 


Wage increase, 126 

Wheel-guard order, 83, 331 

Brooklyn Bridge, Reduction of trolley delays 
[Lane], 1065 

Brunswick (Ga.) Terminal & Railway Securi- 
ties Co.: 

Directors, 330 

Stock matters, 52 

Brush, Carbon. (See Carbon brush) 

Brush-holder jig, *495 

Brush tension in Boston, *654 

Brushes, Self-feeding, for washing windows 
(Stanton), *(>7i 

Buffalo, N. Y., International Ry., No city 
passengers on Lancaster cars, 801 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Ry., Excess fare 
upheld, 261, 331, 686 

Bumpers for suburban cars of Detroit United 
Rys., *224 

Burlington County Ry. (See Mt. Holly, N. J.) 


Cable-end protectors (E. E. E. Co.), *7S4 
cables [Durgin], "985 

Cable faults: 

Location of, in underground high-tension 

cables [Durgin], '985 

Metropolitan Street Ry., New York, 935 

Cairo (111.) Railway & Light System, Power 
plant improvements, 1102 

Calgary Street Ry. Earnings, 424 

Calibration of electrical instruments, Metro- 
politan Street Ry., 897 

Calumet & South Chicago Ry. (See Chicago) 

Camden (N._ J.) & Trenton Ry.: 

Reorganization, 52, 957 

— — Sale, 330, 548, 677, 884 

Canals, Electric traction 1 on, 541 

Car construction: 

Baggage cars, Hudson & Manhattan R. R., 


Effect of collision on, 875, *no6 

Oakland, Cal., "Key Route," *99 

Pay-as-you-enter cars, Newark, '272 

Present tendencies [Curwen], 29 

Sleeping car, Illinois Traction, *478 

(See also Car design) 

Car design: 

Manager's car. Public Service Ry., *i023 

Metropolitan Street Ry., New York, *5&6 

Multiple unit car, *5io 

Office car, Illinois Traction System. *i89 

Semi-convertible car, Boston & Northern, 

*S72, *574 

Side door steel cars, New York subway, 

*io 5 8 

Weights (See Car weights) 

Wiring diagram of semi-convertible car, 

*57i . „ 

(See also Car construction) 

Car doors, Design, Metropolitan Street Ry., 

New York, *s68 
Car houses: 

Coney Island & Brooklyn R. R., *440 

Dayton, Ohio, 544 

Heating system, Toronto, *542 

Lewiston, Me., *i8i 

— — Metropolitan Street Ry., *688; Storage 

capacity, 563 

Minneapolis, 937 

Public Service Ry., *io55 

Richmond, Va., Fireproof, *6oi 

Washington, D. C, *64 

Car inspection (See Inspection) 

Car panels. Steel, over wood, Richmond, Va., 


Car seats, Protection for edge, Richmond, Va., 


Car steps, Height of: 

Chicago, 167 

Portland, Ore., 550 

Car weights: 

Reducing, 362; Value of lightness in cars 

[Ayres], 703, Correction, 785 

Reductions in weights of motors, 1051 

Report of committee of Engineering Asso- 
ciation, 1028 

— — Semi-convertible cars, Boston & Northern 
Street Rv-, S75 

Cars, Baggage, Hudson & Manhattan R. R., 

Cars, Chartered. (See Chartered cars). 

Cars, Closed, Oakland, Cal., Large cars of the 

"Key Route." *98 
Cars, Combination, Hanover, Pa., *79o 
Cars, Construction, Metropolitan Street Ry., 

*82I, *822 

Cars, Convertible, One-side, Akron, Ohio, 

, *I072 _ '■ ,. v ■<-"'/' 

Cars, Funeral, Chicago, *7i4, 1042 

Cars, Garbage and utility, Chicago Rys., 444 

Cars, Gyroscopic: 

(Scherl) *n6, *228 

(Sehilowsky) 940 

Cars, Instruction, Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., 


Cars, Mail, Spokane & Inland Empire R. R., 

*439 ■{...'■ 
Cars, Manager's, Public Service Ry., *I022 
Cars, Observation platform, Lewiston, Me., 


Cars, Office, Illinois Traction Co., *i88 
Cars ordered in 1909, 32 
Cars, Pay-as-you-enter: 

Advantages [ Varrellman] , 784; Discus- 
sion, 780 [Murdoch], 939 

Baltimore, '42 

Bloomington, 111., *879 

— — Cincinnati, 466, 678 

Fort Worth, Tex., Trailers, "1071 

Los Angeles, Cal., 509, *iooo 

Louisville, Ky., 801 

McKinley Bridge service, Illinois Traction 

Co., *95i 

Metropolitan Street Ry., '565 

Muskogee, Okla, One-man design, *7i2 

Newark N. J., '272 

Ocean Electric Ry., 720 

Richmond, Va., 775 

Rochester, 678 

Third Avenue, New York, Reconstructed 

cars, *no3 
Toledo, Ohio, 801, *I034 

(Abbreviations: 'Illustrated. c Correspondence.) 

January — June.. 1910.] 



Cars, Pay-within, Philadelphia, *I44 
Cars, Prepayment: 

-Metropolitan Street Ry., New York, *566 

Platform accidents, 856 

Cars, Scraping, for conduit cleaning, New 
York, *8ig 

Cars, Semi-convertible, Light car, Boston & 
Northern, *57i; Comment, 560 

Cars, Sleeping, Illinois Traction System, *476, 
721; Comment, 474, 894 

Cars, Steel: 

N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R., * 5 i8 

New York subway, *I057 

Southern Pacific Co., 794 

Cars, Storage battery: 

Edison, 159, *i8z, 292 

■ Prussian Government Rys., '1070 

Third Avenue, New York, *734 

Cars, Test, Metropolitan Street Ry., *662 

Cars, Trail : 

Fort Worth, Tex., *i07i 

Philadelphia, *342 

Cars, Vacuum cleaning, *66i 

Carbon brush changes of Virginia Railway & 

Power Co., 1067 
Carbon brushes for rotaries, New York, 934 

Cascade tunnel: 

Electric traction, 37 

Snow slide, *494 

Catenary construction: 
Advantages of, 341 

European construction (Allg. Elek. 

Gesell.), *397 

Experimental line of Connecticut Co., *345 

— —Feeders for messengers, Rochester, Syra- 
cuse & Eastern R. R., *i6o 

New Haven Road, Harlem River branch, 


Progress in [Smith], 991; Comment, 968 

(See also Overhead construction; Trolley 


Catskill (N. Y.) Electric Ry., Sale, 165 
Catskill (N. Y.) Traction Co., Bond issue, 
548, 758 

Census report on electric railways in 1907, 

Central Electric Accounting Conference: 

March meeting, 534 

Work of 1909 [Forse], 23 

Central Electric Railway Association: 

Address by President Whysall, 538 

Annual handbook, 444 

Annual meeting, 216, *23i 

Associate members, List of, 123 

Committee on insurance, Report of, 947 

May meeting, 975 

Standard sizes for publications recom- 
mended, 1014 

Central Electric Traffic Association: 

Freight tariff filed, 1042 

January meeting, 235 

February meeting, 392 

March meeting, 497, 619 

April meeting, 744 

Ticket paper. Official, 606 

Work of 1909, 190 

Central States, Interurban railway progress, 
*4o; Comment, 1 

Champaign, 111., Illinois Traction System: 

Accident prevention, Prize essays on, 748 

Completion of connecting links, 124 

Circus, Handling a, 11 14 

Construction work of 1909, * r 38, 1101 

Grain elevators along line, 167 

Manager's office car, *i88 

Observation parlor cars between Peoria 

and St. Louis, 11 15 
Pay-as-youenter cars for McKinley Bridge 

service, *95i 

Protection of linemen, 1069 

Purchases, 1076 

— —Sleeping cars, *476, 721; Comment, 474 

Traffic agreement with steam roads, 768 

Charleston, S. C: 

Cast-iron and steel wheels, 909 

Metal cutter, Homemade, *g 1 1 

Painting cars, 570, 672 

Pole and tie preservation, 605 

Charleston (S. C.) Consolidated Railway & 

Lighting Co., Incorporation, 799, 846 
Charlotte, N. C.i 

Gas-engine station, * 86 1 

Gas engines, 650 

Chartered or special cars .[Wilson], 413; Dis- 
cussion, 406 
Chemist, The, and the power plant [ L.ittlc] , 



Accidents, 1042 

Accidents reducer) by pay-as-you-cnter 

cars, 102, 152 
Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R.: 

Bond sale, 294 

Improvements, 1097 
Calumet & South Chicago Ry., Funeral 

car, 1042 

Car step heights, 167 

Chicago City Ry.: 

Annual report, 548 

Dividend, 294, 404 

Funeral cars, "714 

Rehabilitation progress, 50 

Static discharge sets at substations, 

„ *6 9 

Suit, 206 

Chicago: (Continued) 

Chicago City & Connecting Ry., 641 

Bonds, 423 

Payments on bonds, 846 

Chicago Consolidated Traction Co.: 

Merger with Chicago Rys., 1075 
Reorganization as the United Rail- 
ways Co., 164, 206, 921 

Chicago & Oak Park Elevated R. R., Ex- 
tension, Tentative ordinance for, 545 

— — Chicago Rys.: 

Annual report, 464, 718 

Bond sale, 294 

Car reconstruction, Cost, *6o3 

Chart for headway calculations, *70 

Garbage and utility car, 444 

Merger with Consolidated Traction 

Co., 1075, 1114 
Operating organization, 426 
Operation of Chicago Consolidated 

Traction Co., 548 
Receivership, 956, 966, 1040 . 
Through route to Chicago, 11 15 

Commonwealth Edison Co., 20,000-kw 

turbo units, 493 

Consolidation of railways, 47, 86, 370, 

845, 1075 

Electrical Show, *I54 

Elevated loop situation, 291, 320, 368 

Elevated railway improvements, Confer- 
ences between road officials and city 
representatives, 443 

Fifty-five per cent fund, 756 

Funeral cars, *7i4, 1042 

Hammond, Chicago Heights & Southern 

Traction Co., Bond issue, 1076 

Metropolitan West Side Elevated Ry. : 

Annual report, 328 ■ 
Dividends, 52 

Northwestern Elevated R. R., Prizes for 

garden displays, 959 

Pavement, Replacing, Method of measur- 
ing and charging for 319 

Public Securities Co., Organization of, 


Rehabilitation work [Arnold], 355 

• South Side Elevated R. R.: 

Annual report, 260 

Dividends, 295, 1005 

Stops for cars on near side, 484 

Subways proposed, 123, 161, 289, 757 

Tantalum lamps for cars, 1072 

Through routing problem, 304, 847 

Traction matters discussed by Western 

Society of Engineers, 147 
Traffic conditions [Fish], 28; [Mitten], 31; 

[Shaw], 242; Report of Bureau of 

Engineering, '867 

Transfer announcements. 760 

United Railways, Organization, 164 

Chicago, Joliet & St. Louis Electric Ry., In- 
crease in capital stock, 261 
Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend Ry. (See 

Michigan City, Ind.) 
Chicago & Milwaukee Electric R. R., Telephone 

train dispatching, 202 
Chicago, South Bend & Michigan City Ry. 

(See South Bend, Ind.) 
Chicago & Southern Traction Co. Receiver 

ship, 260 

Chico, Cal., Northern Electric Ry., Protection 

of linemen, 1068 
Chippewa Valley Ry. (See Eau Claire, Wis.) 
Cincinnati, Ohio: 

Accident booklet for children, 1105 

Cincinnati Traction Co.: 

Clubhouse and employees protective 
association, ^752 

Coal handling, '771 

Pay-as-you-enter cars, 466, 678 

Repair shops, *$8o 
Ohio Electric Ry. : 

Beneficial Association, Annual meet- 
ing, 641 

Insurance methods, 309 
Ohio Traction Co., Proposed Mill Creek 

Valley franchises, 426 
Circuit breakers: 

No voltage release (Westinghouse). '321 

Removing brushes [Coleman], *366 

Time-limit device, *6g6 

Claim Agents' Association, Work of 1909 [Car- 
penter], 18 

Clarksville (Tenn.) Railway & Light Co., 

Officers, 165 
Classification of cars, M. C. B. Association, of 

1910, 1097 

Cleaners for cars: 

Pneumatic (Duntlcy), "998 

(Stanton), '671 ' 

Cleaning cars: 

Metropolitan Street Ry., 564 

Vacuum-cleaning car, *66i 

Clearances recommended by American Railway 

Engineering & Maintenance of Way 

Association, "488 
Cleveland, Ohio: 
Cleveland F.lcctric Ry. : 

Report for March, 709 

Subscription for new stock, 548 
Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Ry., 

Mortgage bonds, 677 

Drawbridge runway, '360 

Eastern Ohio Traction Co., Sale, 204 

884, 1076 

Franchise, 61; approved by popular vote, 

357! Comment, 340 

l ake Shore Kelcctric Ry. : 

Refinancing, 86, 261, 846 

Stock issue, 465 
(Abbreviations: * Illustrated. c Correspondence.) 

Cleveland, Ohio: (Continued) 

Losses of, in street railway war [Hayden], 

„ -44 

Ohio Interurban Rys., Wage increase, 761 

Ordinance, Maintenance provisions of, 

219; [Davies], 614 

Power consumption tests of cars, 69 

Power negotiations, 292 

Receiver discharged, 442 

* ft car 'alk* to the public, '874 

Traction situation, 50, 61, 83, 122, 161, 

-203, 257, 326, 421, 483, 545. 638, 
6/3, 7' 6 > 755. 796, 842, 881, 916, 953, 
1002, 1039, 1073, mi, E. W. Bemis 
on, 950 

Coal : 

- — - — Occluded gases in, 145 

Saving fuel at the hoisting plant, 727 

Specifications, Metropolitan Street Ry., 


Coal handling: 
Cincinnati, *77i 

Conveying apparatus for preventing 

breakage of gear, 586 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R., Coal and 

ash handling, 387, '389 

Spy Run station of Fort Wayne & Wa- 
bash Valley Ry., *994 

Coil impregnating plant, Anderson, Ind., *789 

Columbus, Ohio: 

Columbus Railway & Light Co., Annual 

meeting, 260 

Employees' welfare work, 501 

Interurban terminal, 11 12 

Strike, 807, 833, 878 

Ticket inspectors, 332 

Columbus, Delaware & Marion Ry. : 

Fraudulent mortgages, 424 

Interest on bonds, 206 

Receivership, 165, 294 

Columbus, ■ Marion & Bucyrus Ry., Data book, 

Commonwealth Power, Railway & Light Co. 

of Michigan, 86 
Commutator manufacture, Methods and costs 

of, *8 3 S 

Commutator slotter, Anderson, Ind., *788 
Commutator slotting: 
Boston, '653, *gio 

Relation to brushes and mica [Sfluier]. 


Complaint slips, Utica & Mohawk Valley Ry., 

Condensers for small central stations [Lewis], 

749 . 

Conduit, Fibre, for underground cables 

(Johns-Manville) , "1107 
Conduit cutter, *859 
Conduit systems: 

Contact plows, New York Citv, *66o 

Maintenance of tracks, Metropolitan Street 

Ry., 818 

■ Track reconstruction, Washington, *4^ 

Coney Island & Brooklyn R.' R. (See 

Congestion problem, 687 

Connecticut Co. (See New Haven, Conn.) 
Connellsville, Pa., West Penn Rys.: 

Dividend, 1077 

Increase in indebtedness, 958 

Insurance for employees, 166 

— ■ — Refinancing, 330, 424 

Consolidation of electric railway properties, 

Results of, 474 
Contact plows, Metropolitan Street Ry., «66o 
Control system, Auxiliary mechanical reverser, 

1 °93 

Controller handle, Special, with contactors 

(Hanna), *i2o 
Controller regulators (Porter), *io7i 


Alternating-current, for stationary motors 

(E. C. & M. Co.), *997 

Automotoneers, Use of, 913 

Lubricating, with oil pads, *633 

Repair work, "578 

Trail cars, Controllers for Philadelphia, 

Converters, Rotary, Carbon brushes for, New 
ork, 934 

Cornell University, Debates on electric rail- 
way subjects, 753 

Corporation tax. (See Taxes) 

Corporations, Railway, Relation of, to the 
public [MacAffee], 19 

(See also Public service commissions) 

Cost of living: 

Distribution of expenses (From Bulletin 

of Bureau of Labor), 825 

— Street railway and, 856 

Couplers, Pneumatically operated, Brooklyn 
instruction car, *223 

Covington, Ky., Results with natural gas fir- 
ing, 874 

Cranes, Electric: 

Home-made, Cincinnati shops, *j8? 

Washington, I). C, '437 

Crossing, Railroad, Specification, 489 
< losing signal bell (Hoeschen), "952 

Crossing signs, Indiana, 642, "860 
( inverts: 

— Corrugated, with smooth bottom (Penn ) 


Home-made boiler plate, *mo 

Watson ingot iron, "63(1 
Cutter for bar iron, Charleston, S. C, "911 



[Vol. XXXV. 


Dartmouth & Westport Ry. (See New Bed- 

Davenport, la., Freight terminal of Iowa & 

Illinois Ry., *245 
Dayton, Ohio, Car house, 544 
Dayton, Covington & Piqua Traction Co., 

Directors, 1076 
Decatur, Ind., Fort Wayne & Springfield Ry. : 

Employees as stockholders, 135 

Trademark, *443 

Delaware & Hudson Co., Earnings, 758 

Accident campaign with buttons, 1007 

Growth of City Tramway, 123 

Lightning, Instructions on, 950 

Traffic conditions [Beeler], 27 

Denver, Greeley & Northwestern R. R. (See 

Greeley, Col.) 
Denver & Inter-Mountain R. R., Dissolution 

of company, 508 
Depreciation (See Accounting) 
Derailers : 

(Freeland), 632 

(Hayes), *877 

Des Moines, la: 

—Control system, Auxiliary mechanical re- 

verser, 1093 

Fire in car house, 1074 

Inter-Urhan Ry., Freight traffic, 966 

Six-for-a-quarter tickets withdrawn, 720 

Tentative ordinance, 161 


Arbitration of appraisal, 674, 709, 755, 

796, 843, 881', 916, 1002, 1038, 1074, 


Bumpers on suburban cars, *224 

Chartered ear charge, 414 

Committee of fifty continued, 203 

Fare case decision, 679 

Franchise question, 161, 756 

Ordinance, 494 

Trucks (Baldwin), * 1 59 

United Ry. : 

Annual report, 369 

Franchise, 122 

Payment of notes, 294 
Detroit River tunnel, Electric traction, 37 
Disinfectant "Killitol" (Hayner), 48 
Dispatching systems: 

Telephone, Chicago & Milwaukee Electric 

R. R., 202 
— — Turn-out selector mechanism, *63i 
(See also Telephone) 

Distribution system, Calculation [Rice], 78 
District of Columbia, Regulations for opera- 
tion of cars, 425 
Draughting, Standard symbols, *ios6 
Drawbar carry-iron. Little Rock, Ark., *9ii 
Duluth (Minn.)-Superior Traction Co., Bond 
i cc ue. 92 t 

Durham, N. C, Pole and tie preservation, 604 


Easel for curtain painting, *789 

East Liverpool (Ohio) Traction & Light Co., 

Purchase of Valley Electric Co., 549 
Eastern Ohio Traction Co. (See Cleveland) 
Easton. Pa., Northampton Traction Co.: 
Consolidation with Easton & Washington 

Traction Co., 846 
Directors, 1077 

Eau Claire, Wis., Chippewa Valley Railway, 

Light & Power Co., Bond issue, 508 
Education (See Apprentice courses) 
Ejectments for refusal tc pay fare [Williams], 

Electioneering by trolley, Indiana, 801 
Electric Railway Journal : 

■ index, 1085 

Maintenance issue, s 5 7 

Elizabeth & Trenton R. R. (See Trenton, 

N. J.) 

Elmira (IN. V.) Water, Light & Railroad Co., 

Bond issue, 294 
El Paso (Tex.) Electric Co., Dividend, 424 
Emergency stations and crew, 1049^ 
Emergency wagon, Metropolitan Street Ry., 


Employees : 

Arbitration boards in London, 63 

Arbitration of difficulties [Pierce], 736; 

Comment, 728 
Bulletins on courtesy: 

Evansville, Ind., 333 

Portland, Ore., 466 

Philadelphia, 208 

St. Louis, 1078 

Clubhouse: Metropolian Street Ry., '1090 

Clubhouse and Protective Association, 

■Cincinnati, *752 

Club rooms, Lynchburg, Va., *524 

Education of, 115, 136 

Engagement of platform employees and 

rush-hour traffic, 406 
Examination of trainmen, Fort Wayne, 

Ind., 592 

Grievances, Presentation of. 5 

Hints from a conductor, 247 

Instruction of, Boston, 107; Metropolitan 

Street Ry., 1091 

Employees: (Continued) 
Insurance : 

Germany, against accidents, 833 

Philadelphia, 88 

West Penn Rys., 166 

l ectures, Metropolitan Street Ry., 1091 

Lectures to shop foremen, 515 

- — —Merit system: 

Ft. Wayne, Ind., 88 

Illinois Traction System, 143 
- — — Motormen's instruction car of Brooklyn 

Rapid Transit Co., *22o; Comment, 


Non-college men in railway work, 517 

Pensions : 

Akron, Ohio, 759 

Berlin, 396 

Metropolitan Street Rv , 1093 
Newburgh, N. Y., 128 
Philadelphia, 88 
Western Electric Co., 875 

Posting the work of careless employees, 


^Premium and piece-work system, Metro- 
politan Street Ry., 569, 1091; Com- 
ment, 5^8 

Promotion rules in Ft. Wayne, 88 

Protection of linemen, Practice of various 

railways, 1068 
Rewards for employees, Boston Elevated 

Ry., 89 
Rules governing: 

Philadelphia, 670 

Track department of Metropolitan 
Street Ry., 865 
Sick and death benefits associations, In- 
crease of, 1085 

Stockholders, Employees as, 135 

Substation men can wind armature coils, 


Training of men for electric railway work, 

136, 993 
Wage increase: 

Brooklyn, 126 

Milwaukee, 7^9 

Newark, 88 

Ohio Interurban Rys., 761 

St. Louis, 760 

Wages discussion, New Haven, 719 

^Wages, Rates of. Compared with those in 

other industries, 966 
Welfare work: 

Columbus, Ohio, 501 

c:i opHitan Street Ry., 1093 

U. S. Steel Corporation and Interna- 
tional Harvester Co., 810 
Workmen's compensation acts in Great 

Britain [Badger], C1029 

(See also .A nprer rice courses; Strikes) 

Employers' liability, 810 

Employers' liability acts in Great Britain 

[Badger], C1029 
Engineering developments "f 1909, 3 

Engineers' Society of Pennsylvania, Meeting, 
917, 1102 

England : 

Car house at Reading used for political 

meeting, * 1 5 1 
— Electrification 011 Midland Railway, 43 

Heavy electric traction on Mersey Ry.. 

Heysham-Morecambe Ry. and Tyne- 
mouth branches of North Eastern 
Ry., 43, 741; Comment, 729 

Purchase of power for electric traction, 


Through running agreements, 824 

(See a'so London) 

Eureka Springs, Ark., Citizens' Electric Co., 
Sale, 330 

Europe, Heavy electric traction, Progress, 


Evansville, Ind., Bulletin on courtesy, 333 
Excursion parties, Watching of, 931 
Exhibits by railway companies, Importance 
of, 1050 


Fairmont (W. Va.) & Clarksburg Traction Co., 
Sale, 884 

Far Rockaway, L. I., Pay-as-you-enter cars, 


Fare collection: 

Boxes on pay-on-entrance cars, 1078 

Hartford & SpringfieTd Street Ry., during 

heavy traffic, 1078 
-Rooke system in New Bedford, R. R., 321 

Fare register, Ohmer, Average performance of, 

Fares : 

-Berlin, Germany, 229 

Boston & Northern Ry., 332 

Children's, Jamestown, N. Y , 8oi 

City lines, Fares on [Glenn], 13 

Commutation rates increase on steam 

roads, 857, 886 
-Coney Island, Ten-cent fare, Brooklyn 

Rapid Transit Co., 456; Comment, 

475; [Calderwood], 490 
Detroit decision, 679 

Discussion of the fare question [Clark], 


— —Distribution of each 5-cent fare in Bos- 
ton, 329 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated. c Correspondence.) 

Fares: (Continued) 

Excess fares: 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Ky., 

Fare upheld, 261, 331, 686. 
Indiana, Fare not upheld, 262, 331, 

New York State, Fare upheld, 261, 

■ Fares, taxes and regulation [Tingley], 10 

Ft. Dodge, Des Moines & Southern R. R., 

1096 : 

Haverhill, Mass., Fare change, 1078 

Increase in fares: 

Atlantic City lines, 1078 

Interurban roads, 174 

Spokane, Wash., 167 

Washington and Baltimore, 295 

Wisconsin, 87; [Pulliam], 195 
Increased costs demand readjustments 

[Webster], 24 
Legal tender for a fare, What constitutes 

a [Lake], 313 
Miners' tickets, Ruling at Girardville, Pa., 


Minneapolis, 5-cent rate upheld by Su- 
preme Court decisions, 83, 112, 137 

No-seat-no-fare ordinances, 686, 720, 727, 

761, 887 

Normal school and business college fare 

bill in Massachusetts, 372 
Northampton, Mass., Readjustments, 720, 


Philadelphia, 18 

Philadelphia & West Chester Traction 

Co., Hearing on increase in fare, 787 
Raynham, Mass., Hearing, 873 

Reduction of fares: 

Oshkosh, Wis. [Pulliam], 195 
Why fares should not be lowered on 
city systems [Mathes], 750; Dis- 
cussion, 779; Comment, 809 
Why interurban railway fares should 
not be lowered [Garner], 781; 
Discussion, 779; Comment, 809 

Reduction of taxation or increase of fare 

[Sergeant], 6 

Refusal to pay fare for self or child 

[Williams], 237 

Remedies for fare situation on urban lines 

[House], 1013 

Tacoma, Wash., 53, 508, 550, 760 

-Ten-cent fare for special service, Ithaca, 

N. Y., 721 

Tendency of diminishing profits at 5-cent 

fare [Ford], 30 

Worcester-Westboro fare hearing, 759 

Farming special train operated in Massachu- 
setts, * 73 8 

Faults (See Cable faults) 

Fayetteville, N. C, Consolidated Railway & 
Power Co., Sale, 884, 1076 

Federal Light & Traction Co. (See New York 

Feeder conditions. Analyzing, 1086 
Feeder systems, Low-tension [Rice], 46 
Feeders, Arrangement of, Metropolitan Street 

Ry., at 96th St., New York, 934 
Fence posts, Concrete, 489 

Fenders : 

■ Coney Island & Brooklyn R. R., Order to 

equip, 540 

Drop and lock device (Sharp), '713 

New York, Hearing, 751 

San Francisco, 462 

Field coils, Aluminum wire for, 67 

Filing systems: 

Loose-leaf [Gould], 619 

— —Report of Central Electric Railway As- 
sociation Committee, 978 

Financial : 

Capitalization, Return on [Ford], 30 

Charge for electrical energy, 382 

Cleveland Ry., report for March, 709 

Comparative cost of 600-volt and 1200- 

volt d.c. interurban railways, 791 
Cost of electric railway construction and 

operation; Testimony of F. R. Ford, 


Cost of reconstructing cars, Chicago Rys., 


Costs, Increased, Necessity of increasing 

revenue to meet [Kruger], 18 
Investment in New England properties 

[Sullivan], 624 

Long Island R. R., Operating costs, 532 

Maintenance cost in Massachusetts, 630; 

[Ayres], 0671 
-New York City companies, Earnings of, 

464. 957 

Operating expenses, Analysis of [Ford], 30 

Receiverships and foreclosure sales during 

1909, 41 

West Jersey & Seashore R. R., Operating 

costs, 532 

Findlay, Ohio, Toledo, Bowling Green & 
Southern Traction Co., Mortgage, 261 
Fire clays, Thermal conductivity, 1069 

Fire insurance: 

Central Traction & Light Bureau offer, 240 

Committee meeting, A. S. & I. R. A., 902 

Discussion at Boston, 672 

Discussion, Southwestern Gas & Electrical 

Association, 939 

Improved conditions, 303 

Metropolitan Street Ry., 688; Comment. 


January — June, 1910.] 



Fire Insurance: (Continued) 

Ohio Electric Ry. methods, *309 

Reducing rate in Brooklyn, 252 

Report of Central Electric Railway Asso- 
ciation Committee, 947, 979 

Report of N. E. L. A. Committee, 989 

Fire prevention: 

Hose houses, *364 

Metropolitan Street Ry., *688; Comment, 


Floods in Mohawk Valley, Effect of, *444 
Flower displays along railway lines, Prizes 

Berkshire Street Ry., 800 

Chicago gardens, 959 

Fond du Lac, Wis., Fare increase, 87; [Pul- 
liam], 195 

Ft. Dodge (la.), Des Moines & Southern R. R. : 

Fares, 1096 

Freight traffic, 966 

Purchase of Crooked Creek R. R., 677 

Receivers, 1041 

Traffic and physical development, *io94 

Fort Smith (Ark.) Light & Traction Co.: 

Dividend, 677 

Issue of notes, 294 

Ft. Wayne, Ind., Stops of cars, Change from 

near-side to far-side, 332 
Ft. Wayne & Springfield Ry. (See Decatur, 


Fort Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Co. : 
Coal-handling plant at Spy Run station, 


Examination of trainmen, 592 

Note issue, 464 

Promotion bulletin, 88 

Ft. Worth, Tex.: 

-Northern Texas Traction Co., Bond issue, 

295. 885 

Pay-as-you-enter trailers, *i07i 

Franchises : 

Fares, Requiring low [Pulliam], 195 

Indeterminate permits in lieu of fran- 
chises, Wisconsin, 187 

Long-term [M'Carter], 16 

Permanent franchises and reasonable re- 
turns [Brady], 21 

Richmond, Va., 449 

Frederick (Md.) Ry., Bond issue, 921, 957 

Freight and express: 

-Boston & Northern Street Ry., 11 14 

Express service at less than freight rates 

[M'Millan], 26 

Farming special train operated in Massa- 
chusetts, *738 

Ft. Dodge, Des Moines & Southern R. R., 


Increasing freight traffic, 966 

Milford, Attleboro & Woonsocket Street 

Ry., 678 

Freight station, Davenport, la., *-'45 

Fuel (See Coal). 


Inspection of spare, 728 

1000-amp (D. & W.), *998 


Garden displays, Prizes for, Chicago, 959 
Gary (Ind.) & Interurban Ry., Bond issue, 

Gas engines: 

Charlotte, N. C, power station, *86i 

City railway and lighting service [Latta], 


Report of""N. E. L. A. Committee, 988 

(See also Power stations, Producer-gas 


Gas (natural) firing at Covington, Ky., 874 
Gasoline cars, Development, 9 
Gasoline-electric cars: 

Operating costs. Third Avenue R. R., 48 

Southern Railway, "202 

Third Avenue R. R., Operation, 734 

Gasoline inspection car (Mudge), '251 
Gear ratios, Discussion on, 363 

Life, in St. Clair tunnel, 595 

Lubrication of, 249 

— — Material for, . 61 

Sectional (Osmer), *8o 

Wear of, Discussion, 435 

General Electric Co., Annual report, 845 

Generators, D. C, turbo | Waters |, 98S 

German Street & Interurban Railway Associa- 
tion, Work of, "38 

German street railway paper, Convention 
souvenir number, 31 

Germany! Insurance against accidents to em- 
ployees, 833 

Gettysburg (Pa.) Ry., Organization, 206 

Girardville, Pa., Miners' tickets at reduced 
rates must not be issued, Hm 

Glasgow, Electric braking experiments, 872 

Glens Falls, N. Y., Hudson Valley Ry., Pro- 
tection of linemen, 1060 

Glue heater, Electric (Advance), *8l 

Gong, Pneumatic (Keystone), .-no 

Governors' messages on public utility enter 
prises, 157, 224 

Grand Rapids, Mich., Commonwealth Power, 
Railway & Liyht Co., Consolidation 
of various railways, 86, 677 

Grand Trunk Ky. (See St. Clair tunnel) 

Gray's Harbor Ry. (See Aberdeen, Wash) 
Great Northern R. R. : 

■ Avalanche at Cascade tunnel, *494 

Electric traction progress, 37 

Greeley, Col., Denver, Greely & Northwestern 

R. R., Incorporation, 957 
Grid resistances after Detroit models, *3o8 
Grip for insulated wire (Klein), *9i3 
Guide of Eastern and Western New York 

electric railways, 296 
Gyroscope system: 

(Sjcherl) car, * 1 1 6, *228 

SchilOwsky invention, 940 


Hammond, (Ind.) Whiting & East Chicago 

Ry., Incorporation, 370 
Hanover, Pa., Combination passenger, smoking 

and baggage car, *79o 
Hartford & Springfield Street Ry., Dividend, 


Havana (Cuba) Electric Ry., Dividend, 799 
Haverhill, Mass., New Hampshire Electric 
Rys., 207 

Fare change, 1078 

Headlights, Electric: 

hievated ligtic, Anderson, Ind., 788 

Tests by Benjamin of Purdue Univer- 
sity, 808 

Headway calculations, Chart for, Chicago 

Railways Co., *7o 
Heating cars: 

Combined hot-air heating and ventilating 

system (Peter Smith), *i2i 

-Connection betwen ventilation and heating 

[WhistonJ, c8o 

Heating system in car house of Toronto & 
York Radial Ry., '542 

Heavy electric traction: 

Comparison of train service under steam 

and electrical working, North Eastern 

_ Ry., 743 

-Electrification of trunk lines, 341 

-England: Mersey Ry., Heysham-More- 

cambe Ry. and Tynemouth branches 
ot fvorth Eastern Ry., 43, 741; Com- 
ment, 729 

European progress, "667 

Italian State Rys., 1104 

Long Island R. R., Operating statistics, 

532; Comment, 517 

Mountain divisions, Electricity on [Arm- 
strong], 8 

Projects in 1909, 36 

Report of New York Railroad Club, 527; 

Comment, 516, 517; Discussion, 528 
Various systems and their limitations 

[Darlington], 1064 
-West Jersey & Seashore R. R , Operating 

statistics, 532; Comment, 517 

(See also Catenary construction) 

Henderson (Ky.) 'fraction Co., Control of, 


High-tension direct-current railways: 

Bellinzona-Mesocco Ry., "308 

Comparative cost of 600-volt and 1200-volt 

railways [Eveleth] 791; Comment, 

767; Discussion, 792 
Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co.'s 

interurban divisions, 717 
Possibilities, 61 

Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Ry., 


Wengernalp Ry., Switzerland, 700 

High-tension direct-current system, Compari- 
son with other systems [Darlington], 


Hired power in England, 382 
Historical exhibit at St. Louis Electrical Show, 

Hoisting plants, Fuel saving at, 727 
Holmesburg, Tacony & Frankford Electric 

Ry. (See Tacony, Pa.) 
Hose houses, '364 

Hot Springs, Ark., Switch lock, '878 
Houston, Tex., Galveston-Houston Electric 

Ry., Bond issue, 294, 508 
Hudson, N. Y., Albany Southern R. R„ Pro- 
tection of linemen, 1068 


Ice plow tooth (GilTord-Wood), *i6o 
Illinois Legislation, 163, 258, 639 
Illinois Traction System (See Champaign, 

Independence, Kan., Union Traction Co., 

Bond issue, 885 
Indeterminate permits in lieu of franchises, 

Wisconsin, 187 
Indiana, Interurban rules, Revision of code, 

46, 156; Comment, 135 
Indiana Union Traction Co. (See Anderson, 


Indianapolis : 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co.: 

Bond sales, 1004 
Chartered ear charges, 414 
Receiver's report, 16s, 718 

Indianapolis, Columbus s Southern Trac- 
tion Co., Traffic arrangement with 
steam road, 167 

Indianapolis: (Continued) 

— — Indianapolis, Cravvfordsville & Western 

Traction Co.: 

Blank forms, *936 

Mortgage foreclosure, 294 

Rolling stock improvements, *624 
Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Co. 

(See Louisville, Ky. ) 
Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Co., 

Paint shop, *6o7 
Paving and track construction [McMath], 


Rebuilding interurban cars, 866 

Repair shop practices, "587 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Trac- 
tion Co.: 
, Bond sale, 1041 

Chartered car charges, 414 

Miners' tickets unlawful, 1005 

Purchase, 800, 958 

Trips by interurban cars for 1909, 332 

Unsanitary cars, Crusade against, 466 

Inspection and repair of electrical equipment, 

* 5 77 

Inspection car, Gasoline motor (Mudge), *25i 
Inspection of rolling stock: 

Daily inspection and up-keep of stock 

[Buckman], 193; Discussion, 232 

Metropolitan Street Ry., 563 

Inspection test set [Herrick], *48 
Inspectors of tickets. Columbus. Ohio, 3 '2 
Institution of Civil Engineers (British), Heavy 
traction papers, 43, 741 ; Comment, 

Instruction car, Brooklyn, *22o 
Insulating material called "Hermit," 913 
Insulating tape (Walpole), 48 

Insulators : 

High-tension suspension (Steinberger) , 


Porcelain strain, Application of [Kemp- 
ton], *99o 

Insurance. (See Fire insurance) 

International Harvester Co., Welfare plans for 
employees, 810 

International Street & Interurban Railway 
Association, Program of 1910 Conven- 
tion^ 45, 750 

Interstate Commerce Commission, Questions 
and answers under steam road classi- 
fication, 82 

Interstate Rys. (See Philadelphia) 

Interurban railways: 

Central States, Progress in, *4o; Com- 
ment, 1 

City facilities, Terms for use of [Lang], 


■ Fares, Increasing, 174 

Fast schedules and minor delays, 650 

Soliciting business [Warfel], 540; Dis- 
cussion, 620 

Terminal facilities for [Shannahan], 17 

Transportation and urban development, 


— — (See also Rules for interurban railways) 
Intoxicated persons: 

Handling of, on Boston Elevated Ry., 246 

Transportation of, in Massachusetts, 53 

Investments, Returns on [Shaw], 242; | Ser- 
geant], 283; [Duffy], 871 
Iowa, Interurban rules in, 780; Comment, 769 
Iowa & Illinois Ry. (See Davenport, la.) 
Iowa Public Service Commission, Proposed, 
_ 776 

Iowa Street & Interurban Railway Associa- 
tion, Annual meeting, 776, 794 

Ireland, Congress of the Tramways & Light 
Railways Association, 501 

Italian State Rys., Electrification of Pontede- 
cimo-Busalla line, 1104 

Ithaca, N. Y'., Ten-cent fare for special service, 



■ Forty-ton geared ratchet (Duff), *88o 

Hydraulic (Duff), "99s 

Jamestown, N. Y., Half-fares discontinued, Sot 
Janesville (Wis.) Street Ry., Receivership, 
508, 550, 718 

J. ''.pan : 

Electric traction possibilities, 824 

Railway statistics, 418 

Johnstown (Pa.) Passenger Ry. : 

Directors, 206 

Incorporation, 424 

Lease conditions, 641 

Joplin & Pittsburg Ry. (See Pittsburg, Kan.) 
Journal bearings: 

Composite brass, *2oi 

— — Composition of, 249 

Journal boxes, Methods of testing, 270 


Kansas, Legislation in, 103 

Kansas City, Mo.: 
—-Kansas City Kitlwiy & light < : 
Bond issue, 71S 

Pond redemption, 52 

Statement by President Egan, |(>.s 
Situation [Shaw], 242 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated. c Correspondence.) 



Lancaster (Pa.) & Southern Street Ry., Re- 
ceiver, 1 04 1 

Lancaster, Pa., Susquehanna Railway, Light & 
Power Co., Purchases, 799 

Lathe attachment for boring and facing arma- 
ture bearings, '629 

Lawyer, his relation to the engineer [Ayres], 

Ledger (See Blanks and forms) 
Leechburg, Pa., Pittsburgh & Allegheny Val- 
ley Ry., Sale, 371, 641 

Legal : 

Accident insurance, 218 

Automobile drivers, Liability of, 434 

Double claim for damages, 381 

Fare increase, Washington, Baltimore & 

Annapolis Ry., 295 

Interstate Commerce Commission over- 
ruled in Nebraska, 1078, 1100 

Legal tender for a fare, What constitutes 

a [Lake], 313 

— — Pay-as-you-enter a reasonable rule, Louis- 
ville, Ky., 801 

Refusal to pay fare for self or child. 

Method of procedure [Williams], 237 

Stopping a car short of its destination, 


Legal notes: 

Charters, franchises and ordinances, 255, 

322, 502, 839, 914, 1036 
Negligence, Liability for, 253, 324, 503, 

839, 915, 1037 
Legislation affecting electric railways, 124, 163, 

204, 258, 292, 327, 368, 422, 463, 506, 

546, 639, 675, 717, 757, 798, 844, 883, 

918, 955, 1003, 1074 
Lehigh Valley Transit Co. (See Allentown, 


Letter carriers, Transportation of, in New 

Jersey, 11 15 
Lewisburg, Milton & Watsontovvn Passenger 

Ry. (See Milton, Pa.) 
Lewiston, (Me.) Augusta & Waterville Street 

Ry., System, "176 
Lexington (Ky.) Ry., Increase in funded debt, 


Lighting cars, Electric, Progress in, 4 
Lightning, Instructions on, to Denver Railway 

men, 950 
Lightning arresters, Use of, 1014 

Lima, Ohio, Western Ohio Ky., Deposit of 
bonds, 1041 

Limiting passengers on cars, Hearing, 127, 173, 

Lincoln (Neb.) Traction Co., Testimony by E. 
W. Bemis on depreciation, 441 

Little. Rock, Ark.: 

Drawbar carry-iron, *gn 

Little Rock Railway & Electric Co., Divi- 
dend, 549 

Locomotives, Electric: 

Development of design [Armstrong], 8 

■ European, *667 

— — C-eared and side-rod, New Haven Road, 
*829; Comment, 811 

Germany, with Edison storage battery, 79 

Novel type, for canal haulace, Bremen, 

*36 5 

Rack rail, *98o 

St. Clair tunnel, *593 

Single-phase, Bernese Alps Ry., "1056 

Storage battery, London, *ii04 

Three-phase, Cascade tunnel, Accident. 


Visalia, Cal., single-phase railway, *ioi 

Locomotives, Steam, for street railway, Uvalde, 
Tex., *46i 

London : 

— —Advertising methods, 73 
Arbitration boards for dealing with em- 
ployees, 63 

— — — Depreciation allowance for income tax, 

Letters from, 49, 256, 420, 637, 841, 1001 

-London County Council Tramways, Fol- 
lowing up contract work, 1066 

— ■ — Report of Traffic Branch of Board of 
Trade, 209, 256 

Underground Rys.: 

Painting practice, 907 
Rail wear, '438 
Shops, *8i2 

London (Ont.) & Lake Erie Railway & Trans- 
portation Co., Bond issue, 957 
London (Ont.) Street Ry., Annual report, 507 
London (Ont.) & Port Stanley Ry., Proposed 

electrification, 843 
Long Island R. R., Electrification, Operating 
statistics, 532; Comment, 517; Prog- 
ress, 36, 704 
Los Angeles, Cal.: 

Los Angeles-Pacific Co.: 

Bond issue, 165 
Ownership of stock, 957 

Notes on railways, 251 

— —Pay-as-you-enter cars, 509, *iooo 

Public utility commissioners, 84 

Speed regulations, 760 

Traffic conditions [M'Millan], 25 

Louisville, Ky. : 

Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Co.. 

Mortgage, 52 

Tickets sold to points north of Indian- 
apolis, 1 1 1 4 


Louisville, Ky. : (Continued) 

Louisville Ry. : 

Bond issue, 295, 719 
Earnings, 549 
Mortgage, 165 

Louisville Railway Relief Association, An- 
nual report, 373 

Pay-as-you-enter cars, 801 

Pay-as-you-enter a reasonable rule, Legal 

decision, 801 

Raymond vs. Louisville Railway Co., 381 

Lubrication : 

Cost, Metropolitan Street Ry., 659 

Waste cleaner, 249 

Lynchburg, Va. : 

Cast-iron and steel wheels, 909 

Club rooms of employees, *524 

Lynchburg Traction & Light Co., Con- 
trolling interest of American Rail- 
ways, 126 

Lynn, Mass., Nahant & Lynn Ry. fare case, 



Mahoning & Shenango Ry. (See New Castle, 

Mail transportation: 

Circular of Committee on railway mail 

pay, 461 

Government report, 145, 173 

■ Report of New York Street Railway As- 
sociation, 405 

Spokane & Inland Empire R. R., *439 

Maine Electric Ry. (See Lewiston, Augusta 
& Waterville Ry.) 

Maintenance of rolling stock: 
Daily inspection and up-keep of [Buck- 
man], 193 

Improvements in old types of equipment 

[Winsor], 106; Discussion, 107 

Massachusetts, 630, 671 

Massachusetts Electric Companies, *970 

Metropolitan Street Ry., 564 

Open cars, Preparing for service, 1013 

Special methods [Herrick], 616 

(See also Accounting) 

Maintenance of way [French], 612 

Economical maintenance and construction 

[Schreiber], *io52; Comment, 1051 

Metropolitan Street Ry., 817, 863 

Maintenance records, Value of, 559 
Maintenance work, "Loose ends" in, 96 
Manila (P. I.) Electric Railway & Lighting 
Corporation, Increase of stock, 330 


Berlin, 103 

Central States, Imterurban railways in, 40 

Ft. Dodge, Des Moines & Southern R. 

R. R., 1094 
Lewiston, Augusta & Waterville Ry., 176 

New York City: 

Inspection districts, 935 

Rapid transit routes, 407 

Substations and feeders, 901 

Surface lines, 520 

Northampton, Mass., 823 

St. Louis, Mo., 138 

Maryland, Legislation in, 163, 258, 327, 463, 

506, 546, 639, 675, 717 
Maryland Public Service Commission: 

Powers and duties, 710, 1039 

-Proposed bill, Letter of W. A. House, 482 

Massachusetts : 

Companies paying five per cent dividends, 


■ Llectnc railway conditions [Sergeant], 283 

Fare bill, Normal school and business col- 
lege, Hearing on, 372 

Legislation, 124, 163, 204, 259, 280, 327, 

368, 422, 463, 506, 546, 639, 675, 717, 
757. 798, 844, 883, 918, 955, 1003, 1074 

Maintenance cost of all electric railways, 

630; [Ayres], C671 

Massachusetts Electric Companies: 

Annual report, 54S 

Dividend, 1004 

(See also Boston & Northern and Old 

Colony Rys.) 
Massachusetts Railroad Commission: 

Annual report, 100; Comment, 95 

Boston electrification, Report on, 122, 151 

Boston & Northern fare case, 153, 332, 


[Sullivan], 280 

Transportation of intoxicated persons, De- 
cision on, 53 
Massachusetts Street Railway Association: 

February meeting, 317 

April meeting, 734 

Master Car Builders' Association, Convention, 
1097, 1107 

Meadville (Pa.) & Conneaut Lake Traction 
Co., Sale, 465 

Menominee (Mich.) & Marinette Light & Trac- 
tion Co., Bond issue, 465 

Meridian (Miss.) Light & Railway Co., Stock 
sale, 677 


Graphic recording (Westinghouse), *2oo 

Steam- and air-flow (General Electric), *g 12 

Mexico (Mo.) Santa Fe & Perry Traction 
Co., Bond issue, 11 14 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated. c Correspondence.) 

[Vol. XXXV. 

Michigan Central R. R., Electric traction 

progress, 37 
Michigan City, Ind., Chicago, Lake Shore & 

South Bend Ry., Success of excursion 

parties, 931 
Michigan companies, Consolidation, 86 
Milford, Attleboro & Woonsocket Street Ry., 

Freight and express, 678 
Milford & Uxbridge Street Ry., Stock issues, 

549. 718 

Milton, Pa., Lewisburg, Milton & Watson- 
town Passenger Ry., Reorganization, 


Milwaukee : 

Handbook giving classification of ac- 
counts, 278 

-Mayoralty election, 728 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co. : 

Bond issue, 465 

High-tension direct-current on inter- 
urban divisions, 717 
Order regarding service to Lake 

Park, 465 
Protection of linemen, 1068 

Traffic conditions, Investigation by Pence 

and Harris, 664 
— —Wage increase, 759 

Mineral Wells (Tex.) Electric System, 1041 
Miners' ticket unlawful in Indiana, 1005 


Fare ordinance, Supreme Court decision 

upholds 5 -cent rate, 83, 112, 137 

Shifting traffic and rerouting cars, 895 

Shop and car house, 937 

Tower wagon, Automobile, *25o 

Track construction, 489 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co.: 

Advertising for trainmen, '994 
Power station additions, 982 
Redemption of bonds, 52 

Mississippi, Legislation in, 327 

Missouri Electric, Gas, Street Railway & 
Waterworks Association, Convention, 
749 " 

Mobile, Ala. : 

Cast-iron and steel wheels, 909 

Painter's scaffold in shops, *io2i 

Pole and tie preservation, 605 

Track construction, *9o6 

Wheel changing. *834 

Mohawk Valley floods, Effect of, '444 
Mont Cenis Ry., Electrification, 609 
Montreux-Glion electric rack railway. *g8o 
Motor shaft straightening, Boston, *6ss 

Motors, Electric: 

Aluminum wire for field coils, German 

experiments [Paulsmeier], 67; Com- 
ment, 62 

Bellinzona-Mesocco Ry., 1500 volts, '308 

Commutating pole motors and control, 9 

Commutator slotting and its relation to 

brushes and mica [Squier], 613 

Double-geared, in England, 816 

— —Dust guards, *624 

Maintenance, in Boston, *6$2 

Maintenance, Co-operation of motormen, 


Metropolitan Street Ry., 566 

Reduction in weights possible, 1051 

Single-phase, Improvement of [Franklin 

and Seyfert], 152; Comment, 136 

Testing, Boston, "654 

Testing, Indianapolis shops, *589 

Two-motor equipments for city cars, Use 

of, Report, 1026; Comment, 1015 
Utilization of old equipment [Winsor], 


Mt. Holly, N. J.. Burlington County Ry. : 

Sale, 957, 1 1 13 

Suit, 206 

Muskogee, Okla., One-man pay-as-you-enter 
cars, *7i2 


Nahant & Lynn Ry. (See Lynn, Mass.) 
Napa, Cal., San Francisco, Vallejo & Napa 

Valley Ry., Receivership, 885 
Nashville (Tenn.) Railway & Light Co., Earn- 

nings, 549 
National Electric Light Associations 

Convention, 949, 985 

— — Officers, 990 

New Bedford, Mass.: 

— — Dartmouth & Westport Street Ry., Stock 

issue, 677, 921 

Fare collection, Rooke system, 321 

Service, _ Finding of Massachusetts Com- 
mission, 372 

New Castle, Pa., Mahoning & Shenango Rail- 
way & Light Co. : 

Bond sale, 52 

: Increase of stock, 641, 957 

New England Street Railway Club: 

Annual meeting, '624 

January meeting, 196 

February meeting, 417 

May meeting, 995 

Work of 1909 [Wright], 15 

New Haven, Conn., Connecticut Co.: 

Experimental catenary line, '"345 

Wages discussion, 719 

New Jersey, Legislation in, 163, 259, 3^7 639 
?75. 717, 883 

January — June, igio.] 



New Jersey Public Utility Commission law, 
626; Comment, 561; [Walker], C671 

New Orleans Railway & Light Co., Stock sale, 
295. 37U 549 

New York Central R. R.: 

Commutation rates, Increase of, ioo<3 

Decrease in traffic between Syracuse and 

Rochester, 761 
Electric traction progress, 37, 333, 509 

New York City: 

Accidents in February and March, 642, 800 

American Cities Railway & Light Co., 

Dividend, 1,113 

American Light & Traction Co., Dividends, 

165, 758 . 

Earnings of railways, 464, 957 

Federal Light & Traction Co., Incorpora- 
tion, 1041 

— —Fenders and wheelguards. Hearing on, 751 
— —Forty-second Street, Manhattan ville & St. 

Nicholas Ave. Ry., Sale, 86, 294, 424, 

885, 1004, 1114 
Forty-second Street and Park Avenue, Five 

levels of electric tracks, 893 

Heating order, Hearing on form of, 153 

Hudson Companies, Note issue, 294, 370 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R.: 

Advertisement of tunnels, *i54 

Baggage cars, ""496 

Illuminated station indicators, 509 

Power station in Jersey City [Hazel- 
ton], *384; Comment, 381 
Interborough-Metropolitan Co. : 

Annual report, 206 

Notes, Maturity and renewal of, 104 1 
Interborough Rapid Transit: 

Cable breakdowns, Record of, 832 

Corporation tax law, Constitutionality 
of, 410 

Earnings for year, 370 

Elevated, Schedules, 491, 536, 638 


Lighting, 44, 368, 641 
Schedules, 289,315, 356, 426,467, 
505, 638 

Side-door cars, 1909 design, *io57 
Side-door cars, Hearings on, 44; 

Order regarding, 127 
Ticket sales in 1909, 847 
Test of 15,000-kw steam turbine set 
[Stott and Pigott], 451; Discus- 
sion, 453; Comment, 434 
Manhattan Bridge Three-cent Co., Testi- 
mony on cost of electric railway con- 
struction and operation, *705_ 

Maps, 407, 520, 901, 935 

Metropolitan Street Ry. : 

Briefs required, 261 
Construction and inprovement of 
buildings, fire protection and in- 
surance, *6P8; Comment, 685 
Default on stocks and bonds, 677 
Eighth Avenue line, Rehabilitation. 

Electrical department, Work of, 

'896, *932 
Elevated service, Order for increased, 


Financial and reconstruction details, 
520; Comment, 515 

Fourth and Madison Avenue Ry., 
Improvements, 641 

Improvements of leased lines, 1041 

Increase of service on 116th St. line, 
Order for, considered unreason- 
able, 207 

Leas^"*bf Fourth, Eighth and Ninth 

Avenue lines, 126 
Maintenance of way department, *8i7 

Track standards and general 
, rules, *863; Comment, 855 
Organization charts, 896, 1088 
Receivership matters, 370, 549 
Rolling stock and shops department, 

•562, *6c9 
Rules for track employees, 865 
Sale, 164, 207, 424, 758, 920, 957, 


Snow fighting methods and organiza- 
tion, *73o 

Transfer "talks," 1005 

Transportation department, * 1088 

Mohawk Valley Co., Dividend, 921 

New York City Ry., Receivership, 424, 758 

North American Co.: 

Annual report, 293 

Notes, 330 

Notes on railways of the city [Connettcl, 


Public Service Commission: 

Annual report, 108; Comment, 95 
Criticism of [ Whitridge], 110 
Opinions on the Parker bill, 544 

Rapid Transit conditions, 50, 84, 162, 203, 

257. 326. 421, 462, 506, 545, 674, 716, 
755. 796, 881, 917, 954, 1002, 1039, 
1 073, 1 1 1 1 

Statistics of eight railways for year, 750 

Third Avenue R R.: 

Appraisal, 228 

Gasoline-electric cars, operation of. 
48, 734 

Incoi poi nted as lliird Avenue Rail 

way, 800 
Reconstructed cars, "1103 
Reorganization, 165 

Sale, 260, 424 

New York City: 

Third Avenue R. R. : (Continued) 

Storage-battery car, Operation of, 

Wheel guards: 

Order of Commission. Letter of F. 
W. Whitridge to Commission, 
953; Whitridge's reply to a criti- 
cism, 1 1 12 
Suit dismissed, 917 

Transportation statistics, 1907-1909, 109 

Twenty-eighth & Twenty-ninth Sts. Cross- 
town R. R., Sale, 330, 465, 641, 1077 

United Service Co., Incorporation, 52 

Vestibules, Hearing on, 353 

Vestibules in Brooklyn and Queens, 958 

Wheel guard, Parmenter, Hearing on, 480 

New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R.: 

Bills on ownership of other roads, 330 

Catenary construction, Harlem River 

branch, '698 

— —Electric traction progress, 37 

Electrification and controlled lines, Policy 

of company, 367 

Gas and electric lighting property trans- 
ferred to Housatonic Power Co., 1005 

— —Increase in commutation rates, 857, 886 

Locomotives, Electric, Geared and side-rod. 

'829; Comment, 811 

Multiple unit trains, *5i8 

Trolley wire, Wear of steel, with panto- 
graph, 1028 

New York Railroad Club, Electrification of 
steam roads, Report on, 527; Com- 
ment. 516, 517; Discussion, 528 

New York State: 

Franchise assessments, 370 

Inspection of electric railways by Com- 
mission, 398 

Legislation, 124, 163, 259, 292, 327, 547, 

757, 798, 844, S83, 918, 955 

Operating statistics of railways in Second 

District, 785 

Public Service Commission: 

Annual report, 148 

Approved abandonment of poor branch 
line, Port Jervis, 886 

Hearing on limiting passengers on 
Albany cars, 127, 173, 191 

Inquiry concerning depreciation ac- 
counts, 793 

Law, Proposed amendments, 670; 
Discussion [Collin], 665 
Statistics for street railway companies for 

years, 354 

New York State Railways. (See Rochester, 
N. Y.) 

New York State Street Railway Association: 

March meeting, 320, 404, 407 

— —Relations with the American Association, 
Report on, 413 

Work of 1909 [Peck], 22 

New York, Westchester & Boston Ry., Con- 
solidation with New York & Port 
Chester R. R., 52, 207 

Newark, N. J.: 

Cars, Pay-as-you-enter, "272 

Public Service Electric Co., 11 14 

Public Service Ry. : 

Annual report, 846, 919, 967 

Bona sale, 86, 508 

Cadet and apprenticeship courses, 908 
Car house, *I055 
Chartered car charges, 414 
Dividend, 52 
Hoboken terminal, 959 
Letter carriers, Transportation of, 

Manager's car, *i022 
Ticket books discontinued, 1006 
Track construction [Schreiber], '1052 
Wages, 88 

Newburgh, N. Y. : 

Orange County Traction Co., Bond issue, 


Pensions for employees, 128 

Newton, Mass., Decision regarding service in, 


Night cars. (See Owl cars) 
No-seat. (See Fares) 

Norfolk, Va. : 

No-seat-no-fare ordinance, 686, 887 

Norfolk (Va.) & Portsmouth Traction 

Co., Refinancing, 957, 1077 
— —Pole and tie preservation, 604 

Portable substation, "786 

Sand box, *63o 

North Reading, Mass., Hearing on fares, 1070 
Northampton, Mass.: 

Connecticut Valley Street Ry., Stock issue, 


Fare readjustment, 720, 823 

Northampton Traction Co. (Sec Easton, Pa.) 
Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co. (Sec 

Akron. Ohio) 
Northwestern Cedarmen's Association, Annual 

meeting. 1 16 

Oakland, Cal.: 

Cars, Large, of the "Key Route," "98 

San Francisco. Oakland & San Jose Con- 
solidated Ry., Rumored sale,' 700 
Ohio, Legislation in, 124, 163, 204, 292, 422, 
463, 506, 547. 675. 757. 798, 844, 955 

< Abbreviations: * Illustrated. e Correspondence.) 

Ohio Electric Ry. (See Cincinnati) 
Ohio Public Utilities Commission, Proposed, 

Ohio Railroad Commission and its relation to 

interurban roads [Gothlin], 234 
Ohio Traction Co. (See Cincinnati) 
Oil burner for keeping frozen switches open, 

Oil cup for grease-type motors, Richmond, 

Va., *8 3 4 

Oil drying and testing plant, Winnipeg, *noo 
Oil engine, Diesel Economy of operation 

[Harrison], 749 
Oklahoma Public Utilities Association, 917 
Oklahoma (Okla.) Ry., Trademark '523 
Old Colony Ry. (See Boston & Northern) 

Olean, N. Y.: 

Commutation ticket books, 109 

Rules governing linemen, 1068 

— — Western New York & Pennsylvania Trac- 
tion Co., Increase in capital stock, 800 

Omaha (Neb.) & Council Bluffs Street Ry., 
Fare case, 1078 

Oneida Ry Business men's trip from Utica 
to Indianapolis, 426 

Ontario (Cal.) & San Antonio Heights R. R., 
Increase of capital stock, 330 

Orange County Traction Co. (See Newburgh, 
N. Y.) 

Organization charts: 

Massachusetts Electric Companies, 971 

Metropolitan Street Ry., 562, 817, 896, 


Oshkosh, Wis., Fare increase, 87; [Pulliam], 


Overhead construction: 

Anchor for pole guy wires [Miller], *636 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., at movable 

bridges, *io6i 

Ear (Indianapolis), *8i 

Drawbridge runway, Cleveland, "360 

Interurban railways [Hanlon], 783 

Iron-bar construction, Brooklyn, *ioi6 

(See also Catenary construction) 

Owensboro (Ky.) City R. R.: 

Bond issue, 1077 

Control of, 958 • 

Directors, 11 14 

Owl cars: 

Paris, and double fares, 855 

-Toledo, Ohio, 801 

Pacific Claim Agents' Association, Conven- 
tion, 905, 1024 

Paint shop, Indianapolis Traction & Terminal 
Co., *6o7 

Painting, Easel for curtains, '789 

Painting cars: 

Charleston, S. C, 570, 672 

London Underground Rys., 907 

Methods [Woods], 609 

Richmond, Va., 697 

— —Scaffold in shop aisle, Mobile, Ala., *i02i 
Painting fenders and trucks with compressed- 
air brush, *io4 

Wear in St. Clair tunnel, 595 

Wear of steel trolley wire with panto- 
graph, 1028 

-(See also Bow collector) 

Paris, Owl cars and double fares, 855 

Frenchman's Island improvements, 409 

Profit in operation of, 969 

Passengers : 

Limiting number of, abandoned, at Al- 
bany, N. Y., 127, 191; Comment, 173 

Time required to board and leave cars, 


Patent rights, 808 

Paterson, N. J., North Jersey Rapid Transit 

Co., Increase of capital stock, 885 

Maintenance, Metropolitan Street Ry.. 

819, 820 

Measuring and charging for replacing, 

Chicago, 319 

Notes on [McMath], '236 

Wood-block, Philadelphia, 999 

Peckskill, N. Y., Putnam & Westchester Trac- 
tion Co., Bond issue, 508 

Pennsylvania R. R.: 

Electric traction work, 36 

— Holdings in N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R., 1004 

Joins A. S. & I. R. A., 1029, 1049 

Terminal station, New York, '656; Com- 
ment, 649 

Pennsylvania Railroad Commission, Annual re- 
port,. 243 

Pensacola (Fla.) Electric Co., Dividend. 958 
Pension system. (See Employees, Pensions) 

Accounting for power plant maintenance 

and operation, 1020 
American Rys., 206 

Lease of Scranton, Dunmore X Moosic 
Lake R. R., 294, 330 

Cars, Pay-wilhin, "144 

Cars, Trailer, Construction, '342 

Fares, 18 

Interstate Rys.: 

Bonds deposited, 549 
Interest mi bonds, 294, 799 



[Vol. XXXV. 


Interstate Rys.: (Continued) 

Lease to Reading Transit Co., 677 

Reorganization, 206 

Stock issue abandoned, 885 

Lehigh Valley Transit to operate into the 

city, 848 

Pavement, Wood-block, 999 

— —Philadelphia & Chester Ry., Sale, 1041, 
1 1 14 

Philadelphia & Westchester Traction Co., 

Hearing on fare increase, 787 

Philadelphia & Western Ry., Sale, 677 

—Platform rule, 297 

— ■ — Rapid Transit Co.: 

Bond issue, 465, 719 
Financial condition, 885, 1005 
Financing plans, 1076, 11 14 
Increase in indebtedness proposed, 799 
Pension plan and new terms of serv- 
ice, 88 

Rules governing employees, 670 

Southwestern Street Ry., Sale, 1041 

Strike, 340, 358, 380, 403, 433, '454, 492, 

541, 606, 670, 753 
Declared at an end 753 
Phases of [Pierce], 736; Comment, 

Rules governing employees, 670 
Subway, Proposed, 422 

Transit affairs, Investigation by Railroad 

Commission, 842, 996 

Welding, Electric, in repair shops, 356 

Photographing equipment parts without 

shadows, *8sS 
Physicians, Company [Ferrin], 1024 
Piece-work car prices, Third Avenue, New 

York, 1 1 04 

Pinions : 

Material for, 361 

Taper, Design and mounting of, 361 

Pipe, Corrugated iron for culverts (A. R. M. 

Co.), '636 
Pipe bender, ""859 

Pipe unions, Test of "Kewanee" (National), 

Pittsburg, Kan., Joplin & Pittsburg Ry.: 

Bond sale, 641, 677 

Payments on bonds, 846 

Pittsburgh, Pa.: 

Conditions discussed in report of Railroad 

Commission, 243 

Ordinances vetoed, 523 

Fare boxes, 1078 

Reports on traffic conditions [Arnold, Olm- 
sted and Freeman], 318; [State Rail- 
road Commission], 738 

Traction expert, Mayor advises city to re- 
tain, 296 

Traction service, Views of Mayor Magee 

and Mr. Callery, 876 
Wrecking truck, "911 

Pittsburgh & Allegheny Valley Ry. (See 

Leechburg, Pa.) 
Pittsburgh, Flarmony, Butler & New Castle 

Ry., Increase of capital stock, 330 
Pittsburgh & Westmoreland Ry., Receiver's 

sale, 165 
Pittsfield, Mass.: 

Berkshire Street Ry., Protection of line- 
men, 1069 

Pittsfield Electric Street Ry.: 

Reorganization, 424, 425 
Stock sale, 371, 921 

Prizes for flower displays, 800 

Platform accidents and types of prepayment 
cars, 856 

Platform rule in Philadelphia, 297 

Platforms, Reinforcing strips. Richmond, Va., 

Pleasantville, N. J., Atlantic & Suburban Ry., 
Fare increase, 1078 


Consumption in 1908, 149 

Preservation, Practice in Southern States, 

_ 604; Comment, 559 
Population density in certain European and 

American cities, *983 
Port Jervis. N. Y.: 

Port Jervis Traction Co., Approved aban- 
donment of poor branch, 886, 894 

Segregation of light and railroad proper- 
ties, 125 

Portland, Ind., Muncie & Portland Traction 

Co., Excess fare not upheld, 686 
Portland, Ore.: 

-Bulletins to employees, 129 

Car steps, Lower, 550 

Franchise sustained by Supreme Court de- 
cision, 6~9 

Portland Railway, Light & Power Co.: 

Bulletin on courtesy, 466 

New building, 1003 

Protection of linemen, 1069 

Purchase by, 126 
Poughkeepsie (N. Y.) City & Wappingers Falls 

Ry., Passenger service over Central 

New England Ry., 1078 
Power calculations, Over-refinement in, 856 

Power consumption: 

Bavarian State Rys., 287 

Boston & Northern Street Ry., 577 

Metropolitan Street Ry., New York, 566 

Tests of cars in Cleveland, 69 

Power consumption: (Continued) 

Visalia, Cal., single-phase railway, 102 

Power distribution, Progress in 1909 [Bell], 11 
Power generation and distribution, Review of 
1909, 9 

Power station practice: 

Chemist, The, and the power plant, 153 

— — Condensers for small stations [Lewis], 749 

Lubrication records, Berlin, 623 

Natural gas firing, Covington, Ky., 874 

Producer-gas plants in the U. S., 151 

Splicing wires with silver solder, 154 

Utilization of old equipment [Winsor], 

106; Discussion, 108 

Power stations: 

Charlotte, N. C, Gas engines, *86i 

Chicago, Commonwealth Edison Co., 493 

Cincinnati, Turbine station, *770 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R., Jersey City 

[Hazleton], *384; Comment, 381 

Metropolitan Street Ry., *933 

Minneapolis, Additions, 982 

Producer-gas plants in the United States, 


Progress in 1909 [Bell], 11 

Terre Haute, Ind., *27s 

Venice, 111., Illinois Traction System, *i40 

Power supply for suburban railways, Central- 
ized, 1050 

Power transmission problems [Buck], 985 
Presque Isle, Me., Aroostook Valley R. R., 
Bond sale, 165 

Providence, R. I.: 

Providence & Danielson Ry., Rumor con- 
cerning control, 330 

■ Rhode Island Co., Dividend, 508 

Subway plan, 639 

Prussian Government Rys., Motor cars, *io70 
Public service commissions: 

Comparison of New York and New Jersey 

laws, 627; [Walker], C671 

Fares, taxes and regulation [Tingley], 10 

Function [Gothlin], 234 

Governors' messages in different States, 157 

Iowa laws [Sammis], 776 

— ■ — -Maryland, 482, 710 

Ohio, Proposed, 669 

Personnel, Importance of, 768 

Regulation, but not confiscation [Stevens], 


Rhode Island, 163 

Rulings on depreciation [Ford], 284 

[Shaw], 241; [Sullivan], 280 

"Signs of the times" [M'Carter], 15; Cor- 
rection, 67 

South Carolina, 843 

Public Service Ry. (See Newark, N. J.) 

Publicity : 

Civic boards, Publicity through, 215 

Education of the public [Clark], 279 

Education of the public in relation 10 elec- 
tric railways [McGraw], 73; Discus- 
sion, 71 

Relations with the public [Grimes], 621 

Report on public policy, N. E. L. A. Com- 
mittee, 989 

Puget Sound Electric Ry. (See Tacoma, 

Punch, Automatic time, for transfers (T. I. 

M. Co.), *632 
Purchasing agent. Functions of the, 62 
Putnam & Westchester Traction Co. (See x 

Peekskill, N. Y.) 


Rack railway, Electric, Montreux-Glion, Switz- 
erland, *98o 
Rail-cleaning car, German, '838 
Rail joints, Metropolitan Street Ry., 864 

Rail specifications: 

Composition, London, 438 

Metropolitan Street Ry., *863 


City track construction [Heindle], 745; 

Discussion, 778 
Corrugation, London Underground Rys., 

438 . 

Corrugation tests, German, 44 

German standard sections, *39 

Progress of 1909 [Angerer], 14 

Wear of, London underground lines, "438 

Railway commissions, Co-operation with, .Rules 

Committee, 710 

(See also Public Service commissions) 

Railway Signal Association, March meeting, 


Rate of return. (See Investments) 
Raynham, Mass., Hearing on fares, 873 
Reading (Pa.) Transit Co., Incorporation, 295 
Receiverships and foreclosure sales in 1909, 41 
Register rod handle, Detachable (Taurman), 

Registers, Ringing up two, from one rod, *663 
Repair shop practice: 

Air brake maintenance, 587 

Anderson, Ind., *788 

Armature coil manufacture, * 5 78 ; in sub- 
stations, 649 

Armature coils, Winding, *s8o 

Armature testing, Portable transformer 

for, 360 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated. c Correspondence.) 

Repair shop practice: (Continued) 

Armature truck, Pittsburgh, *834 

Babbitt melting stove, "789 

Babbitting device for three pairs of 

sleeves, "859 
Berlin, 98 1 

— - — Boring compressor cylinders, 591 

Boring machinery, Cincinnati, *584 

Chelsea, Mass., ^858 

Conduit cutter, '859 

Controller work, '578 

Cost of equipment additions, 544 

Dating shopmen's badges, 245 

-Electrical equipment, Inspection and re- 
pair of, *577 

Endurance tests, Simple, 270 

Field coils: 

Dipping and impregnation, *8s8 
Manufacture, '578 

Home repairing by the small company, 558 

Impregnating plant, Cincinnati, '581 

Indianapolis, "587 

Lathe equipment, Cincinnati shops, *58s 

London Underground Electric Ry., '812 

Making or buying appliances, 930 

Metropolitan Street Ry., 564 

Motor maintenance, Boston, *6$2 

Motor testing, Indianapolis, '589 

Organization, 615 

Overhauling period and repair methods, 


Paint shop kink, 913 

Pipe bender, '859 

Posting prices, 685 

Precision tools, '495 

Resistances, Adjusting, 589 

Standard sizes in drawings, Richmond, Va.. 

*:o2S '• 

Time clock, 1087 

Welding, Electric, 356 

Repair shop records [Buckman], 194 
Repair shops: 

Cincinnati Traction Co., *s8o 

Coney Island's Brooklyn R. R., 440 

Minneapolis, 937 

Return on investments. (See Investments) 
Rhode Island Utilities Commission recom- 
mended, 163 
Richmond, Va. : 

Bearing metals, 666 

Brake hangers, *no6 

Brake shoe practice, 570 

Car houses, Fireproof, *6oi 

Car panels, Steel, over wood, 586 

Carbon brush changes, 1067 

Cast-iron and steel wheels, 909 

Franchise modifications desired, 449 

Painting cars. Rapid work, 697 

Pay-as-you-enter cars, 775 

Platforms with reinforcing strips, *877 

■ Standard sizes in shop drawings, "1025 

Thermit welding, 905 

Transfer box, *iioj 

Trap door lift, "911 

Virginia Railway & Power Co., Dividend, 

1 04 1 

Ride on street car the cheapest service or com- 
modity we buy [Davis], 825 

Right-of-way, Clearing, by farmers, 929 

Roanoke (Va.) Traction & Light Co., Con- 
trolling interest of American Rail- 
ways, 126 

Rochester, N. Y. : 

Chartered car charges, 414 

New York State Rys.: 

Arrest for misrepresentation, 1042 
Bond issue, 957 
Dividend, 921 
Reorganization, 640 

Pay-as-you-enter cars, 678 

Protection of lineman, 1068 

Service in, Suggestions of Public Service 

Commission, 371 

Transfer system [Callaghan], *4i2 

Rochester, Syracuse & Eastern R. R., Traffic 
increase, 761 

Rolling stock ordered in 1909 (Table), 32 

Rules for city railways, Sue-gestions with refer- 
ence to the Rule-Book [Cooper], 941; 
Discussion, 939 

Rules lor interurban railways: 

Illinois conference proposed, 847 

Indiana code revision, 46, 156; Comment, 


Meeting of Committee, of Transportation 

and Traffic Association, 103 1 
Report of Iowa Association, 780; Comment, 


Revision of, 808 

Rural districts and the usefulness of the trol- 
ley system, 930 
Rush-hour travel: 

Discussion, New York State Association; 


Limiting passengers in Albany, 127, 173, 

_ 191 

Rutland (Vt.) Railway, Light & Power Co., 
Extensions, 295 


Saginaw-Bay City Railway & Light Co. in 
Michigan, Consolidation, 86, 921 

St. Catherines, Ont. Niagara, St. Catherines 
& Toronto Ry., Bond issue, 921 

January — June, 1910.] 



St. Clair tunnel, Electrical equipment, Main- 
tenance and operation, *593 
St. Louis: 

Bulletin on courtesy, 1078 

Depreciation fund, 433 

Exhibit by United Rys. at Electrical Show, 

*io30, 1050 
— —Passenger traffic figures, 1030 
Wage increase, 760 

St. Louis, Monte-Sano & Southern Ry., Re- 
ceivership, 549 

Salt Lake City, , Utah Light & Railway Co., 
Protection of linemen. 1069 

Salt Lake & Ogden Ry., Change in motive 
power, 1039 

San Francisco: 

Bonds tor municipal line, 327 

Fenders, 462 

Ocean Shore Ry., Receivership, 126, 261, 

330, 641, 799, 1004, 1114 

United Rys., Issue of certificates, 1077 

United Railways Investment Co: 

Annual meeting, 800 

Bond issue and increase in capital 
stock, 885 

San Francisco, Oakland & San Jose Consoli- 
dated Ry. (See Oakland, Cal.) 
San Jose (Cal.) Railroads, Bond issue, 921 
Sand box, Norfolk, Va., '630 
Sander, Pneumatic, Valve for (Keystone). 

Sao Paulo Tramway, Light & Power Co., 

Earnings, 885 
Sash operating device (Drouve), "634 
Sash, Steel (Lupton), '837 
Savannah, Ga. : 

Cast-iron rind steel wheels, 909 

Pole and tie preservation, 605 


Cutting-ofC (Fay & Egan), 418 

Double circular (Fay & Egan), *795 

Scaffold, Painter's, in shop aisle, Mobile, *i02i 
Schedules : 

Compilation, in Boston, Pottsville and 

Springfield, 993 
Method of calculating headway, 70 

Schenectady, N. Y.: 

Chartered car charges, 414 

Franchise to relieve congestion, 426 

Recommendations of Public Service Com- 
mission, 128 
Scranton, Pa.: 

Northern Electric Street Ry.. Reorganiza- 
tion, 207 

Scranton Ry., Bonds called, 758 

Seat-mile unit [Foster], C198; Comment, 175 
Seattle, Wash.: 

Pacific Coast Power Co., Stock fssue, 958 

Protection of linemen, 1068 

Sedalia (Mo.) Light & Traction Co., Receivers, 
1077, 1114 

Sheboygan (Wis.) Light, Power & Railway 

Co., Bond issue, 126 
Shelburne Falls (Mass.) & Colerain Street 


Bond issue 1005 

Hearing on financing, 293 

Shovel, Electric (Kokomo), '837 


Automatic block signal (A. T. S. Co.), 


Block signaling on electric railways 

[Barnes], 416; Discussion, 404 

. Cab signal (Simmen), for Toronto & York 

Radial Ry., 158 

Contact type [Nachod], 


Car, Diplomacy in, 1086 

Car stop, Suggested designs, *88o, 977 

Crossing signs, Indiana, 642, *86o 

Destination and train number signs, An- 

Je (■.")>»■« j nd.. *78!' 
Illuminated station indicators for cars, 

Hudson & Manhattan tunnel, 509 
Single-phase multiple unit trains on New 

Haven Road, * 5 1 8 
Single-phase railways: 

Effect of development in d. c. line con- 
struction, 341 

Heysham-Morecambe Ry., England, 741; 

( oin '.iiMt, 729 

Power consumption, Visalia, Cal., 102 

Progress in 1909 [Storer], 20 

Prussian State Rys., between Bitterfeld 

and Drssau, 635 

Visalia, Cal., 15-cycle railway, *I01 

Sioux City (la.) Service Co., Bond issue, 846, 

Sleeping cars (See Cars, Sleeping) 
Sleet wheels, cutters and harps (Holland), 

Snow fighting methods: 

Brooklyn, "68 238 

Metropolitan .Street Ry., *7.3° 

Snow removal cost in Boston, 466 

Snow sweepers, Metropolitan Street Ry., 565 

Soliciting business for interurban railways 

[Warfel], 540; Discussion, 620 
South Bend, Ind., Chicago, South Bend & 

Northern Indiana Ry.: 
Armature coils manufactured in substa 

lions, 649 
Removal purchase, 294 

South Carolina Public Service Commission, 813 

Southern Pacific R. U.: 

Electric suburban lines, 327 

Southern Pacific R. R. : (Continued) 

Electrification plans, 204, 642 

Retirement of president, 204 

Steel cars for electric lines, 794 

Southern Railway, Gasoline-electric cars, *202 
Southern railways, Equipment standards of, 

Southern" States, Electric railway develop- 
ments, 379 . . 
Southwestern Gas & Electrical Association, 

Convention Q39, 044 
Southwestern Street Ry. (See Philadelphia) 
Speciai work, Progress of year [Angerer], 14 
Springfield, Mass., Citizens' report on service, 
1 66 

Spokane (Wash.) & Inland Empire R. R. : 

Fate increase, 167 

Mail service, '"439 

Spokane Transportation Club, 462 
Sprinkler alarm systems, Metropolitan Street 
Kv., "604 

Sprinkler:, Automatic, in Baltimore car houses, 

(, : - 

Standard 'sizes of publications, Recommenda- 
tions of Central Electric Railway As- 
sociation, 101 1 

Standard sizes in shop drawings, Richmond, 
Va., '102? ' 

Standard symbols in draughting, *ios6 


— —Engineering Association Committee meet- 
ing, 1026 

Report of Central Electric Railway As- 
sociation Committee, 977 

-Report of M. C. B. Association, 1097 

Stark Electric Ry. (See Alliance, Ohio) 
Static discharge sets at Chicago substations, '69 

Statistics : 

Berlin, Germany, 229 

Cars ordered in 1909, 32 

Census report on electric railways in 1907, 


Chicago traffic conditions, 867 

Coney Island & Brooklyn K. R. [Ford], 


Cost of electric equipment, Coney Island 

& Brooklyn R. R., 104 

Japanese railways, 418 

Massachusetts railways, 100 

New York City railways, 109, 750 

New York State electric railways for year, 


Operating, for heavy electric traction, 

Long Island and West Jersey & Sea- 
shore R. R., 532 

Operating statistics in Second District, 

New York State, 785 
Passenger traffic in European and Ameri- 
can cities in 1907, *g82 

St. Louis passenger traffic, 1030 

Street car ride the cheapest service or 

commodity we buy [Davis], 825 

Swiss railways, for 1907, 38 

Ticket sales in New York subway, 847 

Track construction of 1909, 34 

Unit construction figures in New York 

and Brooklyn, Testimony of F. R. 
Ford. 706 

Steam railways: 

Competition with electric lines: 

Boston and vicinity, 746 

New York Central R. R., 761 

Electrification (See Heavy electric trac- 

Increase of commutation rates, 886, 922; 

Comment, 857 
Traffic agreement with electric railways, 


Stone & Webster Club of Washington, 756 
Stone & Webster companies, Combined earn- 
ings, 423 

Stops of street cars: 

At crossings, Pennsylvania order, 801 

Chicago [Fish], 28 

Ft. Wayne, Ind., Change to far side, 332 

Near-stop operation [Griffin], 410 

Near vs. far-side stopping in Chicago and 

other cities, 484 
Signs, *88o, 977 

Stopping a car short of its destination, 


Storage-battery cars: 

Edison-Beach, 292, 454, 708 

Third Avenue, New York, Operation, 


Storage batteries: 

Edison nickel-iron, 159, "182 

Regulation of alternating-current loads, 


Westinghouse. Sold to Electric Storage 

Battery Co., 483 


Albany, N. Y., 965 

Columbus, Ohio, 807, 833, 878 

Philadelphia, 340, 358, 380, 403, 433, 

"4 54, 492, 54'. 606, 670, 753 
Phases of strike [Pearce], 736, Com- 
ment, 728 

Possible coal strike in Central States, 383 

Protection against [Wattles], 14 

Trenton, N. J., 505 

Substfll ions: 

Boston, at Egleston Square, "408 

Design and economy, 895, 968 [AyrcsJ, 

C996 ; 998 

f Abbreviations : * Illustrated. c Correspondence.) 

Substations: (Continued) 

Illinois Traction System, *i42 

Maine Electric Rys., *i8o 

Metropolitan Street Ry., "898 

Norfolk, Va., Portable, '786 

Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Ry., 


Berlin, Proposed, *io3 

Chicago, Proposed. 123, 161, 289 

(See also New York City, Interborough 

Rapid Transit) 
Susquehanna Railway, Light & Power Co. 

(See Lancaster, Pa.) 
Switch lock (Hardin), '878 

Barrier switches for lamp and heater 

circuits (H. & H.), *i2o 
Oil burner for keeping frozen switches 

open, *449 

Oil, New design, 96th Street station,' New 

York, *934 

Overhead trolley (Murdoch), *8i 

Track : 

Automatic electric (Siemens Schuck- 

ert), *838 
Pinless tongue switch (Hadfield), 

Switzerland : 

Bellinzona-Mesocco 1500-vok railway sys- 
tem, 306 

Bernese Alps Ry., Electric locomotive, 


Montreux-Glion Rack Railway, *98o 

Railroad report for 1908, 713 

Railway statistics for 1907, 38 

Syracuse, N. Y.: 

Beebe syndicate lines, Protection of line- 
men, 1068 

Campaign against spitting, 679 

Car colision, Effect of, on car, *no6 

Rochester, Syracuse & Eastern R. R., 

Catenary construction, *i6o 
Transfer table, T * 1 1 9 

Tacoma, Wash. : 

Everett & Tacoma Ry., Bond issue, 799. 

Fare increase, 53, 508, 550, 760 

Tacoma Railway & Power Co., Rumor 

concerning sale to Union Pacific R. 

R., 86 

Transfer changes, 1078 

Tacony, Pa., Holmesburg, Tacony & Frank- 
ford Electric Ry.: 

Bonds, 165 

Sale, 294, 758, 1041 

Tampa (Fla.) Electric Co., Dividend, 799 
Tantalum lamps for cars, Chicago, 1072 
Taxes, Corporation: 

Constitutionality of tax law, Coney Island 

& Brooklyn R. R. Co., 277, 827 

Constitutionality of tax law, case of Inter- 
borough Rapid Transit Co., 410 

Discussion [Shaw], 241 

Law, Compliance with the [Ham], 24 

Proper method of taxation [M'Carter], 


— Taxes, fares and regulation [Tingley], 10 

Technical school and the electric railway 
[Richey], 995 

Telephone discipline, Improving, 969 

Telephone selector (Western Electric), *952 

Telephone serviee of interurban railways, 305 

Telephone_ system, Metropolitan Street Ry.. 
New York, 936 

Telephones (See Dispatching systems) 

Terminal stations: 

Freight, Davenport, la., '245 

■ Pennsylvania R. R., New York City, "656: 

Comment, 649 

Terminals, Railroad: 

Electric operation, Progress in, 9 

Importance of, for interurban railways 

[Shannahan], 17 

Terre Haute, Ind., Power station improve- 
ments. *275 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction 
Co. (See Indianapolis) 

Test car, Metropolitan Street Ry., *662 

Testing motors in Boston, '654 

Testing set, Low-tension, portable (Westing- 
house), *iio6 

Theft of electricity [Hcgarty], 831 

'Theft of railway property, 217 

Thermit-welding motor cases, Cost of 1 16, 

Thermit welding of repair parts, Richmond, 
Va., 905 

IMiree -phase locomotives (See Locomotives) 
Three-phase system, Comparison with other 
systems [Darlington], 1064 

Third rails. Protection of, in car house. New 
York, "696 

Throuph routes and joint rates: 

Bill in Congress, 296, 320, 363. 379: Testi- 
mony of I.. S. Cass, 400, W. G. Dows, 
W. T. Ferris, M. A. Knapp, 401, li. 
W. Warren, 402; Letters from V . W. 
Coen, 450, 719, Warren, 451, A. T. 
Hay, 525: ( hanges in bill, 672 

Chicago through routing problem. 104, 

1- 847 

England, Through-running agreements, 




Miners', in Indiana, unlawful, 1005 

Six-for-a-guarter, withdrawn, in Des 

Moines, 720 
Tickets vs. cash fares on prepayment cars, 

Tie lines (See Transmission lines) 


Consumption in 1908, 149 

Consumption and preservation in United 

States, 606 

Preservation, Conditions and practice in 

Southern States, 604; Comment, 559 

Specifications, Public Service Ry., '1053 

Steel, Experience of various street rail- 
ways, 489 

Timber preservation: 

Antiseptic treatment of timber (Anti- 

septine), 713 
— —Preservation in 1908, 158, 201 
— —Report of N. E. L. A. Committee, 988 

Southern States, 604; Comment, 559 

Superficial method, *i99 

Time clock. Use of, 1087 

Time tables, Method of calculating headway, 


Franchise negotiations, 422 

Gwl service campaign, 801 

— — Pay-as-you-enter cars, 801, *io34 

Toledo Railways & Light Co.: 

Annual report, 508 

Franchise extension proposed, "673, 


Inspection of accounts by city, 881, 
1039, 1074 

Toledo, Ann Arbor & Detroit Electric R. R., 
Sale of, 52 

Toledo, Bowling Green & Southern Traction 

Co. (See Findlay, Ohio) 
Toledo & Indiana Ry., Sale of, 52, 207, 295, 


Toledo & Indiana Traction Co.: 

Incorporation, 330 

Mortgage, 719 

Toledo & Western Ry., Chartered car charges, 

Topeka (Kan.) Ry., Change in control, 677 
Toronto, Report of Board of Control on tran- 
sit matters, 955 

Toronto & York Radial Ry.: 

Heating system in car house, *542 

Simmen cab signal system, 158 

Tower wagon, automobile, Minneapolis, '250 

City track [Heindle], 745; Discussion, 


Concrete beams, Mobile, Ala., *9o6 

Economical, Suggestions [Schreiber], 

*I052; Comment, 1051 

Interurban railways [Hanlon], 783 

Maintenance of track, cost data [French], 


Metropolitan Street Ry., Standards, *86 3 

-Mobile, Ala., *go6 

Paving notes [McMath], *236 

Permanent city construction for interur- 

bans [Weber], *537 

Reinforcement of conduit system, Wash- 
ington, D. C. [Betts], *436 

Special work: 

Economical [Schreiber], *io52 
Metropolitan Street Ry., S22 
Washington, D..C, *437 

Statistics for 1909, 34 

Trackless trolley lines in Austria, *225 

Congestion in Chicago, Report on, *867 

Passenger, in European and American 

cities in 1907, *982 
Traffic curves, Value of, 1015 
Traffic promotion (See Advertising) 
Traffic unit, One thousand seat miles as 

[Foster], C198; Comment. 175 
Train and ourv r=ristance. Report on, 489 
Transfer box, Richmond, Va., *noi 

Transfer tables: 

Metropolitan Street Ry., '695 

Moving double-truck cars with single- 
truck table. 290 

Syracuse, N. Y., *U9 

Washington, D. C, *64, 65 

Transfers : 

Chicago, Announcements, 760 

— - — Notes on issue, 316 

New York, Printed matter on, 1005 

Rochester [Callaghan], '412; Discussion, 


— — Tacoma, Wash., 1078 

Time punch (T. I. M. Co.), '632 

Transfer of passengers short of their des- 
tination, 174 

Worcester, Mass., system, 129 

Transformer drying device (G. E.), *4i8 
Transformer, Portable, for testing armatures, 

Transmission lines: 

Calculation of tie lines between power 

stations [Rice], *78 

Sectionalizing distribution lines, 96 

Transmission voltage, Effect of raising, 929 


Transportation, A monopoly of [Buckland], 19 
Trap door lift in cars, Richmond, Va., *9ii 
Trenton, N. J.: 

■ Elizabeth & Trenton R. R., Incorporation, 


No-seat-no-fare ordinance, 686, 720, 727, 


Strike, 505 

Trenton & New Brunswick R. R., Sale, 885 
Trespassing on private right-of-way, 96 
Trinidad, Colo., Southern Colorado Power & 

Railway Co., Sale, 126 
Trolley base: 

Frictionless, for city cars (T. S. Co.), 


Reversible ball-bearing (Holland), *.;66 

Trolley ears (See Overhead construction) 

Trolley harps: 

(Hensley), *633 

(Holland) *is8 

Trolley retrievers: 

Pneumatic (Prentiss), '635 

(Shanahan), *249 

Trolley runway on drawbridge, *36o 
Trolley wheel bushings, Methods of testing, 

Trolley wheels: 

Boston practice and casting formula, 877 

(Hensley), *633 

Street (Holland), *is8 

Trolley wire, Wear of steel, with pantograph 
trolley, 1028 


Cast-steel frame (Hedley), *io6o 

Detroit United Ry. (Baldwin), *I59 

Flexible axle (U. E. C. Co.), *25o 

Light M. C. B. (Baldwin), *io35 

M. C. B. four-wheel, Illinois Traction 

System sleeping car, ^477 
Storage battery car, "183 

Turbines, Steam: 

Cincinnati power station, *77o 

Horizontal impulse (Dick, Kerr), *4S9 

20,000-kw, in Chicago, 493 

Test of 15,000-kw exhaust steam-turbine 

set, Interborough Rapid Transit Co. 
[Stott and Pigott], 451; Discussion, 
453; Comment. 434 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co. (See Minne- 


Union Traction Co. (See Independence, Kan.) 
United Rys. (See St. Louis) 
United Railways & Electric Co. (See Balti- 

United States Steel Corporation, Welfare plans 
for employees, 810 

Utica, N. Y.: 

Track maintenance and cost data [French], 


■ Trip by trolley to Louisville and Indian- 
apolis, *g6i, 908, 931, 950 

Utica & Mohawk Valley Ry. : 

Complaint slips, 938 

Track construction, 490 

Uvalde, Texas, Steam motor car, *46i 


Valuation (See Appraisal) 

Valve-grinding machines (Hartford-Blanchard) 
[Banghart], *997 


Air valves (Keystone), *2oo 

Emergency air-brake (National), *88o 

Vancouver, B. C, British Columbia Electric 

Ry., Stock, 464 
Varnishing cars [Woods], 610 

Ventilation of cars: 

Combined hot-air heating and ventilating 

system (Peter Smith), *i2i 
Connection between ventilation and heat- 
ing [Whiston], c8o 
— — Oakland, Cal., "Key Route" cars, *99 
Vestibules on cars in New York, 353, 958 
Virginia Railway & Power Co. (See Rich- 
mond, Va.) 

Yisalia (Calif.) Electric R. R., 15-cycle single- 
phase, *IOI 


Wages (See Employees) 

Walla Walla, Wash., Northwestern Corpora- 
tion, 1077 

Warsaw-Peru line (See Winona Interurban 


Washington, D. C. : 

Capital Traction Co., Car house, "64 

Controller handle, Special, with con- 
tactors (Hanna), *i2o 

— — Report of Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion, 290 

Trail car operation, 1077 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated. c Correspondence.) 

[Vol. XXXV. 

Washington, D. C. : (Continued) 

Washington Railway & Electric Co.: 

Annual report, 676 

Underground conduit, Reinforcement 
of [Betts], "436 

Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Ry. : 

Change from single phase a. c. to 1200 

volts d. c, *392; Comment, 380 

Fare increase, 295 

Service extended, 550 

Time extension on bonds v 465 

Washington (Ind.) Street Ry.', Sale, 677 
Water power, Development of the hydroelec- 
tric problem, 271 

Waterloo (la.), Cedar Falls & Northern Ry. : 

Bond sale, 677 

Mortgage bonds called, 549 

Watsonville (Cal.) Transportation Co., Sale, 

Waynesboro, Pa., Chambersburg, Greencastle 
& Waynesboro Street Ry., Bond issue, 
294, 1076 

Welding, Electric, in repair shops, Philadel- 
phia, 356 

Wengernalp Ry., Switzerland, High-tension, 
direct-current operation, 700 

West Jersey & Seashore R. R. Electrification, 
Operating statistics, 532; Comment, 

West Penn. Rys. (See Connellsville, Pa.) 
Westboro, Mass., Hearing on fare to Worces- 
ter, 759 

Western Electric Co., Pension system, 875 
Western New York & Pennsylvania Traction 

Co. (See Olean, N. Y.) 
Western Ohio Ry. (See Lima, Ohio) 
Western Society of Engineers, Annual meet- 
ing, 147 

Western States, Electric railway growth in, 1 
Whatcom County Ry. (See Bellingham, Wash.) 

Wheel guards: 

Automatic (Hardin), *366 

Brooklyn, Order of Public Service Com- 
mission, 83, 331 
Coney Island & Brooklyn R. R., Order to 

equip, 549 

Parmenter, Hearing on, New York City, 


Wheel records, Indianapolis, 587 

Wheeling, W. Va., City & Elm Grove R. R., 



Cast-iron and steel wheels, Discussion 

[Beebe], *446 

Cast-iron and steel, on six Southern rail- 
ways, 909 

Discussion at Wisconsin Electrical Asso- 
ciation, 186 

Gages for wheel work, 361 

Mobile, Ala., Changing at, '834 

Mounting pressures, Report of M. C. B. 

Association, 1098 

Spring wheels, Glasgow, '250 

Steel, Indianapolis, *s87 

Steel, Report of committee of Engineer- 
ing Association, 1027 

— — Steel tires, Removing and replacing, 
London tube cars, *8i2 

Wear of, by brake shoes, 1087 

Wear of wheels and tires, 362 

Wearing limits, London Underground 

Electric Rys., *8i3 

White, J. G. & Co., Annual report, 884 

Wilkes-Barre (Pa.) Ry., Incorporation, 165 

Wilmington, N. C, Pole and tie preservation, 

Window washer, Self-feeding brush (Stanton), 

Winnipeg (Man.) Electric Ry. : 

Annual report, 424 

Oil-drying plant, *noo 

Winona (Ind.) Interurban Ry., Construction 
features of Warsaw-Peru line, *48i 

Wisconsin Electrical Association, Annual meet- 
ing, 184 

Wisconsin Railroad Commission, Annual re- 
port, 536, 664 

Wood preservation (See Timber preservation) 

Wood Preservers' Association, Annual meet- 
ing, 158, 201 

Worcester, Mass., Transfer system, 129 

Worcester Consolidated Street Ry., Hearing 
on fare to Westboro, 759 

Worcester & Southbridge Street Ry. : 

Purchase, 921 

Stock issue, 1005 

Wrecking truck, Pittsburgh, *9ii 


Year 1909, A review of, 2, 3, 6 
Yonkers, N. Y., Objections to prepayment 
cars, 515 

Yorkshire (England) Electric Tramway Co., 
Self-tightening tumbler track brake, 

*8 3 7 

Youngstown & Ohio River R. R.: 
— — Financial conditions, 958 

Officers, 371 

Sale, 1077 

Youngstown & Sharon Railway & Light Co., 
Hearings, 885, 958 

January — June, 1910.] 





Adams, H. C. Valuation of public service in- 
dustries, 314 
Angerer, Victor. Rails and special work, 14 
Armstrong, A. H. Recent electric railway 
progress, 8 

Ayres, M. V. Cost of maintenance in Massa- 
chusetts, C671 

Substation costs, C996 

Value of lightness in cars, 703 


Badger, J. S. Workers' compensation acts, 

Banghart, C. S. Accurate regrinding of 
motorman's brake and triple valves, 

Barnes, C. R. Block signaling on electric rail- 
ways, 416 

Beeler, J. A. Help the public in correct think- 
ing, 27 

Bell, Louis. Power stations and distribution 
systems, 1 1 

Betts, Philander. Reinforcement of conduit 
rails at Washington, '436 

Brady, A. W. Permanent franchises and 
reasonable returns, 21 

Buckland, E. G. A monopoly of transporta- 
tion, 19 ' 

Buckman, H. H. Daily inspection and up-keep 
of rolling stock, 193 


Callaghan, W. C. Educational methods used 

in placing new system of transfers in 

operation, *4i2 
Carpenter, E. C. The American Street & 

Interurban Railway Claim Agents' 

Association, 18 
Clark, W. J. The fare question, 279 
Coleman, G. M. To remove brushes on G. E. 

circuit breaker, "366 
Collins, J. C. Methods of checking tickets and 

other passenger revenue, 411 
Cooper, H. S. Suggestions with reference to 

the standard city Rule Book, 941 
Crafts, P. P., Address by, 776 
Curwen, S. M. Some present tendencies in 

car construction, 29 



Davies, H. J. Maintenance provisions of 
Cleveland ordinance, 614 

Davis, G. H. A street car ride the cheapest 
service or commodity we buy, 825 

Doerr, C. T. Auditing express and railroad 
expense bills, 226 

Duffy, C. N. Rate of return on electric rail- 
ways, 871 


Elkins, A. F. Relations between the account- 
ing and operating departments, 944 


Fish, Willison. The future of street railway 

service in large cities, 28 
Ford, F. R. Tendency of diminishing profits 

at 5-cent fare, 30 
Treatment of~depreciation, 284 

Forse, W. H., Jr. The Central Electric Ac- 
counting Conference, 23 

Foster, H. A. One thousand seat miles as a 
traffic unit, C198 

French, M. J. Track maintenance and cost 
data, 612 


Garner, H. W. Why interurban railway fares 

should not be lowered, 781 
Glenn, W. H. Fares on city lines, 13 
Griffin, W. R. W. Near-stop operation, 410 


Ham, W. F. The corporation tax law, 24 
Hanlon, T. J. Interurban track and overhead 

construction, 783 
Hazelton, Hugh. Power station. of the Hud- 
son & Manhattan R. R., *384 
Heindle, W. A. City track construction, 745 
Herrick, A. B. Special methods of mainte- 
nance, 616 


Jackson, W. B. Depreciation and reserve 
funds of electrical properties, 903 


Kempton, W. H. Application of porcelain 

strain insulators, *990 
Kruger, C. O. Necessity of increase in 

revenue sufficient to meet increased 

costs, 18 


Lake, H. C. What constitutes a legal tender 

for a fare, 313 
Lamb, A. J. The auditor's relation to the 

operating executive, 492 
Lane, F. Van Z. Reduction of trolley delays 

on the Brooklyn Bridge, 1065 
Lang, A. E. Terms for use of city facilities 

by interurban companies, 22. 
Lincoln, F. H. American Street & Interurban 

Railway Engineering Association, 27 


MacAfee, J. B. Relationship of the electric 
railway to the public, 19 

McCarter, T. N. The signs of the times, is 

McGraw, J. H. Educating the public in rela- 
tion to electric railways, 73 

McMath, T. B. Notes on street paving, 236 

M'Millan, J. Proper treatment of electric 
railway properties, 25 

Mathes, L. D. Why street railway fares 
should not be lowered, 750 

Mitten, T. E. Traffic problem in Chicago, 31 


Nethercut, E. S. Valuation of operating prop- 
erties, 945 


Peck, E. F. Street Railwav Association of the 

State of New York, 22 
Pigott, J. S. (See Stott, H. G.) 
Pulliam, J. P. Electric railway fares. 195 

(Abbreviations: 'Illustrated. c Correspondence.) 


Rice, R. H. Calculation of tie lines between 
power stations, *78 


Schneider, E. F. Prevention of accidents, 617 

Schreiber, Martin. Some suggestions for 
economical track maintenance and 
construction, *I0S2 

Sergeant, C. S. A fair return upon the in- 
vestment, 283 

Problems confronting street railways, 6 

Shannahan, J. N. Terminal facilities for in- 
terurban electric railways, 17 

Shaw, J. F., Address at banquet of A. S. & 
I. R. A., 241 

The American Street & Interurban Rail- 
way Association, 7 

Squier, C. W. Commutator slotting and its 
relation to brushes and mica, 613 

Staats, H. N., F. W. Coen and H. P. Clegg. 

Report of Committee on Insurance, 

Stebbins, Theodore. Necessity for revising 
blank forms, C873 

Stevens, R. P. Regulation, but not confisca- 
tion, 12 

Storer, N. W. The single-phase system in the 

year i9og. 20 
Stott, H. G., and J. S. Pigott. Test of a 15,- 

ooo-kw steam-engine turbine set, 451 
Sullivan, P. F. Public service commissions, 


Swift, H. S. American Street & Interurban 
Railway Accountants' Association, 28 


Tingley, C. L. S. v Fares, taxes and regulation, 

Todd, R. I. American Street & Interurban 
Railway Transportation & Traffic 
Association, 12 


Varrellman, A. J. The prepayment car and 
its advantages. 784 


Walker. J. B. Expenses of public service com- 
missions, C671 

Warfel, C. O. Soliciting business, 540 

Wattles, G. W. Protection against strikes, 14 

Weber, FI. L. Permanent city track construc- 
tion for interurbans, 537 

Webster, E. S. Comments on the electric rail- 
way situation, 24 

Weeks, H. E. Depreciation, 7S2 

Whiston, W. C. Heating and ventilation, c8o 1 

Whitridge, F. W. Official valuation of private 
property, no 

Whysall, George. Address, 538 

Williams, C. C. Method of procedure when 
a person refuses to pay fare for se'lf 
or child, 237 

Williams, W. H. Valuation of public service 
corporations, 76 

Wilson, B. E. Chartered or special cars, 413 

Woods, C. F. Economy in electric car paint- 
ing, 609 

Wright, W. D. Work of the New England 
Street Railway Club, 15 


Abell, W. W., 762, 960 
Adams, H. M., 1080 
Adams, T. S., 1043 
Adamson, J. L., 1 1 1 G 
Allen, C. H., 333 
Ambler, James M., 761 
Anderson, A. A., 643 
Andis, Leslie 1 A., 802 
Andrews, Horace E., 72! 
Armstrong, C. E., 1116 
Arnold, B. J., 55 
Atwood, W. W., 761 
Bailey, W. P., 722 
Baker, C. B., 467 
Baker, C. F., 374 
Balsdon, A. S., 333 
Barlow, Walter G., 924 

Bartholomew, G. A., 1079 
Baukat, J. G., 924 

Beach, Henry L., 427 
Bean, L. H., 551 
Beaulieu, D. L., 129, 168 
Bell, J. C, 5.s 
Bell, B. B., 129 
Bemis, Sumner A., 802 
Berg, Fred A., 7C11 
Bigelow, Edw. M., 1007 
Iiirtwell, A. W. Q., 333 
Bochow, M. II., 721 
Bourlier, W. S., on 
Boyer, John, 1043, 1079 
Brackenridge, John ( '.. 90 
liradley, L. ('., 9(10, im(> 
Bradshaw, S. I'., 467 
Branson, Henry, 55 
Brinkerhoff, J. II., 90 
Brown, I. owe, 510 

Bruce, C. F., 924 

Bryan, Edward Payson, 210 
Ruffe, Fred G., 333 
Burk, W. II., 679 
Burns, I. M., 129 
Burtslield, S. S., 1079 

Calder, C. Ernest, 468 
Callaghan, W. C, 924 
Cameron, G. M., 130 
Campbell, Gordon, 168, 210 
Carlisle, John N., 262 
Carson, W. A., 1 1 1 6 
Casey, W. M., 55 
Chapman, James R., f>43 
Childs, T. M., 333 
Chubbuck, H. E., *334 
Churchill, W. W., 680 
("lark, E. I'., ni|i 
( lcgg, Ilarric I'., 1116 

Clinger, A. B., 679 
Coffin, Leslie R., 679 
Collins, John F., 209. '263, 848 
Comstock, Theodore B., 262 
Conklin, L. II., 551 
Converse, John II., 888 
Cooke, D. W., 297 
Copcland, J. B., 333 
Corbusier, W. T„ 721, 802 
Corrigan, Bernard, 169, 887 
Cotton, John J., 551 
Courtney, A. M., 1043, 107.) 
Craig, Marshall, 1007 
Crawford, A. A., 373 
Crawford, J. B., 467 
Crawford, E. I.., 427, 510 

Culp, Sherman, 1079 
Cunty, W. C, 887, 924 
Curtis, Jr., Geo. M., 721 

• Portrait. 



[Vol. XXXV 

Danney, Frank. 333 
Dahl, Gerhard Mi, 373 
Daily, S. H., 11 16 
Dame, F. L., 168 
Davis, J. R., 168 
Davis, Oliver L, 721 
DeCamp, S. S., 679 
Decker, Martin S., 262 
Dermei, D. Van, 467 
Dewees, J. D., 373 
Diddle, W. A., 761 
Dimmock, \V. S., 551, 802 
Dodge, G. H., 297 
Doherty, Henry L., 11.16 
Donecker, H. C., '263 
Dowling, H. M., 90 
Downs, E. E., '924 
Durell, Charles M., 262 
Duvall, Louis M., 1007 

Earle, Jr., Geo. H., 333, 960 
Eastman, Albert, 762 
Edgar, H. T., 334 
Egan, J. M., *427 
Elberson, J. C., 467 
Ellis, Walter, 169 
Ely, Van Horn, 924 
Estabrook, G. L., 297 
Evans, William H., 297, 334 
Everett, Henry A., 848 

Fabian, H. A., 263 
Fallan, B. J., 643, 679 
Farson, John, 210 
Faulk, George, 924 
Fink, J. R., 168 
Ford, A. H., 333 
Forester, J. C, 90, 130 
Foster, E. C., 168, 334 
Foster, Horatio A., 1079, 1116 
Foulkes, R. J., 168 
Franklin, C. F„ 848 
Frayer, W. D., 802 
Friend, James W., 90 
Frink, Edwin W., 802 
Furling, Clyde J., 467 

Gardiner, A. L., 802 
Gilbert, Carl B., 11 16 
Gillis, R. C, 1043 
Gillman, Cameron, 552 
Glover, M. W., 90 
Goldthwart, W. J., 848 
Goodwin, J. M., 55 
Gorman, J. B., 334 
Gowan, C. R., 887 
Graham, Geo. C, 333 
Grant, L. R., 263 
Graston, M. E., 1080 
Gray, James K, 679 
Greathead, Alfred John, 1007 
Green, E. L., 722 
Greenidge, C. A., 510 
Griffin, W. R. W., 849 
Guild, C. G., 551 
Gunn, R. T., 90 

Hamilton, "J. H., 55 
Hammett, Jr., Edward, 510 
Hargett, A. W., 510 
Harper, Morey B., 510 
Harrigan, B. H., 848 
Harrigan, J. R., 90 
Harvey, G. A., 90 
Hawes, Fred M., 262 
Hayden, C. P., 643 
Healy, F. A., 11 16 
Hepburn, E. T., 802 

Hepburn, F. T., 849 
Hering, Joshua W., 1043 
Hewitt, J. H., 551 
Hibbard, M. L., 1043 
Mile, Chas. H., *6 4 3 
Hoagland, H. C, 297, 427 
Hock, Charles E., 1079 
Holderman, L. E., 55 
Holmgren, Gustaf, 467 
Horton, John T., 263 
Howard, E. G., 90 
Hubbard, Chas. E., 129, 510 
Hume, Fred, 333 
Hungerford, Edward, 16S 
Huntington, H. E., 263 

Jackson, Prof. D. C, 297 
Jeffries, G. K., 129 
Johnson, Chas. O., 762 
Jones, John A., 90 
Jones, Paul R., 1 1 1 6 
Jones, John P., 11 16 
Jones, S. J., 427 
Jordan, Joseph, 333 

Kamschulte, H. B., 468 
Katterheinrich, A., 168 
Kehoe, M. J., 551 
Reiser, W. N., 802 
Keller, E., 90 
Kelley, F. G., 960 
Kelsey, E. R., 721 
Kelsh, W. J., 90 
Kennedy, A. C, 55 
Kerr, Walter C, 888 
King, J. J., 961 
KirchhofT, Charles, 169 
Kirk, E. B.,-468 
Kneedler, H. S., 467 
Knowlen, J. F., 297 
Kock, Albert, 129 

Lahrmer, John F., 90 
Laird, Philip- D., 802 
Lavelle, J. T., 761 
Lawrence, F. W., 55 
Leach, Thomas A., 333, 467 
Leary, M. J., 129 
Lenhart, C. E., 168, 297 
Levinson, L. M., 721, 761. 1 1 1 6 
Ligon, Robert E., 55 
Lincoln, Fred H., *i3o 
Linn (Jr.), Arthur L., 262 
List, A. S., 1116 
Longino, B. T., 848 
Lott, P. M., 1 1 1 6 
Lucas, Edward, 1116 
Lynde, L. E., 848, 1007 

McAssey, F. W., 679 
McClary, J. B., 334 
McCoy, N. C, 510 
McCray, L. H., 643, *68o 
McDaniel, William, 129 
McDonald, A. D., 129 
McDonnell, Edw., 924 
MacKay, H. W., 722 
McKinley, W. B., 761 
McLean, E. S., 373 
McLenegan, Saml. B., 551 
McLimont, A. W., 849 
McNeely, J. W., 262 
Mahony, J. J., 552 
Maltbie, Milo Roy, 262 
Massengale, Lee, 887 
Mathes, L. D., *8o2 
Maxwell, E. P., 1043 
Meredith, Bert, 129 
Miller, A. D., 551 

Miller, G. E., 129, 209 
Mills, J. S., 297 
Minzesheimer, L. F., 468 

Mooney, Fred J., 1079 
Moore, Sharp G., 168 
Morrison, Jr., Robert, 887 
Mortimer, James D., 373 
Muny, C. T., 721 
Murray, Chas., 924 
Myers, William, 960 

Nash, L. C, 168 
Neiswender, 1043 
Newton, O. S., 90 
Noyes, H. B., 427 

Olmsted, Elmer S., 373 
Osborne, Thomas M., 263 
Osborne, M. B., 90 
Osmer, J. E., 168 

Page, Walter B., 679 

Paine, Waldo G., 467 

Palmer, Russell, 11 16 

Parker, John C, 467 

Payne, Frank E., 90, 761 

Payne, Frank W., 130 

Pearce, Judge James Alfred, 762 

Pearson Charles, 11 16 

Peterson, P. N., 1043 

Pharo, H. A., 168 

Phillips, Benjamin, 427 

Porter, Geo. F., 849 

Powell, D. C, 721 

Pulliam, J. P., 90, 169, 1043 

Quackenbush, Geo., 374 

Radcliffe, Geo. L., 427, * 4 68 
Rapp, F. C, 1043 
Reardon, J. F., 209 
Reidhead, F. E., 55, 90 
Rennick, Alex., 297 
Richey, Prof. Albert S., 1044 
Richmond, C. G., 427 
Riddle, Samuel, 297 
Ridlen, Stephen, 679 
Robinson, Fred. Mortimer, 762 
Robinson, Sir C, 374 
Rockwell, H. B., 1079 
Rose, George G., 333 
Roseman, H. H., 297 
Ross, J. T., 680 
Rothermel, Miss S. M., 1044 
Rothery, J. C, 924 
Ruff, A. L., 1079, 1 1 16 
Ryan, C. Nelson, 467 
Ryan, M. F., 169 

Sanders, H. L., 168 
Satterlee, W. A., 848 
Scofield, Ira P., 721 
Scoville, Allen P., 468 
Schenck, Charles, 169 
Schmidt, Emit G., 427, 960 
Schneider, E. F., 55, 130 
Scribner, G. Hilton, 130 
Seagrave, A. R., 1080 
Seip, W. H., 55 
Seely, Garrett T., 262 
Sewall, H. B., 55 
Sewill, J. E., 924 
Shaw, James F., 1043 
Shaw, Alex, 467 
Shelton, T. W., 960 
Shippy, Henry L., 130 
Shoup, Paul, 802 
Sigler, Charles, 209, 427 
Skinner, John J., 129 

Slichter, Walter I., 887 

Smeaton, James H., 1043 

Smith, Clement C, 90, '210 

Smith, R. R., 297 

Smith, W. A., 168 

Snell, August G., 11 16 

Snow, Wm. A., 849 - 

Somers, C. E., 55 

Speidel, Joseph , 1116 

Sprague. A. R. K., 961 

Staal, Geo. F., 551 

Stanley. Albert 1L, 373 

Stanley, John J., 721 

Starring, Mason B., 643 

Sterneberg, A. E., 263 

Stetson, Albert, 468 

Stevens, John F., 960 

Stevens, P. P., 510 

Stewart, W. F. Bay, *i69, 210, 262 

Stitzer, A. B., 1007 

Stockberger, F. L., 55 

Stone, E. F., 643 

Storrs, L. S., 427 

Stowe, Lyman Beecher, 209 

Straub, S. S., 679 

Sullivan, C. O., 90 

Sullivan, J. J., 262 

Sullivan, W. A., 761 

Sutherland, E. R., 427 

Talbot, Guy W., 887, 960 
Taylor, Chas. E., 1043 
Thirlwall, J. C, 129 
Tillman, R. H., 333 
Torner, J. V. H., 848 
Towne, W. F., *go 
Trueman, Milton, 427 
Turner, J. F., 679, 761 
Tuttle, W. B.. *ioo7 1 
Twining, W. S., '961 

Uebelacher, C. F., 887 

Vansant, R. H., 510 
Venning, F. J., 169 
Vosburgh, L. F., 333 

Wadsworth, Wm. H., 373, 643 
Wakeman, J. M., 334, i"6 
Walborn, Ira C, 1043 
Walker, James, 643. 
Watts, F. W., 887, 924 
Wells, A. B., 90 
Wells, Charles B., 55 
West, O. H., 643 
Wheatly, W. W., 887 
Whinery, Samuel, 334 
Whipple, Cyrus A., 334 
Whitney, W. S., 129 
Wickersham, L. B., 960 
Wiebenson, Edward, 680 
Wilkinson, C. A., 802 
Wilmot, W. E., 333 , 
Williams, George R., 55 
Wilson, H. M., 334 
Winch, Stuart O., 262 
Winter, Charles, 679 
Winter, E. W., 209 
Wolcott, Townsend, 849 
Wood, Franklin P., 643 
Woodard, W. O., 373 
Wright, Chas., 802 

Yount, J. M., 1044 
Zimmerman, W. H., 262 

* Portrait. 

Electric Railway Journal 


Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 



McGraw Publishing Company 

230 West Thirty-ninth Street, New York 
James H. McGraw, President. 
J. M. Wakeman, ist Vice-President. A. E. Clifford, 2d Vice-President. 

Curtis E. Whittlesey, Secretary and Treasurer. 
Telephone Call: 4700 Bryant. Cable Address: Stryjourn, New York. 

Henry W. Blake, Editor. 
L. E. Gould, Western Editor. Rodney Hitt, Associate Editor. 

Frederic Nicholas, Associate Editor. 

Chicago Office 590 Old Colony Building 

Cleveland Office 1015 Schofield Building 

Philadelphia Office Real Estate Trust Building 

European Office. .. .Hastings House, Norfolk St., Strand, London, Eng. 

For 52 weekly issues, and daily convention issues published from time 
to time in New York City or elsewhere: United States, Cuba and Mexico, 
$3.00 per year; Canada, $4.50 per year; all Other Countries, $6.00 per 
year. Foreign subscriptions may be sent to our European office. 

Requests for changes of address should be made one week in advance, 
giving old as well as new address. Date on wrapper indicates the month 
at the end of which subscription expires. 


Changes of advertising copy should reach this office ten days in advance 
of date of issue. New advertisements will be accepted up to Tuesday 
noon of the week of issue. 

Copyright, 1909, by McGraw Publishing Company. 

Entered as second-class matter at the post office at New York, N. Y. 

Of this issue of the Electric Railway Journal 10,500 copies 
are printed. 



Central States Interurbarj, Map i 

Electric Railway Growth in the Western States i 

The Electric Railway Situation 2 

Engineering Developments of the Year 3 

Electric Lighting of Cars 4 

Presentation of Grievances 5 

The Electric Railway Situation: A Review of the Problems of the 

Year 6 

Convention Souvenir Number of German Street Railway Paper 31 

Electric Railway Rolling Stock Ordered in 1909 32 

New Electric Track Construction in 1909 34 

Heavy Electric Traction Projects in 1909 36 

Swiss Railways at the End of 1907 38 

Recent Work of the German Street & Interurban Railway Association 38 

Interurban Progress in the Central States 40 

Receiverships and Foreclosure Sales in 1909 41 

Pay-as- You-Enter Cars in Baltimore, Md 42 

Results on the English Electrified Steam Roads 43 

Hearing on Side Door Cars in New York 44 

The Brill Prizes for Senior Theses 45 

Program of 1910 Convention of International Street & Interurban Rail- 
way Association ' 45 

Low Tension Feeder Calculations for Street Railways 46 

Revision of Indiana Code of Interurban Rules 46 

Consolidation of Chicago South Side Surface Railways 47 

The Entz Booster Abroad 47 

A New Insulating Tape 48 

Portable Inspection Test Set 48 

Car Disinfectant 48 

Operating Costs of the Third Avenue Gasoline-Electric Car 48 

London Letter 49 

New.' of Electric Railways 50 

Financial and Corporate 51 

Traffic and Transportation 53 

Personal Mention 55 

Construction News 50 

Manufactures and Supplies 58 

Table of Traction Earnings 60 

Central States Interurban Map 

A new map is always of interest, and the electric railway- 
groups of the North Central States readily lend themselves 
to graphic presentation. No city of any size and hardly a 
county in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and lower Michigan and Wis- 
consin is without its electric railway mileage. Some of the 
principal centers are even linked with more than one electric 
route. As a part of this issue we present a map which clearly 
shows the extent of electric interurban railway development 
in the Central States. It is noteworthy that, with a break of 
but 22 miles, and that now nearing closure, travel is possible 
on electric cars from Sheboygan, Wis., 52 miles north of Mil- 
waukee, across the North Central States and into Central New 
York. Less than 50 miles of construction will complete the 
electric route from St. Louis to Chicago and the East. Several 
times electric cars have taken parties from Louisville, Ky., 
north to Detroit, Mich., and passengers might have journeyed 
125 miles farther north to Bay City, had this extension of the 
trip been desired. The growth of the industry which has made 
these statements possible is not slackening. We look forward 
to seeing in the new year Canada linked electrically with the 
United States through the tunnels under the Detroit River. 
Missouri also will soon be joined with Illinois by interurban 
service over the new Mississippi River bridge at St. Louis, an 
electric railway enterprise. All these extensions are shown on 
the new map, and it is well worth while to examine the entire 
territory and so gain a new impression of the magnitude of 
the electric railway development. 

Electric Railway Growth in the Western States 

In 1909 the electric railways of the Rocky Mountain and the 
Pacific Coast States made substantial progress not only in 
extensions but in largely increased facilities for handling 
traffic on established lines. The West is large, and only a small 
part of the opportunity awaiting the investor has been grasped. 
The vast territory of the Pacific slope now is only beginning 
to receive the benefits of the rapidly increasing influx of set- 
tlers from the East that is following the remarkable revival 
shown by all lines of business in the West. 

Only a few of the more densely populated business centers 
1 if tlic Western States are linked by electric railways. These 
cities have excellent local transportation facilities, which hav>- 
been largely instrumental in the rapid urban expansion char 
ac'teristic of the Far West, and scarcely one of these electric 
railway systems stood still during the recent lean period. 

The great variety of operating methods in vogue in the 
Far West commands interest, as do Hie numerous undertakings 
that are novel from the viewpoint of the engineer. As typi- 
cal examples of recent development in the Western electric 
railway field several interesting projects may he cited. In the 



[Vol. XXXV. No. i. 

Rocky Mountain State of Colorado an example of heavy elec- 
tric railroading is found on the Denver-Boulder division of the 
Colorado & Southern steam railway system. This division has 
been in electric operation since May, 1909, and to an engineer 
is particularly interesting because 11,000-volt current is dis- 
tributed direct to the cars from a catenary supported trolley, 
without the use of step-down transformer stations. Traffic 
conditions on this road are largely indicative of many Western 
properties. The electric service so built up the passenger 
traffic during the first season of operation that not enough cars 
were available for handling the loads, even though steam 
coaches were borrowed and used as trailers. This upbuild- 
ing of traffic is, of course, characteristic of any electric line, 
and shows that electric service will initiate traffic in territory 
where the residents never before used parallel steam railroad 

West of the Rocky Mountains, in the Salt Lake valley, sim- 
ilar electric railway conditions are found. The Utah Light & 
Railway Company has just completed rebuilding the Salt Lake 
City street railway system. Those in charge of the property 
are placing its operation on a most up-to-date basis, with new 
cars, shops, car houses, power stations and, most important of 
all, a new "work together" spirit. The growth of population 
in the Salt Lake valley has been so steady and local travel 
has so increased that a 40-mile standard-gage steam line, the 
Salt Lake & Ogden, is now being equipped for electrical opera- 
tion between the cities whose names it bears. Also a quarry 
road, extending 14 miles up a canyon east from Salt Lake 
City, a year ago found it profitable to electrify, and now enjoys 
a steady passenger traffic, where before only rock was hauled. 
These roads and others have shown and will continue to dem- 
onstrate that in the West as well as in the East, though per- 
haps to a greater degree, an electric road will greatly stimulate 
traffic or originate it where there was none before. 

Journeying now into the Northwest, we find communities 
whose existence is dependent entirely upon the development 
of their natural resources by transportation facilities. Several 
such districts, large in extent, have no means of transporta- 
tion other than by electricity. Such conditions of dependence 
on electric transportation are found in the Inland Empire 
country south of Spokane, Wash., in the environs of Van- 
couver, B. C, near Seattle and Tacoma, on the Puget Sound, 
and in the district of which Portland, Ore., is the center. In 
each of these communities population and electric transporta- 
tion facilities have advanced hand in hand. One year a trol- 
ley line is built out of a big city and into a country almost 
desolate of human inhabitants. The road is advertised — they 
do that well in the West — and a year later, because of in- 
creased traffic, the schedule of cars has to be boosted. We 
recall one road, now parti)- built, which will extend 63 miles 
straightaway into the woods and river prairies of lower British 
Columbia. A good portion of the cleared right-of-way of 
this line looks almost like a mountain canyon with the tall 
timber on either side. Conservative estimates based on earlier 
experience show that this road will haul enough lumber out 
of the woods and transport enough household goods and sup- 
plies into the newly opened territory to pay operating ex- 
penses from the start, and with practically no initial popula- 
tion. As fast as the timber is cleared market gardens flourish 
and passenger traffic follows. 

In California numerous lines might be indicated, any one of 
which has been instrumental in bringing about largely increased 
settlement of the nearby agricultural and residence districts. 
Of course, other roads unfortunately have been built across 
ranches many thousand acres in extent which have not been 
subdivided, and therefore the growth of traffic in these local- 
ities awaits the time when legal or personal barriers will per- 
mit the parceling of the land to newcomers. 

Los Angeles and its nearby neighbors offer an example of a 
most wonderful electric railway growth brought about by 
favorable natural conditions of land, sea and sky. Here a 
suburban business has been developed that requires the opera- 
tion of more than 1200 large double-truck interurban cars, and 
many passengers are hauled 40 miles twice a day. The elec- 
tric railroads in and about Los Angeles have struggled to 
meet the demands of travel, and now, in spite of what in the 
East would be considered an abnormal development, construc- 
tion work is still in progress. 

These conditions, indicative of the growth of electric travel 
in the West, are not overdrawn. When one begins to build an 
electric road in a Far Western community he must be pre- 
pared to keep up with a marvelous growth in population. Ex- 
perience has shown this condition to be true from the Rocky 
Mountains to the Pacific Coast and from British Columbia to 

The Electric Railway Situation 

Revival in business has minimized somewhat the conditions 
which have been disturbing elements in the electric railway 
situation, but it cannot remove them entirely, and they still 
remain problems for solution. The revival in industrial condi- 
tions, which has gained greater strength in substantially all 
parts of the country, has restored the gross revenues of elec- 
tric lines to normal levels, and the decreases or irregular gains 
of the last few years are succeeded by the consistent improve- 
ment in gross earning power which is the expected attribute of 
electric railway operation. 

The turn of the year is an appropriate time for retrospect, 
calm judgment and prophecy. When the events of the last 12 
months are considered from the historical point of view it be- 
comes plain that they can best be treated through the columns 
of the Electric Railway Journal by discussion and statistics. 
While the problems of the electric railway industry as the new 
year opens are not radically different in kind from those that 
prevailed at the beginning of 1909, they have been altered some- 
what in degree; and it is the progress toward solution and 
the need of proper consideration of the great questions involved 
that the contributors to the symposium in this issue discuss. 
A reading of the various expressions of opinion concerning 
"The Electric Railway Situation" shows a general appreciation 
of similar conditions which demand attention in all sections of 
the country. 

When the problems are analyzed it is seen that their exist- 
ence is due in part to faults and mistakes of the past and in 
part to causes that are economic in nature and beyond the con- 
trol of the railways. The object of the review of the year, 
which occupies so large a part of this first issue of 1910, is to 
present the railway point of view of the existing difficulties. 
The questions considered are applicable, in varying measure, 
to properties of -;very character and in every locality. 

January i, 1910.] 



With some of these properties an improvement has been 
made in various directions which point to ultimate distinct 
betterment in conditions; with others a keen appreciation of 
the necessities of the situation has been essential first in order 
that plans might be made to overcome, if possible, the effect 
of the development of increased costs and public demands. 
In a number of communities definite steps have been taken to 
increase fares, reduce transfer abuse, or remedy other condi- 
tions which were plainly in error, and in other cities pre- 
liminary plans for improvement are well under way. 

The review of the problems of the year contained in this 
number was compiled with the idea that the best interests of 
the industry would be served if the material published should 
deal largely with problems which are common to all properties 
rather than with questions which are purely local. Yet the fact 
is that the most important questions affecting any one property 
are either of immediate concern to all the others or will require 
attention eventually. One of the real problems which is before 
the leaders of the industry is whether each property shall work 
out its own salvation or its failure as best it may, or whether 
the serious questions can be answered with better advantage 
to all by an inquiry on behalf of the combined properties, say 
through the American Street & Interurban Railway Associa- 
tion. This view of the subject is taken by Mr. Sergeant, who 
concludes his careful study of the problems of the times with 
the definite recommendation that the American Association 
make a searching inquiry into the cost of doing business under 
different circumstances and in different localities in order that 
a true basis for the establishment of fares may be deter- 
mined. Mr. Ford thinks it is questionable whether in large 
cities, with unlimited transfers, the 5-cent flat fare provides as 
much as a reasonable rate of return. 

In any inquiry that may be undertaken concerning the cost 
of the service the element of value of the service should also 
be taken into account. Where there is extreme and assured 
density of traffic, month by month and year in and year out, 
the cost of the service, if full protection of all the property 
rights involved is certain, may be fairly regarded as a greater 
element in such an inquiry 'than in communities where the 
population is so small that consideration of the cost alone 
would not attract the investment required. Fares are more 
nearly uniform than costs of furnishing the service; and save 
where the system of accounts is prescribed by law the costs of 
providing the service are not determined by the same methods. 
If the costs of performing the service, if the elements which 
should be taken into account are questions upon which no 
analytical inquiry has been brought- to bear by the companies 
themselves, the results of inaction may be seen in more experi- 
mental public inquiries of the nature of that which has just 
been imposed in Cleveland. 

It is possible here to refer only incidentally to some of the 
questions discussed by the authors of the valuable papers pub- 
lished elsewhere in this issue. It should be added that the 
contributors to the symposium represent typical and prominent 
properties so located geographically as to give a representation 
to nearly every part of the United States and to most of the 
leading associations, as well as to widely differing classes of 
properties. We realize thai many of our readers are students 
of the vital questions involved, and we offer our columns at 
any time for further discussion of these or kindred topics. 

Passing to the statistical features of this number, attention 
will be directed to the figures of new track construction, which 
indicate a falling off as compared with the previous year. The 
returns are not complete, owing to the failure of some com- 
panies to respond to continued solicitation, but other causes are 
more directly responsible for the discrepancy. The figures of 
1908 contained a large amount of new track construction, which 
was started before the panic and therefore had to be carried to 
completion to avoid heavy loss. This is true with respect both 
to extensions of existing properties and to new roads. New 
track construction is usually planned a year or two in advance, 
and since the financial and business conditions were not wholly 
propitious in 1908 for enterprises involving large outlays of 
capital, the effect is manifest in the returns for 1909. Our 
records as compiled, therefore, show an aggregate of 887.16 
miles of new track construction during 1909. The returns from 
the same companies, however, show that the existing roads 
which made reports contemplate the construction of 1765 miles 
of new track during 1910. This figure, of course, makes no 
allowance for the total on account of projected properties 
that will carry their plans to completion during the present 

Engineering Developments of the Year 

Articles elsewhere in this issue describe the accomplishment 
in each branch of electric railway engineering in this country 
during the past year, and while all agree that there is nothing 
which can be considered as spectacular, the work undertaken 
has been solid and affords good foundation for future de- 
velopment. We had hoped that during the past 12 months 
a closer definition would have been made of the proper prov- 
inces and limitations of the four principal systems of electric 
operation, low-tension direct-current, high-tension direct-cur- 
rent, single-phase and three-phase. That this was not so may 
have been due to the fact that the number of new undertakings 
in which there was real opportunity for a choice was limited. 
On the other hand, the converse is equally true. Until the lead- 
ing electrical engineers of the country are in closer agreement 
as to what can be done, and even what has been accomplished, 
so far as these different systems of electric traction are con- 
cerned, the managements of large corporations will be unwill- 
ing to make radical changes. The only large installation in 
which a choice of" systems was reached this year was that of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad for its New York station and tunnels, 
and here the decision to confine electric operation to a limited 
terminal zone and the fact that the Long Island Railroad, which 
will also use the station and tunnels, was already far advanced 
in the work of converting its suburban tracks for low-voltage 
direct-current operation, made the selection of this system 
practically a necessity. The cause of steam railroad electri- 
fication in a new field of mountain grade operation has hern 
advanced also by the successful initiation of the service of 
three-phase locomotives in the Cascade tunnel of the Great 
Northern Railway. 

In electric locomotive design the use of side rods probably 
constitutes the most noteworthy improvement made during the 
year. It would be unsafe to say that the geared locomotive is 
doomed. It will undoubtedly be employed very generally in 
the future, but for heavy high-speed service the advantages 
of greater available space for motors, better distribution of 



[Vol. XXXV. No. i. 

equipment and the reduction of dead weight on the axle which 
are gained by the use of side-rod connections more than coun- 
terbalance the slightly greater mechanical complications. In 
motors intended for heavy duty, as well as in generators, 
greater attention has been directed to increasing the output by 
forced ventilation, the practical result of which is the use of 
much smaller and less costly machines at a slightly increased 
cost of operation. The commutating pole motor is peculiarly 
adapted to operation with forced ventilation owing to its perfect 
commutation under extreme overloads. The limiting factor 
in the design of motors of this type is now the capacity "of the 
insulation on the windings to resist high temperatures for long 
periods without deterioration. 

Passing now to standard equipments for urban and interurban 
roads, the use of interpole motors is growing, possibly because 
of the increased interest in high-tension direct-current systems 
of distribution. With these motors there should be a reduction 
in commutator trouble, the most prolific cause for complaint 
in electrical equipments. These motors, of course, are equally 
well adapted for standard potentials. Multiple-unit control, in 
which the motor current is broken in contactors under the car 
body instead of in the controller on the platform, is also being 
more widely used for heavy interurban equipment, regardless 
of any immediate intention to begin train operation. So far 
as the rest of the car equipment is concerned, the most impor- 
tant subject for debate during the past year has been in regard 
to the design and in decreasing the weight of the car body. 
There is no doubt that general sentiment now favors a lighter 
car, certainly for city service, than was the case a few years 
ago, and that such a car can be constructed with due regard to 
strength is an opinion generally held. Closer scrutiny is being 
paid also to the weights of the parts carried on the car. The 
question of design, as distinguished from construction, ha-; 
been practically confined to the different forms of prepayment 
entrances, and while no one form can be considered a stand- 
ard, it is safe to say that the desirability of the prepayment 
idea for city roads is now settled. The plan has not yet been 
extended to any extent to the interurban field, and the line of 
demarcation as to its usefulness as regards cars in large cities 
and those on smaller systems and in suburban service has not 
been very closely drawn. Possibly next year there will be a 
different story. 

In overhead construction there has been a distinct tendency 
toward the use of catenary work wherever a fair rate of speed 
is used. The adoption of this class of construction, and also 
of higher trolley wire potentials, has had a stimulating reflex 
action on the improvement of overhead insulation and appli- 

In power stations perhaps the most important development 
of the year has been the establishment of the exhaust steam 
turbine as practicable and economically desirable. Rateau, and 
possibly others, called attention several years ago to the pecu- 
liar fitness of the turbine for use with low-pressure steam, but 
it has principally been during 1909 that the results secured 
from the operation of such machines in railway power stations 
in Philadelphia and New York have become available. In 
steam turbines also the evidences of the trend to gain greater 
initial and operating economy by the construction of larger 
units are apparent. 

In track construction, open-hearth steel is being favorably 

considered in place of Bessemer steel for rails. The use of T- 
rail in paved streets is not meeting with as much opposition 
as formerly from city engineers, and its advantages from the 
standpoint of the railway companies are being more generally 
appreciated. Standardization of rail sections, although much 
discussed during the year, made little real progress. Preserva- 
tive treatment for ties has attracted the attention of many 
track engineers more forcibly than ever before on account of 
the increasing price of timber. The cost of preservative treat- 
ment is slowly decreasing and facilities for applying it are being 
extended all over the country. 

Outside of the electric trolley car the chief candidate for 
favor is the car driven by gasoline, either directly by an in- 
ternal combustion engine or through the medium of a self- 
contained engine and electric generator in the car body and 
motors on the axles. The gasoline car has undoubtedly gained 
favor during the past year, not so much because of the number 
of installations, which have been few, but because of the de- 
sire for an independent unit, and also because of the general 
recognition of the efficiency and reliability of the gasoline en- 
gine. As yet the use of the new cars has been confined chiefly 
to installations where the trolley system is out of the question, 
as in some of the narrow streets of New York and on cross- 
country lines of very light traffic. It is safe to say that the 
gasoline car will never replace the trolley car where the head- 
way between cars is short. But for light suburban railway lines 
there is opportunity for its use, though the burden of the 
proof of its adaptability for this service is still on its advo- 

Electric Lighting of Cars 

The recent hearings before the Public Service Commission 
with respect to the lighting of the subway and elevated rail- 
way cars in New York City, resulting in the decision by the 
Interborough Company to return to the 16-cp plain incandescent 
lamp bulbs originally used in the cars, again remind us of the 
backward state of car lighting as compared with the refinements 
which during the past few years have been introduced into the 
art of interior illumination. 

Railway cars, both steam and electric, are still illuminated, 
with few exceptions, in the same general manner as they have 
always been. The transition from kerosene lamps to Pintsch 
gas on steam railroads, though gradual, has been general, but 
it has been effected with no particular change in the location 
and distribution of the sources of light. Electric car lighting, 
beginning in the early days of the trolley on very similar lines, 
was improved a little, perhaps, by the fact that single lamp 
fixtures are more readily distributed throughout the car in 
electric lighting than in gas lighting. But even in the most 
modern and carefully developed instances of electric car light- 
ing in vogue in interurban and rapid transit electric cars, the 
location and distribution of the lighting units is far from 
satisfactory, from the standpoint of the passenger who desires 
to read while riding, without fatiguing the eyes. And if one 
does not wish to read, but desires simply to rest, as is fre- 
quently the habit of long distance travelers and suburban com- 
muters late at night, the long vista of glowing filaments be- 
comes an annoyance little short of intolerable, no matter how 
comfortable the seats or how agreeable the temperature of the 
car interior. The difficulty is, of course, inherent in the dis- 

January i, 1910.] 



tribution of the lighting units, in a long compartment with a 
low ceiling, and usually a dark background. 

Two years ago there was only one device on the market 
which indicated any tendency toward diffusing and softening 
the light for car illumination, and the price asked for it was 
practically prohibitive, in competition with the ordinary sys- 
tem. The various attempts to utilize prismatic glass shades 
are not radically different in conception from former ideas, 
and in practice have not so far shown themselves to be a 
generally acceptable solution. The fact that even the most 
recently designed motor cars show no signs of departure from 
the former practice seems to indicate either a lack of interest 
among electric railway equipment engineers in tackling a hard 
problem, or a lack of disposition on the part of the manu- 
facturers to take practical steps away from the beaten path. 

If one wishes to determine the extent to which illumination, 
when good, is used on cars let him look in a well lighted car 
and see the number of people who are reading papers. We 
believe those so occupied will average 50 per cent of the pas- 
sengers during all the hours in which the lamps are used, 
whether the car is an electric car or a steam railroad coach. It 
is a fact, however, that in steam railroad car lighting, progress 
towards anything better than the oil lamp was extremely slow, and 
was inspired more by considerations of safety from fire than by 
any particular regard for the eyesight of the passenger. It is, 
therefore, not surprising that the lighting of electric cars should 
be treated from a similar point of view. We venture to be- 
lieve, however, that the time has now arrived for the expendi- 
ture of some intelligent work on car illumination by equipment 
engineers. As the present system is defective not in the quan- 
tity of light but in the manner of its distribution, the cost of 
an improved system should not be greatly, if any, in excess of 
that now in use. Even at a slight increase in cost we believe 
that many railway companies would look upon any real im- 
provement as upon any other step to attract travel by making 
the cars more attractive. The field should prove a fruitful one 
for the inventor. 

Presentation of Grievances 

We believe that every broad-minded electric railway man- 
ager is pleased to have real grievances, for which his company 
is responsible, brought to his attention, whether they affect the 
public or his own employees. No one is omniscient, and if the 
hardships are real they should be remedied or ameliorated if 
possible. If this cannot be done, the situation should be ex- 
plained to those making the complaints, whether they are 
within or without the organization. In dealing with the class 
of grievances which relate to employees, many managers have 
adopted the practice of appointing a committee to listen to ac- 
counts of alleged defects in the service, or, where the manager 
himself attends to these matters, of having a committee of 
employees present directly to him the claims which require his 
attention. Where either plan is followed it is the obvious duty 
of the person presenting the grievances to be sure that his cause 
is just Otherwise, he puts himself as well as his complaint in 
a ridiculous light. 

A short time ago a representative of this paper was present 
during a discussion between the general manager of a large 
Western property, comprising both intcrurban and city divi- 
sions, and a committee from a group of carmen who were em- 
ployed at a small city division and were urging the cause of 

one of their number, the president of their local organization, 
who had been discharged for running his car over several steam 
railroad crossings without flagging them. Two members of 
the committee repeatedly called the attention of the general 
manager to the high grade of the men who make up their body, 
and emphasized the earnest desire on the part of all the men 
to abide strictly by the rules of the company. The general 
manager whom they were addressing agreed with the com- 
mitteemen that organized men, as well as all other men, should 
be progressive and should abide by the rules. After a little 
fatherly talk on this subject by the general manager, two of 
the committeemen quickly volunteered assurance that all rules 
of the company were being observed by the men they repre- 
sented. Immediately the general manager asked one of the 
two spokesmen, both of whom were in uniform, for his rule 
book and asked the other for his pad of accident blanks. The 
company's rules, subscribed to by the men, required that both 
rule book and accident blanks should be carried whenever 
uniforms were worn. One man, who had boldly pleaded the 
cause of another that had been discharged for running railroad 
crossings, did not have his rule book. The other did not have 
his accident pad, and both were in uniform. Then followed 
a lecture from the general manager of undoubted good to the 
men, and with an obvious moral. 

This case well illustrates a statement made recently by a 
well-known railroad man, that if men persistently and mali- 
ciously break the rules of the company they cannot reasonably 
expect any organization to be successful in protecting them in 
their positions. As in any other well-regulated business, a rail- 
way system must maintain strict discipline if it is to be suc- 

We are prompted to review here some of the charges fre- 
quently calling for discipline, and charges that have placed 
soliciting committees in embarrassing situations when seeking 
the mitigation of punishment. One of these is the practice 
of giving transfers to employees riding on badges, for which, 
it is needless to say, no reasonable excuse can be offered. Un- 
der the rules of practically all companies the badge is sufficient 
for free transportation. If the employee does not desire to 
make known his identity by showing his badge, he should pay 
his fare, thus permitting the conductor to keep his own record 
clear. On another road motormen have frequently to be ad- 
monished for running ahead of time. On a steam road this 
practice would mean dismissal. Of course, the danger to life 
is not so great on a street railway, but there are excellent rea- 
sons why cars should not precede their schedule time. Prin- 
cipal among these is the desire of the transportation department 
of any company to afford a uniform and reliable schedule as a 
means for retaining the high regard of the public which it 

A paper which has for its avowed object the welfare of trans- 
portation men has said that drinking 011 duty and spending time 
in saloons are serious charges and that no committee lias been 
able to justify this most dangerous conduct — which usually re- 
sults in a grievance case being "thrown upon the mercy of the 
court." It is easy for one to hold up to the light the faults of 
another, but we may not be overstepping our province if we 
suggest that it is hardly within the province of a grievance com- 
mittee to extenuate avoidable violations of the rules. It can 
endeavor to mitigate too rigorous a regulation, but so long as a 
rule is in the books it should he enforced. 



[Vol. XXXV. No. i. 





Perhaps the most pressing question at present which is 
common to street railways in all sections of this country is the 
one of satisfying the public demands, whether they be for ex- 
tension of lines, lower fares for longer journeys, new systems 
of more rapid transit, increased taxation or payments for fran- 
chises, reduction of capital to valuation figures, or the many in- 
direct burdens of paving, bridge construction or other highway 
expenses. The problem of reconciling such demands with a 
fair wage for employees and a reasonable return to investors 
may well engage the attention of all managers. 

Nearly every one will concede in theory that capital actually 
invested is entitled to a fair return, but in practice such a 
right is not always considered by public authorities when new 
demands are made upon the railways. The most conspicuous 
example is the tendency to grant only short-term franchises. 

The enormous capital outlay required for a first-class city 
system is absolutely unjustified unless the privilege is to endure 
sufficiently long to provide for amortizing the major part of 
the investment by the provision from revenue of suitable 
sinking funds before the expiration of the franchise. 

Most railway men know that this amortization is impossible 
under ordinary American conditions, and will doubtless agree 
that investment under short-term franchises is hazardous in 
the extreme. 

There are many causes for a public opinion which is so 
mistaken as to the conditions of so important an industry, not 
the least being over-capitalization, and the exaggerated ideas 
of possible profits which have been so widely disseminated. 
Street railway investors have come to a realizing sense of the 
narrow margins of profit afforded by the business, but the gen- 
eral public needs to be enlightened. 

To this end some authentic source of information to the 
public should be supplied, and this can best be done by sys- 
tematic reports to some public board having jurisdiction. From 
such reports may be deduced the amounts invested, the costs 
of the business, the facts as to what constitutes a reasonable 
fare. Such reports should be of great value to the investor 
as well as to the public. 

One of the great factors in creating grroneous ideas of 
profits has been the failure in many instances to maintain 
suitably the property, and in still more instances the failure 
to provide from revenue for suitable maintenance. When 
necessity arose provision has too often been made from some 
reorganization or rehabilitation fund supplied by the issue of 
additional stock or bonds. 

It is probably true that upon the whole the revenue of Amer- 
ican street railways has never been charged with sums even 
approximating the actual costs of maintenance, notwithstand- 
ing the fact that due and proper maintenance is as essential to 
\the getting of revenue and to the rendering of a suitable serv- 
ice as it is to the preservation intact of the assets against 
which securities are issued. Evils of this sort would be dis- 
closed by suitable accounts and authentic reports, and rem- 
edies would then be devised and adopted. 


It is proper to ask what those remedies could be. If the 
revenue is insufficient to maintain and operate the property 
when the operation is carried on efficiently, can there be any 
other remedy than reduction of taxation or increase of fare? 

All taxation of a transportation company's business (as dis- 

tinguished from its real property) reduces its ability to serve 
the public, for which end alone it presumably exists. 

Payments for franchises and divisions of profits with city 
or State are therefore direct burdens upon the people who ride 
or ship goods. This is especially true when dividends are re- 
stricted by law to ordinary interest rates. 

With the ever-increasing waste and expense of government, 
new sources of taxation are continually sought and under such 
circumstances relief for street railways by abatement of taxa- 
tion will be difficult or impossible to obtain. 


Our last remedy lies in the increase of rates of fare. This 
may be accomplished by reduction of free transfers, by direct 
reduction of journey lengths through the establishment of 
new fare limits, or by direct increase of fare. 

The almost universal American system of a uniform 5-cent 
fare was established in the days of the short journey in a 
light-weight horse car drawn at a slow rate upon a cheap track. 
The purchasing power of 5 cents was then very much greater 
than at present, and the service rendered the public in every 
way very much less. 

Still further, the fare was not attenuated by the free trans- 
fer — a comparatively modern invention. 

The theory upon which a uniform fare rests is that of the 
postage stamp, a common payment for ail, regardless of length 
of journey. Hence the short-distance rider pays for the losses 
of carrying the long-distance rider. The company must make 
from its short journeys the expense of the long journeys, and 
any and all possible profits. It is obvious, therefore, that any 
extension of the journey of the short-distance passenger by 
free transfer or otherwise is absolutely inconsistent with the 
theory upon which a uniform fare is based. With the growth 
of cities and extension of lines to more sparsely settled tracts 
the ride of the long-distance passenger is continually increased, 
and there is no relief for the transportation company until a 
sufficient local short-distance traffic can be created by the 
growth of density in population after a lapse of much time. 

This condition must constantly tend to become worse, and is 
one of the strongest reasons for revision of fares. 

The benefits of the uniform low fare undoubtedly have been 
great from the sociological point of view, and still greater 
in the development of real estate and taxable property, but all 
at the expense of the investors in street railways, who would 
have been well advised had they long since adopted the more 
logical European system of fare rates proportioned to journey 

In Massachusetts, outside of the metropolitan district, the 
uniform fare has often been established sentimentally in re- 
sponse to the cry of "one fare in one town," frequently with- 
out any regard to the sparseness of population or the length 
of the journey. In the metropolitan district of Boston and its 
suburban cities journeys for one fare may be made to include 
a number of cities. 

The fixing and regulation of fares would seem properly to 
be a function of the owners of the street railways. It is only 
when business is performed under a public franchise that the 
owner is deprived of the right to fix the price of his wares, 
and there would seem to be very good reasons why this should 
not be the case. 

It may be argued that the franchise is a necessary prelim- 
inary in the case of public service corporations to securing 
for the general public the facilities for transportation or light- 
ing or other public services. The object of granting the fran- 
chise is not that certain investors may make money, but that 
the public may have the great benefits of the service to be 

January r, 1910.] 



provided. Full protection of the public would seem to be se- 
cured where the rate of dividend or profit to the investor is 
fixed by law. That the law should go further than this and 
undertake to determine +t v rates to be charged seems an en- 
croachment upon priv. . ^ht, and one which clearly, under 
the circumstances of legal limitation of dividends, is unneces- 
sary. Under such circumstances the owners of the property 
will be certain, either to make rates as low as possible in 
order to secure a large revenue, or to produce with their rates 
surplus revenue which may be applied to needed improvements 
in the service. The public is bound to benefit in either case, 
and it would therefore seem that the public control of rates 
should be limited only to rates which were unfair or dis- 

I believe that the question of rates in its broad sense is one 
of the most pressing and difficult problems to be solved by 
street railways ; that it necessarily involves inquiry and pub- 
licity, and therefore I would urge upon the American Street 
& Interurban Railway Association the importance of a careful 
and searching inquiry into the costs of doing business under 
different circumstances and in different localities in order that 
a true basis for the establishment of fares may be determined. 



The prosperity or success of an organization representing 
an industry can be judged by any one of several standards. 
The only proper criterion is the benefit which an association 
renders the industry which it represents. Other standards 
sometimes taken to measure the standing of an association 
are its financial condition and the size of its membership. 
Considered in any of these three aspects, the American Street 
& Interurban Railway Association has never been in more 
flourishing condition, and it is entering upon the fifth year of 
its history in better shape than ever before to serve the elec- 
tric railways of the country. The success from every stand- 
point of the Denver convention is now a matter of history, 
and every one who was in attendance will treasure it in his 
memory as one of the most pleasant as well as one of the 
most profitable ever held. It may be of interest to give here 
the figures of the attendance at that convention and at the 
previous convention in Atlantic City, which was by far the 
largest of any previously held by the association or by its 
predecessor, the American Street Railway Association. The 
membership of the association is made up very largely of 
Eastern companies, and the majority of the manufacturers of 
electric railway apparatus who exhibit at conventions live in the 
East, so that few people expected that the registration at the 
Denver convention would be anywhere near so large as that at 
Atlantic City in 1908. Nevertheless the total number which 
registered at the convention was 2800 as compared with 3300 
at the 1908 convention or a difference of only 500. It may also 
be of interest to state that since the report of the secretary and 
treasurer was presented at that convention and up to Dec. 15 
there has been a notable increase in the membership, which now 
consists of 328 active members and 900 associate members. 


In accordance with a decision reached at Denver, a mid- 
year meeting of the association will be held at the headquarters 
of the American Street & Interurban Railway Association in 
New York on Jan. 28. This meeting has been called because 
of the feeling often expressed on the convention floor and else- 
where that it is impossible with but fine meeting a year to ac- 
complish all the work of which the association is capable, or 
even for the member companies to keep in touch with the sub 
jects upon which co-operative effort is desirable. 

In one sense this midyear meeting, which will be confined to 
the American Association or parent body, will be an innovation; 
in another sense it will not be without precedent even in our 

own association because it will correspond to the joint meeting 
which has been held in New York for several years during the 
winter by the executive and other committees of the association. 
These meetings have always proved so mutually helpful and 
profitable that it is thought even greater benefit will result from 
the meeting during this January. Arrangements have been 
made for the presentation to the association at this time of 
papers by well-known members upon subjects of timely interest 
and the meeting will be preceded by sessions of various com- 
mittees of the association. 


Outside of its committee work and that accomplished at its 
midwinter and fall conventions, the activities of the association 
are represented by the work carried on continually throughout 
the year at its New York office. This office, of course, is also the 
main office of each of the affiliated associations, and owing to 
the growing needs of these organizations the demands made 
upon it are constantly increasing. This is a healthy sign and in- 
dicates a condition which we are glad to have. It is now 
proposed to add still further to the duties of the central office 
by having it keep closely in touch with the officers of the 
various State and other local street railway organizations 
throughout the country. Tentative plans by which these local 
organizations and our own can be of great assistance to each 
other have been suggested, but to define a future line of work 
invitations will be extended to each of these organizations to 
send a representative or representatives to a meeting to consider 
the subject to be held in New York on Jan. 27. At this time it 
is hoped that a plan of close co-operation, which will be mutu- 
ally beneficial, can be adopted. 


The assignment by the main association to the various 
affiliated associations of all subjects of an accounting, engineer- 
ing, claim, transportation and traffic character, leaves to the 
main organization, as its chief work, that of the broader aspects 
of the relations between the railway companies and the public 
and of the companies with their employees. So far as one can 
now look ahead, these two subjects afford sufficient scope to 
occupy the best efforts of the association for many years to 
come. Under the general subject of public relations can be 
grouped such important topics as those of national and State 
regulation in its various forms, franchise requirements, 
taxes, including the new corporation tax, publicity in its wider 
aspect, the fare question and the proper issuance and regulation 
of transfers. In the second division naturally fall questions 
relating to wages and welfare of employees, pensions, accident 
insurance, etc. There are also certain other matters of broad 
policy, such as fire insurance, which will naturally be assumed 
by the executives of the different companies and so will un- 
doubtedly come within the province of the main association. 


To assist in the solution of these questions it has been pro- 
posed that at the next annual meeting of the association half a 
day or an entire day should be devoted to addresses from men 
prominently connected with the Federal or State governments, 
financial institutions of national importance, and members of 
the bench and bar who have been giving attention to electiic 
railway problems of this kind, but. have not in the past attended 
many of our conventions. Assurances have been received from 
several of these gentlemen that they will accept invitations of 
ibis kind, if extended by the association, and it is believed that 
if a part of the time of the next annual convention should be 
devoted to a meeting of this kind it would be exceedingly 

The location of each convention in recent years has been 
determined in the spring by the executive committee, as (he re 
suit of a report made by a special committee appointed at tin' 
January midwinter meeting. As this course will probably be 
followed in connection with the 1910 meeting, it is impossible 
yet to make any announcement of the place to be selected. I 
might say, however, thai invitations have been extended to the 
association to meet in St. Louis, Saratoga, Niagara Falls, 




Atlantic City, Portland, Ore. ; Rochester, N. Y., and in one or 
two other places. 


The writer sincerely hopes that the plan of a midwinter 
meeting will meet the approval of the executives of the mem- 
ber companies and that there will be a large and enthusiastic 
attendance at the meeting on Jan. 28. 



While the past year has. not been characterized by the large 
number and magnitude of its electric railway installations, some 
of those made are of special interest as giving indication of 
the development of the industry along new and broader lines. 
To the evidence of actual installations should be added the 
papers and discussions in the various engineering societies, 
which, while largely describing apparatus already built and 
in operation, yet unfold to some extent the designs and plans 
under way fpr the present and immediate future. Taken all 
together, it is conservative to state that the electric railway 
industry has made most important advances during the year 
just passed and is now entering into untrodden fields of great 


One of the controlling reasons for the broader outlook is 
undoubtedly found in the preparedness of the manufacturing 
companies to furnish the more powerful machinery required 
to meet the demand for larger generating and transforming 
units operating at greater efficiency and still higher potentials. 
Nowhere is this shown to such an extent as in the construction 
of electric locomotives capable of replacing the largest and 
most powerful steam locomotives that 80 years of development 
has perfected. 

The placing on the market of turbo-generator units of 18,000 
kw capacity, rotary converters of 3000 kw, transformers of 
10,000 kw, operating at practically any line potential asked for,' 
and of switchboard apparatus able to control reliably any ag- 
gregation of these units, has resulted only in effecting econo- 
mies in generating and distributing systems and increasing 
their radius of usefulness. The development of electric rail- 
way rolling stock has, however, continually opened up new 
fields until now when the limitations of the steam locomotives 
are being most acutely felt upon our increasingly congested 
trunk lines, the electric locomotive is so far perfected and 
proven successful in the daily operation of the electrified divi- 
sions of several well-known steam roads, that the most con- 
servative must admit its fitness for certain classes of service. 


The electrification of steam roads presents a problem of such 
tremendous importance that interest naturally centers in the 
progress made in this direction. In this connection attention 
is drawn to the installation of electric locomotives at Cascade 
Tunnel on the Great Northern Railway, fully described in 
die paper by Dr. Hutchinson before the American Institute 
of Electrical Engineers. This is our first example of large 
electric locomotives being used on mountain grades, and the 
immediate reason for their adoption in this case was the 
desire to eliminate the dangers of steam locomotive operation 
through an unventilated tunnel over 2 miles long. It is 
worthy of note, however, that the installation, is of such a 
character that it is readily adapted to extension over the 
entire Cascade Mountain division of the Great Northern. 

It is evident that the Western roads offer a particularly 
attractive field for the operation of electric locomotives on 
their mountain divisions. The conditions are none too favor- 
able for steam locomotive operation, and double tracking to 
avoid congestion is a much more expensive way to gain in- 
creased track capacity than electrification. That the present 
Great Northern installation is but the forerunner of another 

of much greater magnitude was indicated by Mr. Sprague in his 
discussion of Dr. Hutchinson's paper. 


A considerable variety of locomotive construction has been 
offered. The Great Northern locomotives comprise four 
three-phase induction motors mounted on two four-wheel 
bogie trucks articulated. The Detroit River tunnel locomotives 
are of much the same construction, with, however, 600-volt d. c. 
motors in place of three-phase induction motors. In both types 
of locomotives, the motors transmit their torque to the axles 
through twin gears and the feasibility of this form of con- 
struction appears to have been demonstrated. 

While side-rod locomotives have been in use for some time 
in Europe, it was not until this past year that the first experi- 
mental unit of this type appeared in Schenectady, followed by 
the completion of the first Westinghouse locomotive for the 
Pennsylvania tunnels, also of the side-rod type. In both of 
these locomotives, the motors are mounted on the side frames, 
housed in the superstructure and transmit their power to the 
driving axles through intervening side rods and a counter- 
shaft. They thus pattern largely after standard steam loco- 
motive construction, the cylinders being replaced by electric 

The advantages of side-rod construction appear three-fold, 
greater motor capacity made possible with the larger space 
available above the axles, higher center of gravity and all 
motor construction spring supported on the side frames. For 
moderate outputs per axle, the axle motor, either geared or 
gearless depending upon the speed, probably offers a type of 
construction that is most efficient both in first cost and cost of 
operation. Together with the steam locomotive boiler, how- 
ever, the axle motor suffers by reason of the space restrictions 
imposed by a 4-ft. 8^4-in. gage. Mounting motors in the super- 
structure gives the additional motor space needed for units of 
large output and at the same time gives a better riding loco- 

Present developments have not clearly defined the limita- 
tions of side-rod construction. The advantages enumerated 
are obtained at the expense of a considerable increase in 
weight and cost, together with a decreased efficiency over 
types of locomotive construction possible with geared and 
gearless axle motors. Continued developments may, however, 
result in a more efficient utilization of material, sufficient to 
eliminate cost of construction as a controlling factor. 

Both steam and electric locomotives of recent construction 
give evidence of the acceptance of the necessity of leading 
or guiding trucks, preferably a four-wheel guiding truck for 
locomotives designed for high speeds. While this adds to 
the weight and cost, it undoubtedly increases the reliability in 
operation and will probably be seen in future designs of large 

To add to the perplexity of those endeavoring to solve the 
single-phase vs. d. c. motor tangle, come the tidings of the 
complete success of the Great Northern installation. While it 
is true that this is an a. c. installation, it employs, three-phase 
induction motors and double overhead trolley, and while thus 
differing from all other installations in this country, it appears 
from Dr. Hutchinson's paper well fitted to fulfill the service 

There are thus three types of motors which have been 
given commercial trial in the haulage of trunk line trains, 
the single-phase and three-phase motors utilizing alternating 
current and the 600-volt d. c. motor. The two former are 
particularly adapted for trunk line operation by reason of the 
high trolley potential that can be used. Indeed, the direct cur- 
rent motor would have been hopelessly distanced in the race 
for recognition in mountain road electrification had it not 
been for the continued development of the commutating pole 
motor with its higher voltage possibilities. 

The 1200-volt d. c. motor equipments operating or in con- 
struction in this country aggregate 60,000 hp operating over 
upwards of 400 miles of track. The operation of the equip- 
ments already installed indicates the entire success of the higher 

January i, iqio.J 



voltage system. A brush life reaching 100,000 miles gives ample 
proof of the absence of commutator troubles and indicates that 
the limit of high voltage d. c. design has not yet been reached 
with 1200 volts. Control difficulties at the higher potentials were 
found to be less than expected, and the entire equipment indi- 
cates a life and reliability in service practically as good at 
1200 volts, as at 600 volts. 

The success of the 1200-volt third rail on the Central Cali- 
fornia Railway gives promise of a still further increase in 
voltage before reaching the limitations of the high voltage third 
rail as a means of secondary distribution. Perhaps, after all, 
the question of d.c. vs. a.c. for mountain road electrification 
will be decided by the superior qualifications of third rail 
or overhead trolley. In any case it is becoming recognized 
that any disagreement of engineers as to details of equip- 
ment does not fundamentally effect the fitness of the electric 
locomotive, as such, for haulage of trunk line trains. Indeed, 
after all these years of development, there is sharp disagree- 
ment as to types and details of steam locomotive construction, 
and the relative claims of d. c. or a. c. govern the selection of 
the electric locomotive no more than a decision as to simple 
or compound determines the superiority of the steam locomo- 
tive as the type of motive power for a specified duty. 


The electrification of steam road terminals in and about 
large cities has been given increasing attention. Although a 
decision has been reached to postpone indefinitely the electri- 
fication of the Illinois Central, this does not seem to be a final 
solution of the terminal problem in Chicago if the continued 
agitation properly reflects public opinion. In this connection it 
is disappointing to witness the construction of a large steam 
terminal station in which no provision has been made to bene- 
fit from future electrification. 

As to the economic value of establishing a terminal electric 
zone, no figures have yet been made public other than gen- 
eral assurance that the savings effected are sufficiently great 
to pay a moderate return on the admittedly large expendi- 
ture required. The far-reaching decision to adhere to the 600- 
volt third rail made in the case of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
terminal in New York City would indicate its general ac- 
ceptance as the system possessing the greatest all-round ad- 
vantages for this class of service. The relations of steam, 
elevated and subway roads are so close as to call for a uni- 
form secondary distribution system, and the 600-volt direct- 
current motor possesses qualifications for traction service 
superior to all others. Hence the recent decision to use this 
system in and about New York may be looked upon as most 
sound and one that will not in any way act as an obstacle 
to the possible future extension of the electric zone. . 


Not all of the steam road electrification problem concern 
locomotive operation and the movement of heavy trains. Many 
miles of branch lines are now being operated at a loss through 
a territory that would support an electric line giving a reason- 
ably frequent service. To meet such conditions as do not im- 
mediately warrant electrification, the gasoline car has been 
perfected and has given assurance during the past year of its 
reliability and economy in operation. Two types of cars are 
available, the first using a mechanical drive, the second having 
a generator direct connected to tin- engine and driving the 
axles through standard 600-volt direct-current motors. Oper- 
ating figures so far available indicate that such cars have a 
wide field of application, perhaps extending to some lines now 
operated electrically and contending with adverse conditions. 
The gasoline car appears suited for lines where only infre- 
quent headway is demanded or where the available receipts 
would not justify the heavier fixed charges of electrification. 
It is also especially suited for repair cars, inspection cars and to 
replace the electric car during hours of extremely light traffic, 
thus permitting shutting down the generating and substations. 
From present indications, the gasoline-engine car has come to 
stay and will demand an increasing amount of consideration. 

The 1200-volt equipments, with a single exception, have util- 
ized two motors in series rather than motors wound direct 
for the full potential, in order to save weight and cost. As a 
single motor may be subjected to practically full line potential ' 
if its wheels slip, its rotative speed must be low enough at 
normal voltage to stand double voltage and double speed with- 
out injury. This has given rise to the development of a line 
of motors, designed to run at considerably lower speeds nor- 
mally than is considered good practice with standard 600-volt 
motors. The resulting life of armature bearings and commu- 
tator has been greatly increased thereby, and "ft is an economic 
question if a corresponding reduction in the speed of standard 
600-volt motors in general would not result in a decreased 
maintenance expense that would amply compensate for their 
increase in weight and cost. 


While the introduction of the commutating pole into railway 
motor design is not strictly new, it has borne fruit during 
the past year to the extent of relegating commutator troubles 
to the past. The selection of a railway motor then becomes 
a matter of finding out if it has sufficient radiating surface to 
dissipate the internal losses developed in a given service. 

In the smaller motors, natural ventilation is still used, but 
forced ventilation is resorted to where the restricted space 
limitations are more keenly felt, as in motors designed for the 
heavier locomotives. The attitude towards forced ventilation 
in general seems to be that while recognizing its benefits for all 
motors, it is considered cheaper in the end to pay a little more 
for a slightly heavier motor and avoid the addition of a motor- 
driven blower. As the capacity of a commutating pole motor 
with its perfect commutation is practically limited only by its . 
heating, it is not unreasonable to expect that more general 
advantage will ultimately be taken of forced ventilation, ex- 
tending possibly to the smaller motors. 

The improvements in control apparatus are mostly of a de 
tail nature. Hand operated type "K" controllers are being 
provided with auxiliary contactors to make and open the cii- 
cuit, thus leaving the controller cylinder to effect the various 
resistance combinations only. Train control for 1200-volt 
equipments is being made selective, that is, it provides that 
the proper connections shall be automatically made when the 
car enters a 600- or 1200-volt section. Air compressor motors 
are being wound for 1200 volts and thrown directly on full 
trolley voltage, thus following 600-volt practice. 


The electric railway field is very broad and embraces gen- 
erating, transmission and distribution systems. Keen interest 
is therefore taken in the rapid introduction of the low pres- 
sure turbine in those generating stations employing recipro- 
cating engines. The resulting increase in capacity and economy 
of operation has been most satisfactory. 

In transmission line construction there is shown a tendency 
to adopt a type of flexible pole or tower designed to yield 
when a line breaks, thus distributing the strain over several 
poles. Although the great majority of electric railways are 
supplied at rather moderate transmission line potentials, a de- 
parture is being made in the case of the railways in San 
Francisco which will soon be run from Stanislaus over a line 
operating at 110,000 volts. 

A recent railway substation installation of interest con- 
tains a 60-cycle 600-volt rotary converter of 2000-kw capac- 
ity. The steady improvement made in the design of high fre- 
quency converters has thus resulted in the successful develop- 
ment of a size of 60-cycle unit that would have been con- 
sidered impossible a few years ago. 

While the year just passed cannot be considered as epoch- 
making, it has reflected the steady development of electric 
railway apparatus in general. Marked progress has, however, 
been made in electric locomotive construction, the perfecting 
(if the gasoline-electric car and the further extensions of the 
1200-volt (1. c. system. All of these developments have a direct 
hearing upon the Steam road electrification problem, and there 
fore command widespread attention. 



[Vol. XXXV. No. i. 



Fares, taxes and regulation ; these three questions of great 
importance confront the electric railroad managers to-day. 
While they seem separate and distinct questions, they are so 
closely correlated as to be really one. 

In most municipalities the fare is fixed by ordinance, usually 
that empowering the road to operate by electricity. The rate, 
namely, 5 cents, was originally determined in the old horse-car 
days, when the length of ride varied from 2 to 4 miles, 
usually over a single line, involving no transfers, and if a trans- 
fer was issued it was apt to be called an exchange ticket, an 
additional charge being made therefor. At the time of electri- 
fication, however, or in some instances prior thereto, came the 
era of consolidation and unification. The old, disjointed horse 
railways were united into systems, chartered routes were de- 
parted from, and in order to prevent legal complications trans- 
fers were issued without charge, thus enabling the rider to fol- 
low the charter route of the several constituent lines without 
paying an additional fare. Then came electricity, the great 
solvent which was to make all railway men millionaires, and 
joyously the companies extended their lines out into the country, 
giving longer and longer rides for a nickel, enriching the real 
estate operator, enhancing the value of real estate by leaps and 
bounds, thereby enriching the municipality by increasing its tax- 
able values, and all the time steadily decreasing the return which 
was received for the only product which they had to sell- 
namely, rides — until now in many cases the length of ride ob- 
tainable for a single fare is out of all proportion to the fare 
paid. If it were not for the numerous short riders the com- 
panies would be quickly thrown into bankruptcy. 

Through stress of competition for franchises many companies 
in the early days, more particularly in the Middle West, have 
been foolish enough to issue reduced rate tickets and to agree 
in their franchises to issue the same, thereby materially curtail- 
ing their revenue on the supposition that a man with tickets in 
his pocket, having already spent his money, will ride more fre- 
quently than if he had to pay his fare each time. The nickel 
has been purchasing more and more year by year in the way of 
street-car transportation ; its power to purchase in other direc- 
tions has been declining year by year ; wages have been steadily 
advancing, and if the demands made by organized labor and the 
platforms which they are promulgating are any criterion, the 
end is not yet. Materials have kept pace with or outrun labor. 
In a table published in a recent number of the Railway World 
giving the costs of materials used on steam roads, all of which 
would enter largely into the operation of electric roads, for a 
10-year period from 1897 to 1907, the increase ranges from 24.70 
per cent on brick to 136.34 per cent on pig iron. It is apparent 
that something must be done if the electric road is to stay in 
business and make a return on the capital invested. The most 
obvious means of meeting this difficulty would seem to be the 
adoption of the system so prevalent in Europe, commonly known 
as the zone system, whereby the rate of fare paid by each indi- 
vidual is proportionate to his ride. This is undoubtedly a log- 
ical and scientific method ; it is, however, open to a number of 
objections. The American public has been educated to the other 
System, and the outcry against any change would undoubtedly 
be great, particularly as it would undoubtedly be supported by 
philanthropic individuals and associations on the ground that 
the zone system tends to create congested districts, forcing the 
workingman into the tenements, producing unsanitary conditions 
and handicapping his children in their physical, moral growth. 


The question of taxation is a much-vexed one. Few, if any, 
of the States have made any effort whatever at developing a 
scientific system of taxation; the result is that most of their 
schemes of taxation are crude and are laid upon subjects which 
in the judgment of the lawmakers are the easiest to reach — and 
obviously the corporation is one of these — -rather than appor- 

tioned on a basis of equity. Among the illogical features of 
the burdens imposed upon electric railways, for example, is the 
care of the highway. This, of course, is a relic of the horse-car 
days, for in those days wear was imposed upon the paving, dirt 
was deposited in the street, and there was some show of justice 
in imposing upon the corporation the duty of making good this 
wear and removing this dirt. As the case stands to-day, how- 
ever, the railway imposes no wear upon the pavement, nor does 
it contribute to the dirt and it should therefore in all justice 
bear no greater proportion of the expenses of maintaining the 
pavement or cleaning the street than any other tax-payer. 

When we come to the question of taxation upon the property 
of the corporation it is equally illogical and shows many relics 
of the past. Undoubtedly the most scientific method of taxing 
any public service corporation and particularly a street rail- 
way is to base the tax on the gross receipts. The tax would 
then bear some relation to the ability of the property to pay ; 
would be uniform throughout the State and many sources of 
controversy and litigation would be eliminated. The fair cash 
value method of taxation is one which brings into the question 
the individual judgment of the assessor or official making the 
appraisement, and therefore is apt to give a different basis of 
valuation for each separate property in each State. This is 
equally true whether the assessment be made, as is done in 
Pennsylvania, by the officials of the company, or whether it is 
done, as it is in some of the States, by the local assessor. 

While it is perfectly true that the individuals who furnish the 
capital to operate electric railways throughout the United States 
did not go into the business from philanthropic motives and 
expect a profit upon their investment, it is equally true that 
the electric railways perform very valuable public service and 
that many companies now in existence can only justify their 
existence by the fact that they do perform this public service 
because they never have earned a dollar for their owners. It 
would seem to be the part of wisdom and of enlightened policy 
for the State to recognize the public service performed and in- 
stead of heaping upon the electric railways all the burdens 
possible, to so apportion its taxation that the burdens of the 
governments, municipal and State, should be borne equitably by 
all parties at interest, thereby enabling the electric railways to 
give better service to the traveling public and enabling their 
officers to devote more time to their proper business of manag- 
ing the property and caring for the public and less time to 
watching and combating vicious legislation. 


This raises the question of public regulation. Regulation may 
be a good thing for both the electric railway and traveling 
public or it may be a very harmful thing for the railway and 
the community at large. A conservative commission law hon- 
estly administered will insure justice, not only to the traveling 
public, but to the company and the community at large. Such a 
law and commission may stand as a bulwark of defence against 
the demands of an unreasonable public or city council. An 
ill-considered commission law or a dishonest or incompetent 
commission will lead to many evils and quickly produce in- 
tolerable conditions. 

The relation between the rate of fare, taxation and other 
franchise requirements is largely the margin of profit in the 
operation of the road. If taxation is heavy, franchise require- 
ments burdensome and rates of fare limited, poor service is 
the inevitable and immediate result, with bankruptcy always 
a future possibility. If rates of fare are to continue to be 
limited by law the same law should limit the burdens which can 
be placed upon the corporation. An ideal situation would be 
created if all power to impose burdens upon public service cor- 
porations was removed from the local authorities and a general 
State law passed prescribing conditions under which railroads 
should be operated within the State ; prescribing a reasonable 
tax upon the gross receipts, a portion or all of which should be 
returned to the municipalities traversed by the road in lieu 
of local taxation, and the power of th£ municipal legislature 
limited simply .to saying to the road, "You can or you cannot 
occupy the streets." 

January t, 1910.]- 


And lastly and most unjust and unreasonable of all taxation 
comes the corporate income tax amendment to the recent tariff 
bill. This amendment is a most unwarranted invasion of the 
rights of the State. To most companies, and particularly most 
railway companies, the United States Government has no rela- 
tion; from it they get nothing except what every other citizen 
gets and for which they pay as every other citizen pays, and to 
impose upon them an income tax under the guise of excise is 
unwarranted and unjust. The provisions of the law for ascer- 
taining the net income upon which this tax is to be levied are 
exceedingly crude and conflict with the accounting requirements 
of the Interstate Commerce Commission and of the various 
State bodies having jurisdiction over corporate accounts. They 
are not based upon sound principles of accounting and were 
protested against by the American Association of Public Ac- 



Progress in power stations and electrical distribution during 
the past year has been of a gradual and somewhat unsensational 
character, especially as regards power station practice. Really 
all that can be said regarding the year's work in power station 
design is that the big steam turbine units have steadily come into 
greater favor, the average outputs being each year larger and 
the turbine itself being upon the whole more and more reliable. 
It is only within a comparatively short time that the higher 
economies have been realized from turbines. At the present 
time it is within bounds to say that they give as high steam 
economy as any other prime mover used in railway stations, or 
indeed in electrical stations generally. Whether the turbine 
can actually meet the highest economies of the triple expansion 
reciprocating engine at steady load is, from the standpoint of 
the railway engineer, chiefly of academic importance. The 
fact is that the railway generating station, so long as it is, as 
usual, purely an alternating current station, must depend on 
the steam turbine if high economy is desired, since the more 
efficient types of reciprocating engines have seldom or never 
been installed in railway plants. Whether in stations of the 
larger sizes triple expansion engines can be worked to good 
advantage is a debatable question. The writer is disposed to 
think that they can be, and that where any considerable amount 
of direct current is to be generated from the prime movers that 
such engines should regularly be used. In making any compari- 
sons between prime movers it must be remembered that high 
vacuum and high superheating have been introduced with the 
steam turbines, while they have been scandalously neglected in 
the case of the reciprocating engines. 

Another important recent use of the steam turbine in such 
plants as are here under consideration is the employment of 
the exhaust turbine electrically linked to the general generating 
system. Such turbines, worked of course at high vacuum, fur- 
nish a simple, compact and economical means of utilizing the 
last limits of expansion. They should be considered in the 
light of apparatus designed to convert the ordinary compound 
engine into a triple-expansion machine of excellent efficiency 
in an exceptionally cheap and simple manner. While no results 
of long operation on such plants of considerable size are now 
available it is perfectly safe to say that the exhaust steam tur- 
bine for heavy service is making good here as it has already 
made good abroad. The direct current turbo-generator has 
not as yet come into considerable use and must be regarded 
so far as a somewhat dubious success, although the writer be- 
lieves that it is promising better things and deserves more ex- 
tensive trial than it has yet had, preferably in stations wholly 
equipped with turbines. 

With respect to distribution, the marked present tendency 
toward higher distributing voltages has not made itself strongly 
felt in railway practice, although villages are steadily and 
gradually rising. Most railway plants have been, and still are, 
working on very conservative line pressure, from 10,000 or 

15,000 up to 25,000 or 30,000 volts. Electrical transmission for 
railway purposes is peculiar in the amount of public inconve- 
nience that may be caused by relatively slight interruptions of 
service, and such have been felt in various instances during the 
past year. The moral is thoroughly plain, that railway distribu- 
tion lines should be designed and constructed with rather more 
care than has been customary, as thoroughly indeed as would 
be a line designed for ordinary transmission purposes. 

The tower construction now so frequently used for trans- 
mission work does not lend itself very readily to many cases of 
high-tension distribution for railways on account of the large 
space required for the towers, scarcely available on the public 
right-of-way that commonly is utilized for railway distributions. 
Whenever and wherever the voltage to be utilized is more than 
25,000 or 30,000 the use of suspension insulators is worth care- 
ful consideration. These insulators have succeeded remark- 
ably well and they constitute in point of fact decidedly the most 
important advance in power transmission equipment within the 
last few years. Wherever such construction is undertaken the 
ordinary wooden pole line becomes somewhat inconvenient, and 
the use of steel latticed poles with fairly long spans deserves very 
careful consideration. Such poles have come into extensive use 
for transmission work in Northern Italy and other places on the 
Continent, and combine in no small measure the simplicity and 
cheapness of ordinary pole lines with the mechanical security 
and durability of the tower line. Used as they customarily are 
abroad they are designed not to hold up rigidly against the 
greatest possible strains that a hypothetical load may place upon 
them, but are deliberately intended to spring, of course within 
their elastic limit,, sufficiently to drop the catenary enough to 
relieve dangerous strains so that the damage due to a break will 
be confined to the point at which it occurs. Construction of 
this character for the feeders of moderate size which are com- 
monly used is a good deal cheaper than tower construction and 
mechanically quite as sound. 

Another matter to which attention should be directed in the 
interest of economy is simplicity in power station equipment for 
transmission purposes. Some of the most successful and reli- 
able transmission lines are conspicuous for almost rudimentary 
simplicity of the generating and switching plants, and, in the 
opinion of the writer, the point has been reached in the design 
of not a few recent stations at which the added possibilities of 
failure on account of intricate apparatus intended to secure 
safety, is greater than would be the risk of failure with simple 

The one very striking novelty in electric railway service dur- 
ing the year has been the equipment of the Cascade Tunnel 
of the Great Northern Railway, where for the first time in this 
country, for heavy service, the three-phase motors have been 
adopted on a considerable scale. The possibilities of econo- 
mical distribution to be secured by the use of such motors with 
their high voltage distribution on the working conductors is 
notoriously great, and while many engineers still fight shy of 
double trolleys, foreign experience, as well as that in the Cascade 
Tunnel shows that this hesitation is not well founded. 

The high-voltage direct-current road has also made very 
gratifying progress of late, but there is nothing to indicate, as 
yet, that the working pressures can be carried high enough in 
this way to justify the use of the system on a large scale when 
the alternating current motors are as thoroughly available as 
they are at the present time. The convenience of direct-current 
equipment is too well known to need comment, but when it 
comes to heavy traction over long distances the success of a 
direct-current distribution depends on the utilization of voltages 
which have not yet been reached, at least with constant poten- 
tial machinery. 

The chief difficulty with any distribution for heavy service lies 
in the yards at the terminii. In how far such difficulties can be 
met by a mere substitution of electric for steam locomotives is 
one of the questions which the near future must settle. There 
is ,il least a strong probability that a change of motive power 
will entail some radical modifications in operating methods and 
in terminal equipment, 



[Vol. XXXV. No. i. 



I have every confidence in the ultimate result which the 
National and State governments have in view in their efforts 
to regulate electric and steam railroads, and all other corpora- 
tions; the people created these corporations, and have the un- 
doubted right to regulate them. 

In the past few years, however, there has been passed, in 
accordance with public demand, much legislation, which, up 
to this time has hardly been comprehended, and I believe that 
the best interests of every class will be served well, if, before 
additional laws affecting corporations are passed, a proper trial 
be given to those which have recently been placed upon the 
statute books, and agitation be allowed to rest a bit in order 
that we may properly digest what has taken place, and calmly 
consider from the experiences of the past year what is the 
best course to pursue for the best interests of all. 

It would have been very strange, indeed, if, in recruiting the 
army of 2,000,000 men employed in railway service, a great 
many bad men should not have been included. In the magni- 
tude of the transactions, and in the rush of construction and 
reconstruction, it would have been strange indeed if exceedingly 
grave evils and abuses did not develop. But is it unreasonable 
to ask that the corporations as a whole be judged by what 
they have accomplished ; by the character of a very great ma- 
jority of their shareholders, directors, officers and employees, 
rather than by the comparatively few wrongdoers, and by the 
abuses and evils which have crept in, but which it' is hoped 
have been to a very great extent eradicated? 

It is this very small proportion of wrongdoers, and the 
popular idea that no matter how great the expense on the 
part of a corporation in performing a service, a certain fixed 
price established by custom and by long continuance should 
be paid for it, that has done much to unsettle business in our 
country in the past two years. 

Our street railway lines must only charge five cents for 
their passenger fares, whether the cost of conducting their 
lines has remained the same or increased 100 per cent or 200 
per cent over that of former years. 

Our railway companies which are struggling to afford facili- 
ties for the greatly increased volume of traffic that has been 
thrust upon them, and which find that prices for everything 
they have to buy have doubled or trebled their burden of ex- 
pense, are not only prohibited from charging higher rates for 
the freight they carry, but must actually lower these, and 
passenger fares as well. 

Meanwhile all other lines of industry are suffered by public 
sentiment to conduct their business on ordinary lines; that is 
to say, to adjust the prices of what they have to sell in such a 
way that their ratio of profit shall not be diminished. 

There is a wrong in all this sort of thing that must be 
remedied before the business relations of the country can ever 
be soundly established. There must not be one economic law 
for the steam and electric railways and the like, and another 
for the farmer and manufacturer; and this brings the thought 
whether a national prosperity which permanently affects one 
part of the population at the expense of the other is a pros- 
perity that can be said to be likely to endure. 

It should not be assumed that the mixture of private owner- 
ship and public regulation in the manner now prevalent will 
be successful. On the contrary, it is against all rules of politi- 
cal economy and the teachings of history. The public service 
corporations, starting as a purely private industry, have been 
appropriated in parts, and other parts are apparently to follow. 

Regulation, and not confiscation, will bring success and 
equity, and ordinary commercial decency requires that the 
present tendencies of close restriction a 1 : supervision should 
be accompanied by some guarantee of retun:. 

Unless assurance can be had — not of condoning wrongdoing 
or winking at abuses, but of friendly co-operation, of protec- 
tion and aid in every fair and legitimate manner against oppres- 

sion and injustice; of such guarantee as the Government can 
give of protection from legislation which will prevent earning 
a reasonable return on money invested, and of a fair participa- 
tion in increased values and general prosperity which invest- 
ments of this kind aid in promoting, it is going to be impossi- 
ble for public service corporations to pbtain the money neces- 
sary for the vast improvements and extensions necessary to 
provide facilities for the immensely increasing volume of busi- 
ness for which they are expected to provide. 

Again, I say the masses have assumed, without giving the 
matter the careful thought and consideration that it deserves, 
that the present methods will bring the desired result, and have 
demanded drastic legislation ; but careful reflection, and at 
the most a little more experience, will, I believe, prove the 
present methods to be of doubtful policy. 

Let us have regulation that does not approach confiscation. 



The last annual convention of the American Street & Inter- 
urban Railway Transportation & Traffic Association, which 
was held in Denver, Oct. 4 to 8, was only the second in its 
history. But the wisdom of the establishment of the associa- 
tion was amply demonstrated by the work accomplished dur- 
ing the year and at the convention. The attendance at the 
meetings was large, and the enthusiasm in the work of the 
association was everywhere apparent. Too much cannot be 
said also of the splendid work accomplished by the committees 
during the year. 

It is very doubtful whether all the members and associate 
members of the association, even those who attend the annual 
convention, realize the time and labor spent by the members 
of a committee upon the preparation of the reports submitted 
to our association. During the period between the appointment 
of a committee and the time when its report is due at the main 
office of the association the members are called upon to at- 
tend a number of meetings at considerable sacrifice of time 
and comfort to themselves. I do not mean that each com- 
mittee member does not receive benefit from the opportunity 
afforded at these meetings of broadening his knowledge by 
contact with others engaged in the same line of work as him- 
self, or that the company with which he is connected does not 
also profit by the new ideas which he thus acquires. But this 
in no way detracts from the benefit which the association as a 
whole receives from the time gratuitously given to its service. 

Possibly of the different reports presented at Denver those 
which attracted the most attention were the reports on city 
and interurban rules. This is due largely, I believe, to the 
universal desire toward standardization, which is just as strong 
in the field of transportation as it is in engineering. The 
adoption at Denver of these two codes, however, constitutes 
only a beginning of the work of standardization. The great 
amount of work done by both committees will be practically 
futile unless the action of the association at Denver is gen- 
erally accepted and the rules are incorporated in city and 
interurban electric railway practice throughout the country. I 
do not mean that no changes will ever be made in either code, 
or that slight changes may not be recommended by the com- 
mittee even during the coming year. Standardization does not 
mean stagnation, and if after careful thought certain modifica- 
tions of the present rules seem desirable, they will undoubtedly 
be carefully considered and adopted by the association. Minor 
changes will also probably be necessary in individual cases 
owing to local conditions. But the best interests of the indus- 
try as a whole, even those of every individual road, demand 
the use of a general code which has received the sanction of 
the national association. Our position before the public and 
the courts would be greatly strengthened and we could insist 
upon a higher standard of discipline with our employees if 

January i, 1910.] 



every one knew that the code used was that which represented 
the best thought of all electric railway operators. 

I have not referred to any of the other work undertaken 
and being undertaken by the American Street & Interurban 
Railway Transportation & Traffic Association, because I have 
been asked to speak particularly of what I consider the most 
important development of the year in the field covered by this 
association, but in the other branches of the work nearly or 
quite as valuable progress is being made. During 1910 all 
of the important leads for investigation initiated at Denver 
will be followed up. The future of the Transportation & 
Traffic Association is bright, and there is plenty of work ahead 
for all members and associate members. 



The street railway companies of to-day are confronted with 
more vexing problems than any other line of business. This is 
largely due to the fact that they are brought into daily contact 
with millions of people, eager to criticise, and exacting in their 
demands ; and to the additional fact that they are answerable to 
so many masters. Many a manager is asking himself at this 
time : "How can I please the public ; how can I meet the re- 
quirements of city legislation ; how can I comply with the de- 
mands of the Public Service Commission, and how can I do 
justice to my stockholders?" It is in the endeavor to find 
answers to these questions and to reconcile such answers that 
the problems develop. A thorough discussion of all of the 
above queries would consume more space than -can here be 
allotted to it. In passing over these questions, however, I feel 
that they should not be dismissed without saying that the street 
railway companies would not be looked upon with such sus- 
picion if the public could be brought into close relationship 
with them and could know their methods and the extent to 
which they go in order to please the public and to deal justly 
and fairly with all concerned in their operations. This ques- 
tion of dealing with the public and with the various governing 
authorities involves the perplexing problems of taxes, paving, 
types of cars, transfers, rates of fares, and a great many others 
equally important. But in the limited scope of this discussion 
I shall confine myself to the matter of fares on city lines. 

It has always seemed to me that little logical reasoning is 
displayed in the attempt to justify the existing rates of fare 
as charged by the street railway companies. The almost univer- 
sal unit of fare is 5 cents — the same 10 years ago and doubt- 
less the same 10 years hence. It is the same for 1 mile as it is 
for 10 miles. Can a man of sound business judgment say that 
this is right when with the utmost accuracy and precision he 
figures his expenses on a car-mile basis? Why should not the 
same skill and ability that is used in regulating expenses so that 
they will not exceed a certain amount per car-mile be expended 
in regulating fares in the same way? I concede that in many 
cases the franchises granted are so hedged about with fare 
restrictions that no changes can be made. I concede, further, 
that it is impractical to establish ticket agencies on city lines 
and charge a mileage rate. But I do think that there are 
cases in which the city fares can he regulated and controlled, 
and it is with just such cases that I wish to deal in this article. 

There was a time with all street railway companies, perhaps, 
when the maximum haul was about 2 miles. The fare was 
S cents. With the growth of the cities the lines were extended 
so that the haul was lengthened to 3 miles, the fare re- 
maining the same. In time another extension was necessary, 
making the haul perhaps 5 or 6 miles— the fare being still 
5 cents. Now the problem confronting the street railway com- 
panies to-day is, how much longer can these lines be extended 
and charge the same fare? Surely the limit must be fixed at 
some distance, be it 5 miles, 6 miles, or even 7 miles. 
There is naturally a demand from the public that the fare re- 
main the same regardless of the length of the haul Conse 

quently the companies must do one of two things. They must 
refuse to extend their lines beyond a certain limit, or they must 
charge an additional fare in case the extension is made. I think 
they have been too lenient in lengthening their hauls, probably 
due to a desire to yield to public demands. Let us see if there 
are any good reasons for increasing the fare on a haul which 
exceeds the limit that may be agreed upon. 

Probably no one will deny the assertion that there has been 
more phenomenal improvement, more rapid strides in transpor- 
tation facilities, during the past 20 years than in any other line 
of business. The industry has commanded the ingenuity of the 
most expert engineers ; it has received the attention of the 
highest order of executive ability, and has been backed at all 
times by an unlimited amount of capital. The combined re- 
sources of these three great factors have been engaged in the 
accomplishment of one common end : To furnish to the riding 
public the quickest and most comfortable means of transporta- 
tion. And the systems of to-day are the results of these suc- 
cessful efforts. It would be unwise to say that they have 
reached a degree of perfection, for each succeeding day tells 
the story of a new subterranean or subaqueous tunnel ; and 
not content with this the more daring are now meeting with 
considerable success in their attempts to master aerial naviga- 
tion, and who can say but that, in the next decade, this mode 
of travel will be reduced to a commercial basis. 

This rapid process of evolution naturally causes retro- 
spection, and we recall the days of stage coaches and horse 
cars. Twenty years ago electric cars were unknown and horse 
cars were the greatest medium of city travel. This method 
was slow and tedious ; the driver was the change maker and 
the passenger was the collecter. The longest ride at that time 
was not more than 2 miles and the fare was 5 cents, just as 
it is to-day. The investment in equipment was comparatively 
small, yet no complaint was made that the fare was too much. 
On the other hand, oftentimes passengers would drive the car 
so that the driver might go inside to warm himself, or would 
willingly assist in putting the car on the track after it had 
left the rails. Can you imagine passengers doing such things 
in this day and generation? This fare of 5 cents has been 
universally adhered to from that day to this, notwithstanding 
the fact that the facilities offered by the transportation com- 
panies to-day are vastly more rapid, more comfortable, more 
convenient, more safe, more reliable, and the average maximum 
haul is at least five times as great. If, then, passengers are 
hauled five times as far to-day as they were 20 years ago: 
if they are hauled five times as rapidly and five times more 
comfortably than they were then, by what process of reason- 
ing do we arrive at the conclusion that the charge for this 
transportation should remain the same? 

In reality the fare of to-day is only one-half of that col- 
lected 20 years ago, for in that length of time the price of 
almost everything entering into the cost of street railway 
transportation has increased 100 per cent. Lumber that was 
bought then for $10 per 1000 ft. is now $28; steel rails that 
were bought then for $24 per ton are now $42, and a ton does 
not go half so far; copper, once at 12 cents per lb. has lin- 
gered around 20 cents for the past few years, and has gone 
as high as 26 cents. In 1898 day laborers could be employed 
for 75 cents per day, while in 1907 they received $1.50 per 
day and their work was not nearly so satisfactory. Twenty 
years ago such things as damage claims were almost entirely 
unknown, while to-day they appear in hordes, consuming from 
5 per cent to 15 per cent of the gross revenue of the companies 
In like manner all other costs have increased; yet all this tim< 
the fare of 5 cents has remained the same, while live times 
as good service has been given at an increased cost to-day 
of 100 per cent over what the same service could have been 
furnished for 20 years ago. If these figures are correct then 
the horse car companies of that time received 5 cents for what 
the transportation companies of to day get one-half a cent 
The men, women and children who ride on the cars reeeivi 
more for their labors or for their wares than they did 10 years 
ago. b'.vcry one of them pays more, not only for the luxuries 



[Vol. XXXV. No. i. 

of life, but for its necessities, than 10 years ago. When a 
laborer walks into a butcher shop the buying power of the 
S-cent piece in his hand decreases 50 per cent under 10 years 
ago ; yet the instant he steps on a car and tenders it to the 
conductor in payment for his transportation it immediately 
increases 500 per cent in buying power. 

In the face of these facts can there be any possible justifi- 
cation for lengthening the haul year after year and allowing 
the fare to remain the same? 

It is often said that the cost of carrying long-haul pas- 
sengers is more than equalled by the revenue derived from the 
very short hauls. This is true up to a certain point, for if 
it were not few companies would be doing business to-day. 
Now it is this certain point that should be located and beyond 
which no lines should be extended if the existing fare is to 
cbtain. In locating this point it would be manifestly unfair 
to place it at the end of the average haul, but it should be far 
enough out to compensate amply for the short hauls. 

Not infrequently we hear the argument made that a street 
railway owes a great debt to the public for the valuable fran- 
chises which it enjoys, and should, therefore, give long hauls 
and comfortable accommodations. I acknowledge the debt but 
not the method of collection. Aside from the numerous and 
heavy taxes they pay and the contributions which they make to 
various public enterprises, I feel safe in saying that the street 
railways of to-day are the most potent factors in the up- 
building and development of the country. With a network of 
steel they traverse the streets of the city and ramify the re- 
motest sections of the country. They enhance the holdings of 
the millionaire and bring the humble dwelling of the laborer 
into close contact with his place of daily toil. They annihilate 
space and have proven themselves to be the greatest time savers 
in the history of the world. It is in this way that they have 
liquidated their debt for franchises, and the proposition still 
stands that in addition they are to-day furnishing transporta- 
tion facilities to the public, the compensation for which is far 
from being commensurate with the service rendered. 

Again I say that it is high time for the street railway com- 
panies to pause and consider well the inevitable results ot this 
indiscriminate extension of city lines without additional com- 
pensation therefor. 




One of the principal problems with which the managers of 
street railways should prepare to deal is the labor agitator and 
his destructive weapon, the strike. It has been said that in 
times of peace we should prepare for war. To wait until a 
strike is declared before making preparation to meet it is both 
unwise and expensive. To-day there are two organized forces, 
one whose business is strike-making, and the other strike- 
breaking. Regardless of the question of whether or not a 
street railway company is paying satisfactory wages and main- 
taining fair conditions, strikes are frequently planned and 
declared. No street railway company of any importance in 
the country can insure itself by any reasonable course against 
a possible strike. When one is declared the only recourse 
is the strike-breaker, who, with a band of experienced operators, 
comes quickly to the scene to take charge of the cars. They 
usually steal the revenues and insult the patrons of the un- 
fortunate company during the time of their stay. The cure 
is almost as intolerable as the evil. 

There is no excuse in this enlightened age for the strike in 
the first instance, but as long as strikes are used as weapons 
by unscrupulous labor agitators, street railway companies 
should be prepared to meet them in an intelligent and effect- 
ive manner. This could easily be done if the managers of the 
principal street railway companies of the country would or- 
ganize among their employees a defensive army that could be 
called out in such numbers as might be required to take charge 

of the operation of any road as soon as a strike was declared. 
If every street railway in the country having 500 or more em- 
ployees would agree to furnish its pro rata number of ex- 
perienced operatives at $10 per day and expenses, to go to any 
other city where a strike had been declared against a member 
of this organization, and, with like drafts of men from other 
members, furnish a full quota of experienced operatives to 
carry on the business of the company in the regular manner, 
accounting for all of the fares and treating the patrons in the 
same courteous manner as they would at home, the losses of 
strikes would be much lessened, and the labor agitator would 
soon learn that his most effective weapon had been destroyed. 



A year seems almost too short a time to assign to its limits 
the complete development of any improvement in the manufac- 
tures pertaining to the railway industry. Such improvements 
in most cases have to be preceded by experiments and the 
results must be awaited before an attempted innovation can be 
classed as a newly developed improvement. In railway track 
work such developments are necessarily slower than in other 
branches of the railway industry, where the results and ad- 
vantages of an improvement are more quickly ascertainable. 

In the track work for electric railways, the past year has 
been most marked by the electric railway track engineer fol- 
lowing the lead of the steam railroad track engineer in the 
demand for open hearth steel rails in place of the Bessemer 
steel rails. Whether or not the electric railways, in their girder 
rail tracks, will gain advantages equivalent to those claimed 
for open hearth steel rails in steam railroad track remains to 
be seen. Rail failures, which constitute such a serious problem 
to the steam railroad engineer, owing to the heavy loads and 
high speeds of the steam railroad equipment, have so far not 
troubled the electric railway engineer. Better wearing and 
lasting qualities of the rails under the frequency of electric 
car traffic is what is looked for only. Whether the higher 
percentage of carbon which the open hearth steel rails require 
to give the same wearing qualities as the former Bessemer rails, 
and the still higher carbon that is necessary to make them likely 
to wear better, will not in the girder rails bring other troubles, 
including failures in the thinner parts of the section or when 
the parts wear thin, is a matter that time only will tell. 

In the manufacture of special track work out of the harder 
and more brittle rails, more difficulties than had been antici- 
pated were encountered in the sawing, bending and other 
machining of these rails, making the manufacture more costly 
and bringing to mind the possibility of an increased number of 
rail failures under service. 

Another burning question of the past year was the use of 
high T-rails in paved streets, instead of girder rails. The writer 
regrets that he is not qualified to enter into that question, 
except to say in a general way that while it would seem 
that the T-rail is desirable from the railway standpoint, where 
it can be used, the girder rail will for an indefinite period re- 
main by sheer necessity the rail for Use in the surface tracks in 
our largest cities. 

Nearly all new girder rail sections designed and rolled in 
the past year have embodied in their contour the feature to 
provide for wider wheels by a sloping extension of the back 
of the head of the rail. In this connection it may be of 
interest to quote from a discussion about the relation of rails 
to street paving before the American Society of Civil Engi- 
neers in December of the year 1896, where the writer then 
advocated such a rail, and, in answer to serious objections 
raised against it, said: 

"This beveled extension of the head has been put on not 
solely for the purpose of allowing the wheels to clean off the 
dirt towards the outside, but also to provide for a wider tread 
on the wheel, without having it strike some projecting paving 

January r, 1910.] 



stone. In the writer's opinion, wider treads on the wheels are 
quite certain to become one of the requirements of the street 
railways, owing to the suburban lines, and, further, to lessen the 
severity of wear of the heavy motor cars on frogs and switches. 
If the life of the latter could thereby be lengthened and the dis- 
turbance of the pavement around them due to their compara- 
tively frequent replacements be minimized, it would be one ad- 
vantage gained from the paving side of the question." 

In special work provision and clearance for wide wheel 
treads up to 4 in. were quite generally called for during the 
past year, but in anticipation of the future, rather than for 
present wheel treads. When wide treads come into general use 
they will doubtless increase the life of frogs and crossings. 

"Manganese steel," no matter what the differences in the 
products of various manufacturers may be, is now generally re- 
garded as the synonym for the "best-wearing metal for track 
work." The past year has recorded a more extended use of 
switches, frogs and crossings cast in one piece, entirely of 
manganese steel. In tongue switches great improvements have 
been made during the past several years in the design of the 
tongue and tongue pivots, and when combined with solid man- 
ganese steel bodies the tongue switch need no longer be re- 
garded as the most vulnerable and short-lived part of special 
work. Hard center work with manganese steel centers, how- 
ever, still holds its own for frogs and crossings. 

The finish and general accuracy of special track work has 
reached almost an extreme for the class of work. Still, 'the 
destructive action on special work of the heavier cars and the 
ever-increasing frequency of car traffic in our populous cities 
call for the best, and most exact product, by which the destruc- 
tive effect may be minimized. 

The problem of the rail joints in electric railway track and 
the problem of that bugbear, rail corrugation, have not as yet 
been solved, and the past year has not witnessed much progress 
towards the solution. Let us hope that 1910 may bring us the 
Archimedes of the electric railway track, who in regard to these 
two problems can exclaim a triumphant "Eureka!" 



The New England Street Railway Club has carried on the 
work of having addresses and papers presented at its monthly 
meetings that are of interest to street railway men. The club 
has been very successful during the past few years, and its 
members take a great interest in its meetings, which are largely 
attended. Discussions usually follow the presentation of papers. 

I believe the club is of great benefit to its members ; they 
have an opportunity to meet each other and discuss various 
problems, and also to enjoy the addresses and papers from 
time to time. I believe the street railway industry as a whole 
is greatly benefited by the existence of organizations like the 
New England Street Railway Club. 

The managements of street railways in New England take 
great interest in our organization. 

I do not know of any program in contemplation for next 
year that will bring about any special result, further than to 
continue the active work that has been in vogue since the or- 
ganization of the club, with splendid results, satisfactory in 
all ways to every member all of the time. 

Outside of the regular monthly meetings, the club does every- 
thing possible toward stimulating trolley traffic by the publica- 
tion of trolley books and maps, and during the summer months 
conducts a free trolley information bureau, which is visited by 
thousands of people who are in search of reliable information. 
The street railways furnish an abundance of booklets, time- 
tables, maps and general printed matter that arc eagerly sought 
by people who are arranging or taking trolley trips. The in- 
formation bureau is fully appreciated by trolley tourists, and T 
am sure the companies are considerably benefited by its work. 

Our club has nearly 800 members, and its membership is con- 
tinually increasing; 40 names were added during October. 



The country has been through a period of five years or more 
of turmoil. Around those of us engaged in any kind of public- 
service work the flame has burned savagely — so fiercely, in fact, 
that many of the great properties of the country have been 
severely scorched and certain conspicuous systems entirely con- 

It is perhaps idle to speculate on the cause of all this agita- 
tion. Unbridled prosperity for a period of years breeds license, 
and perhaps a disregard of the public welfare. Insofar as the 
country has been brought to a realization of real abuses, and has 
demanded their cessation, it is a gainer, and the business too, in 
the long run, will be benefited. To the extent, however, that 
the country in its excitement has impulsively followed and en- 
acted into legislation the captivating but specious reforms urged 
by political adventurers, neither the country, our business, nor 
the political adventurer has been benefited ; and the reason is 
easy to understand, for the sound development of the country 
and the prosperity of the public-service business must go for- 
ward in parallel lines, and legislation which militates against the 
latter over a period of years will retard the former. The ad- 
venturer is not benefited, for when his demagogy is enacted into 
legislation he has lost his issue and his opportunity to keep him- 
self before the public, until he can frame up something new and 
more startling. 

The indications are that the agitation to which I have been 
referring has reached its maximum height, and that the wave of 
radicalism is subsiding. The country seems to want repose and 
an opportunity for the quiet and energetic prosecution of its 
business and the development of its resources. Perhaps the 
best expression of this changing public sentiment is the placid 
tone of the recent message of President Taft. 

If the storm has spent its force, it is perhaps well for those of 
us who have embarked for our life work upon the public-service 
vessel to examine into the condition of the old ship after the 
storm, to investigate what has happened to her, and to see how 
she is equipped for the balance of the voyage. 

Referring first to the more agreeable matters — the fetich of 
municipal ownership has apparently made no headway in this 
country. Various small municipal electric plants have singu- 
larly failed, and some have been abandoned and sold. The 
comprehensive investigation made abroad under the auspices of 
the Civic Federation failed to demonstrate the efficiency of this 
system, at least as applied to conditions on this side of the 
Atlantic. The failure of Tom Johnson's plan in Cleveland has 
been illuminating, and this most un-American doctrine, which 
three or four years ago was hailed as the panacea for all abuses, 
real and imaginary, seems to have become possessed of the par- 
alytic microbe in its infancy. It does not follow, however, that 
the child will not outgrow this first attack and again present 
itself for serious consideration before the American people, but 
that it can during our lifetime ever seriously prevail I do not 
believe, and for this overshadowing reason if for no other: One 
of the greatest problems threatening the country is municipal 
extravagance and municipal financing. The expenses of mu- 
nicipal government connected with the absolute essentials there- 
of, such as water supply, paving, education, the development of 
parks, etc., are running into such vast sums and in so many 
cases threatening 'municipal insolvency, not to speak of confisca- 
tory taxes, that the public will surely hesitate to embark upon 
new, untried and unnecessary municipal operations at the behest 
of theoretical doctrinaries. 


A more serious condition threatening our business is that of 
rate regulation, by whatever duly constituted authority the 
power may be exercised. The existence of this power as a leg- 
islative function, provided it is not carried to the limit of con- 
fiscation, seems now to be definitely settled, and the Supreme 
Court of the United States has decided in the Consolidated Gas 



[Vol. XXXV. No. i. 

Company case that a rate only yielding approximately 6 per cent 
upon the true value of the property actually used in the business 
is not so confiscatory as to invalidate the statute prescribing the 
rate. This has become the established law of the land, and the 
result is that we must all recognize that this vital power is 
located in the various legislative bodies to which we respect- 
ively owe allegiance, and that the generous exercise of it within 
the constitutional limits, as laid down in the Consolidated Gas 
Company and Knoxville Water Company cases, may result dis- 
astrously to our business without redress in the courts. Within 
the limits above referred to, the legislative discretion will be 

Without criticising' the legal principles which justify the de- 
cision. I am of the opinion that the business principle involved 
is vital, and if generally put into effect by legislative sanction 
would retard and stagnate the development of the public-service 
business throughout the country, and consequently react on the 
very prosperity of the country itself. It is beyond my compre- 
hension that any investor should put his money into the stock of 
a new and undeveloped public-service enterprise, bearing with 
fortitude its early years, with its customary drought of earn- 
ings, only to be limited by legislative action when the property 
has at last become successful to 6 per cent annually on his then 
investment, regardless of the lean years through which he has 
passed. Certain it is that if the necessary funds are to be ob- 
tained from year to year to properly develop these enterprises 
and the territory which they serve, it must be upon the confi- 
dence of the American public that these properties will not be 
discriminated against by legislative caprice. But I do not have 
enduring faith in the ultimate common sense of the American 
people, and in the resultant attitude of their law-making repre- 
sentatives. I would unhesitatingly recommend allowing one's 
money to remain in a savings bank, drawing 4 per cent interest, 
rather than in an investment of the character of which I have 

It is true, and properly so, that the day of exploitation of this 
class of property is over; that we shall never again see con- 
nected with them gross abuses of over-capitalization, resulting 
in the amassing of large individual fortunes overnight, to the 
scandal of the community. It is probably true, although I am 
not entirely sure of its wisdom, that we shall never see any 
more over-capitalization or water connected with any of our 
public-service enterprises. To my mind the investor who has 
the courage to risk his money in a new and untried public-ser- 
vice enterprise which the majority of prudent men would hesi- 
tate to embark upon, but which is manifestly to the advantage 
of the public, is entitled to receive a return upon his investment 
proportionate to the hazard involved, and I do not see that it 
makes so very much difference whether it is done by the pay- 
ment of very moderate dividends upon a capitalization in reas- 
onable excess of the actual cost of the property, or by larger 
dividends upon its actual cost. By way of illustration, take the 
case of what is commonly known as the McAdoo tunnel system. 
I am not familiar with either its cost of construction, nor with 
its capitalization, but I do know the construction of that system 
has been one of the greatest boons for the convenience of the 
public, and especially for the public living in New Jersey, ever 
created in these parts ; and I know, further, that it was a most 
hazardous undertaking from a financial and engineering stand- 
point. To say that the gentlemen who had the courage and 
nerve to push this stupendous enterprise through to completion 
should only be allowed to receive 6 per cent upon their actual 
expenditure is, to my mind, a veritable absurdity. Surely the 
application of this doctrine . can never be made general if the 
country is to develop. 


The other remaining serious barnacle that we find upon the 
hull of our ship as we emerge from the storm is that of gov- 
ernment by commission to the extent of administration of pub- 
lic-service corporate property. No one objects to proper govern- 
mental supervision over the issuance of securities and the like. 
My own view is that this can best be accomplished as we have 
undertaken to do in New Jersey, by strict enactments providing 

vigorous penalties for their infringement, rather than by the 
expensive mechanism of a commission clothed even with mod- 
erate powers. These statutes are automatic, and are found in 
practice to accomplish the desired result. With such statutes in 
existence I can see neither the alleged protection afforded to the 
public nor to the companies by the existence of such commis- 
sions. This, however, is a subject about which some of us may 
disagree. The constitution of a commission clothed with full 
powers of administration, such as is the case under the New 
York act, presents another and very serious problem. To my 
mind it is almost as radical and un-American a proposition as is 
that of municipal ownership. I was bred as a lawyer, and as 
such I was taught to love and respect the rights of property. 
When it comes to taking away the management of any corpo- 
rate property in which I am interested from the authorities duly 
constituted by the stockholders and placing it in the hands of 
a politically constituted State commission, I utter my vigorous 
protest and sound the note of warning. Where this may lead to 
it is easy to see. Again will appear, and is appearing in New 
York State, the stagnation of enterprise and absence of invest- 
ment. Such is the despair of the people over inactivity of in- 
vestment of this character in New York City that the people of 
the State have actually approved a constitutional amendment in 
New York authorizing New York City to further strain its 
credit by issuing bonds for the construction of so-called "self- 
sustaining" enterprises. 

Again placing my confidence in the deliberate judgment of 
the American public, I do not believe this particular danger will 
increase. Supervision by commission may grow, but adminis- 
tration by commission must retrograde. Fortunately in this 
matter, should legislative discretion forsake us, we still have the 
courts to fall back on, as evidenced by the recent decision of 
the Court of Appeals of the State of New York in the Delaware 
& Hudson case. 


The so-called short-term franchise, for 20 years or there- 
abouts, is a snare and a delusion. It is of no benefit to any- 
body, including the public. In suburban and rural communities 
a property cannot be financed upon it, and it is doubtful if it 
can be in urban communities. Moreover, the experience of ex- 
piring franchises, notably in Chicago, has demonstrated that for 
years approaching the end of the period there is involved a de- 
terioration of plant, equipment and service which works to the 
direct injury of the public, but which must exist as long as 
human nature exists. Nor do agitations like those which have 
existed and are existing in Cleveland and Detroit benefit the 
public. It is probably true, on the other hand, and I am willing 
to admit perhaps wisely so, that the day of unrestricted per- 
petual franchises near populous centers is over. 

What, then, is the happy medium? Opinion's will differ. My 
own view is in favor of a perpetual or very long term right of 
operation, providing, however, for certain stipulated periods 
when the conditions under which operation takes place shall be 
readjusted by agreement between the municipality and the com- 
pany if possible, and, if not, settled by arbitration. This has 
always seemed to me — since the question has arisen — to solve 
the problem of financing and to offer fair and reasonable pro- 
tection, both to the municipality and to the corporation. Where 
urban properties are to be financed solely by the sale of bonds it 
can probably be done upon a franchise for 50 years' duration, if 
the mortgage securing the bonds contains an adequate sinking- 
fund provision. 


The question of the proper method of taxation of public- 
service franchises is one of great moment, concerning which 
there has been an infinite variety of experiment. My own ex- 
perience has led me to believe that, all things considered, the 
most satisfactory method is the payment of a reasonable fixed 
percentage of gross receipts, although I appreciate that this 
method is open to the objection that it may result in taxes being 
paid for a franchise upon unremunerative property. It is, how- 
ever, definite and automatic, and the company knows each year 
just what it has to pay. Certainly up to date the method 

January i, 1910.] 



adopted in New York State under the so-called Ford franchise 
law cannot be said to have given satisfaction, either to the State 
or to the corporations. Millions of dollars of taxes assessed 
under it are now in litigation, and payment thereof withheld by 
the corporations. This method, also, in practice is open to the 
same objection referred to above, namely, of corporations being 
obliged to pay taxes for unremunerative franchises. 

While it is, of course, right and proper that corporations of 
this character should bear their fair proportion of the public 
burden, in the long run communities will be better served by 
public-service corporations and more benefited in their growth 
and development by imposing fair methods of taxation than by 
keeping the noses of such corporations down to the grindstone 
of extortionate exaction. 

I abstain from any reference to the governmental tax pro- 
vided by the Payne tariff bill, other than to record the old-time 
observation that "misery likes company," and, if the act be valid, 
to point out to you the figure of the public-service ship, rolling 
in its waves, surrounded by a myriad of craft of every corpo- 
rate description. 

I have only sketched the surface of the great problems in- 
volved in our business. As the responsible executive of one of 
the largest public-service corporations in the country, I have full 
confidence that the right will prevail, and that when the still 
ruffled waters have subsided the great public-service corpora- 
tions of the country will proceed upon a calmer sea, all doing 
their proportionate work in the development of our unlimited 
national resources. 



The problem of proper and adequate terminal facilities for 
interurban electric railways in the large cities in this country 
is one of vital importance to such properties. In a number of 
instances properties that were flat failures without adequate 
terminals, subsequently proved very profitable when such -ter- 
minals were provided. By adequate and proper facilities are 
meant not only the building and tracks forming the terminal 
station, but the tracks by which such station is reached from 
the private right-of-way. Undoubtedly the ideal arrangement 
would be a terminal station situated in the center of the retail 
district, and reached by surface tracks built on private right- 
of-way. But in this case, as in many others, the ideal arrange- 
ment is not often the practicable one, because of physical, 
financial or legal conditions. The nearest approach to it is 
probably in having tracks built either on an elevated structure 
or in a subway. There are, however, several objections to 
such an arrangement, among others the fixed charges incident 
to a heavy initial cost, and the loss of advertising "due to cars 
of a distinctive type operating through city streets. The ad- 
vantages of such an arrangement are, however, great, par- 
ticularly in enabling "the interurban" to land its passengers in 
a central terminal in the shortest possible time, as well as 
the elimination of accidents and delays due to vehicular traffic 
and pedestrians. If the railway in question connects large 
cities, the volume of traffic heavy, and the distance from 
private right-of-way to the terminal station considerable, the 
advantages will probably be found to outweigh the objections. 
But undoubtedly, in the great majority of cities in this coun- 
try, neither an elevated structure nor a subway is practicable, 
or advisable. Track built on the surface of the street is the 
natural alternative, and if it be possible for the interurban com- 
pany to build its own track on streets not already occupied 
by other lines, then this plan has much to commend it. 

But in the writer's judgment, the essential thing for the inter- 
urban company's success is to be able to carry its passengers 
without transfer to the center of the city. 

There are two cases which demonstrate the truth of the 
above statement in one of the largest cities in the Middle West. 
In the first instance the interurban line connected with and 

transferred to, not a slow-running surface line at the out- 
skirts of the city, but with an elevated railroad, which fur- 
nished the best of service into and through the heart of the 
city. Before this transfer was eliminated the financial results 
were unsatisfactory. An arrangement was made for running 
the trains of this company through on the elevated structure, 
and since that time the results obtained have been eminently 
satisfactory. To the elimination of this objectionable transfer 
more than to anything else the present success of the property 
is undoubtedly due. In the second instance in the same city, 
a high-speed interurban line, built in the most substantial 
manner, and tapping a territory with a much greater popula- 
tion, is now in the hands of a receiver. The financial embar- 
rassment of this company is due in no small measure to the 
lack of adequate terminal arrangements. 

In another instance which has recently come under the writ- 
er's observation, a property had been operating on private 
right-of-way to a point within 1700 ft. of the public square or 
business center of a city of 35,000 population. Even under these 
favorable conditions the passenger receipts were unsatisfactory. 
The company sought and obtained an entrance over the 1700 
ft., thus reaching the public square, or business center, and the 
immediate improvement in passenger travel was remarkable 
and is still increasing. In this instance the owners of the 
property believe the improvement is due in a large measure to 
the advertising value of having their cars run through the 
public street and around the square. 

The writer has also recently had the opportunity of study- 
ing a problem of this character. The conditions in this par- 
ticular situation may be of interest, and the results eventually 
obtained will go far toward determining to what extent the 
success of an interurban property is affected by adequate ter- 
minal facilities. 

The railway under consideration connects the cities of Balti- 
more and Washington and is a double-track line built in the 
most substantial manner. The maximum grade is 2 per cent, 
the sharpest curve (with one exception) on private right-of- 
way is 4 deg., the track is laid with 80-lb. A. S. C. E. rail, and 
practically all grade crossings have been eliminated. Baltimore 
has a population of approximately 650,000, Washington, 350,000, 
and the distance between the two cities is 40 miles. In Balti- 
more the terminal facilities are all that could be desired; a fine 
station through which the cars pass is located in the heart of 
the retail district and is reached in a run of ten minutes from 
the private right-of-way. In Washington, however, the ter- 
minal arrangement is not as good ; the station at which the 
interurban cars complete their run is located 2 3/4 miles from 
the Treasury Building. The transfer between the cars of the 
city company and .those of the interurban company was made 
as easy and comfortable as possible, entirely under cover. 
The interurban passenger is provided with a ticket entitling 
him to transportation on the line of the Washington Railway 
& Electric Company (the city company) with transfer privi- 
leges to any interesting line of that company, reaching thereby 
practically any point in the city. In other words, the terminal 
arrangement in the city of Washington was all that could be 
desired with the single exception that the passenger was com- 
pelled to transfer and make a short portion of the trip in the 
cars of the city company. Although operation has been under 
such comparatively favorable conditions, and the line has been 
in full operation about 18 months, yet the passenger traffic 
has fallen short of the estimates of the projectors of the line 
and what might have been reasonably expected. 

After a careful study of the earnings, and conditions affect- 
ing them, the management has been able to reach bin one con- 
clusion, namely, that the terminal arrangement in Washington 
is unfavorable to the best results, and, therefore, a supple 
rnentary arrangement has been made with the cit\ company 
by which the cars of the interurban company will run to Fif- 
teenth Street and New York Avenue, which is directly opposite 
the United States Treasury Building and within a block of the 
While House. The principal advantages of the change will be: 

In making the cars of the interurban company equally con 
wnient of access in both cities. 


In enabling a considerable portion of its passengers to make 
(heir entire journey without any transfer whatever. 

In benefiting by the advertising value which unquestionably 
accrues from running a car of distinctive type through one or 
more of the principal streets. This should prove of much 
value in Washington, where the transient population is large. 

The specific instances hereinabove cited prove, in the writer's 
opinion, the extreme importance and value to interurban prop- 
erties of proper and adequate terminal facilities. 



In common with all other street railways, we have felt the 
necessity of increasing our revenue by an amount at least suffi- 
cient to cover the increased cost of operation, maintenance 
and equipment. How great have been the increases under 
these headings is, I find, scarcely realized even by many actu- 
ally engaged in the transportation business. Some of the 
items of increased expense are startling. For example, when 
the roads that now compose the Philadelphia Rapid Transit 
system were consolidated, in 1895, a 9»lb. girder rail was 
used which cost $25 a ton ; to-day we are using 141-lb. rail for 
which we pay $38.20 a ton. Switches used to cost $122.50; we 
now pay $150. Frogs that formerly cost $83 now cost $97.50. 
Ties have gone up from 50 cents to 65 cents. Our standard 
car costs us exactly 100 per cent more than the standard car 
of ro years ago. Coal, another big item, has increased from 
$1.72 to $2.30 per ton. We all remember the time when cast- 
iron wheels costing about $4 each were considered satisfac- 
tory for street railway purposes ; steel wheels at $18 apiece 
are now required. These are only a few of the more important 
examples of the high prices of materials. Wages have also 
largely increased. The wages of motormen and conductors on 
this system were raised from 21 cents to 22 cents an hour 
June 1, adding about $180,000 to our annual payroll. 

Prior to May 1 we issued six tickets for 25 cents and an 
exchange for 8 cents. On May 4 we withdrew the six-for-a- 
quarter tickets. The average fare per passenger, which was 
3.94 cents in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1909, and 3.56 
cents in 1908, almost immediately increased to 4.20 cents, but 
has since dropped, as shown by the following : 


Cents. Cents. 

June 4.194 September 4.1 16 

July 4-143 October 4.121 

August 4-133 November 4.127 

The decrease in the average fare per passenger is mainly 
due to the fact that the sale of exchange tickets has increased. 
These tickets are largely used by passengers changing from one 
line to another at points where no transfers are given. Free 
transfers, which numbered 55,631,765 in the year ending June 
30, 1909, are now being used at the rate of 6,370,141 per month. 

There was considerable public opposition to the withdrawal 
of the six-for-a-quarter tickets, but this has almost entirely 
subsided. The matter was taken into the courts, which have 
decided twice that the company acted within its rights in with- 
drawing the tickets, which were held to be not "a rate of fare." 

Speaking generally, it seems to me that there is need of a 
general effort among street railways to educate the public up 
to a better understanding of street railway problems. The ex- 
perience of the New England roads shows that fares can be 
increased, as I believe they must be all over the country, with- 
out serious public opposition, if the reasons for the increases are 
plainly set forth in advance. It should not be difficult to con- 
vince the public that the fare unit of 5 cents established in 
horse-car days is the minimum price at which first-class serv- 
ices can be given, and that when this rate of fare is diminished 
by free transfers or any other means the operating company's 
revenue is reduced below a point at which it can give adequate 
service and provide for the upkeep of the property. 

[Vol. XXXV. No. 1. 



The enthusiasm manifest by the claim agent delegates at 
Denver was most gratifying. Delegates representing many of 
the more important properties along the Pacific coast were in 
attendance for the first time. This infusion of "new blood" 
acted as a stimulus throughout the entire convention. En- 
thusiasm, like the measles, is "catching" and we are looking 
forward to a larger representation from the West and South at 
our future conventions. 

The cordiality of the delegates from every section indicated 
a bond of friendship, good-will and sympathy reaching from 
coast to coast. The subjects dealt with were live subjects, and 
were ably presented in both written and oral discussion. The 
causes of certain kinds of accidents were dealt with and many 
remedies suggested. The duty of the claim adjuster is not 
merely to adjust losses, but also to seek the causes for troubles 
and suggest remedies therefor, thus preventing the occurrence 
of trouble, and likewise the adjustment of claims incident 

The policy of the claim department toward the newspapers ; 
the relationship of the medical and claim departments ; board- 
ing and alighting accidents; the instruction of employees; the 
unreported accident, its evil and remedy, as well as other sub- 
jects, were all discussed from a practical standpoint. 

During the past year, through the office of the secretary of 
the Claim Agents' Association, much information was asked for, 
secured and furnished regarding fraudulent claimants. In 
many cases photographs have been secured and mailed to the 
various claim departments for identification, and to serve as a 
warning and protection against such frauds. Two fake claim- 
ants were arrested, convicted and are now serving sentences, 
important evidence in each case being furnished by the Claim 
Agents' Association. 

All companies having knowledge regarding claimants of 
this character should furnish full information as soon as pos- 
sible to our secretary so that other companies may have the 
benefit of it. We all have to contend with the class of claim- 
ants that seek the advice of the professional damage lawyer 
who, when asked by the client as to what he would charge 
for looking after the case, replied: 

"If you furnish the witnesses, $100; if I furnish the wit- 
nesses, $200. 

In dealing with these matters, it has been demonstrated that 
an index bureau would be very valuable in detecting this kind 
of claimants and would also furnish valuable data regarding 
other claimants. By co-operation with accident and life in- 
surance companies and other corporate interests, evidence can 
be procured that should materially reduce the amount of dam- 
ages paid claimants directly or after litigation. 

The committee appointed to look into the matter of the 
advisability of taking out a membership for the American 
Street & Interurban Railway Association in some index bureau, 
whereby all claim departments of the member companies would 
be entitled to reports from the index bureau upon application, 
reported that it had secured a satisfactory proposition from 
an index bureau and made a favorable report. This will be 
referred to the executive committee of the parent organization 
for action. 

The subject committee for the 1910 convention is at work and 
is expected to make its report at the midwinter meeting of the 
executive committee. In dealing with the subjects for the 
next convention, the committee will so arrange the subjects as 
to call for the actual results achieved as well as theories. 

Some good missionary work is being done by various dele- 
gates and it is expected to have a very large attendance at the 
1910 convention. The enthusiastic efforts of the officers, sup- 
ported by the committees, receiving the hearty co-operation of 
a large number of willing workers, ought to make the next 
convention the best ever held. 


January i, 1910.] 





I have chosen for the topic of this communication the ques- 
tion of relationship of the street railway company, electric light, 
gas or water company to the public. This is not so broad a 
question, to the writer's mind, as from its title would appear. 
It is a confined question. Upon it, nevertheless, depends the 
other questions which harass the minds of operating officers and 
stir up public animus. 

Questions of fare, transfers and taxation are all related to 
this one proposition. 

A corporation is a creature of the State, created by the laws 
of the State; its relationship, therefore, to the body politic is 
that of a child. It should never rise superior to its position. 

The difficulties under which corporations labor to-day, due to 
unbusinesslike supervision, antagonistic legislation and adverse 
public sentiment, are primarily due to the fact that in the past 
the officers and directors of such corporations overlooked this 
relationship. The defiance of the public was flaunted publicly. 
Even stockholders who were not of the majority or controlling 
party were denied proper information respecting the conduct of 
the business of the company. Great public utilities companies 
came to feel that they were a power and a law unto themselves. 

The uprising came. Laws that were thought to be adverse to 
the interests of such corporations were enacted; corporation 
commissions were created with supervisory power, taxes were 
increased, but as yet, save in isolated instances, not to the real 
detriment of the corporation. 

The greatest asset of a public utilities company is good-will. 
The more patent the attempt of the officers of the corporation 
to improve its service to the public, the greater the degree of 
good-will. Officers of all grades are being taught now to feel 
that they are public servitors. They are taught as the child to 
respect the parent. Complaints are welcome. They are not 
thrown in the waste basket, but in well-operated and properly 
conducted companies are immediately inquired into, with the 
thought that, though even so large a proportion of them as 90 
per cent may be unfounded, yet failure to inquire into all may 
result in neglect of the 10 per cent that should be properly con- 
sidered. Once get the public to feel that the utilities companies 
operating in the community are operated with the thought and 
desire on the part of their management of pleasing the public, 
then such a relationship is established as should be. The citi- 
zen becomes part of his street railway, his electric light com- 
pany, his gas or water company. Once this disposition, this de- 
gree of good-will, has been established, it is but like a confer- 
ence of co-partners to discuss with the representatives of the 
public the necessity of an increase in fare or the abandonment 
of a transfer. 

The American public is not an unreasonable body, but broad- 
minded, fair and liberal, ready to be convinced by proper argu- 
ment and presentation of facts that are not distorted. They 
will uniformly agree to a sound business proposition. In Mass- 
achusetts we have seen during the past 18 months various 
street railways allowed to increase their fare, with the full ap- 
proval of the Railroad Commission. In other States, where 
municipal authorities have applied to corporation commissions 
to raise taxes of the utilities companies and the utilities com- 
panies have presented sound arguments, based upon an unper- 
verted statement of facts, such requests of municipal officers 
have been uniformly refused. 

Demonstration to a community that the electric light company 
is giving the best service at the lowest price commensurate with 
a reasonable profit has prevented the construction and operation 
of competing companies. The average taxpayer does not want 
his city burdened with the ignominy of financial disaster to his 
utilities companies. His personal interest in the community is 
such that he hopes to be able to speak with pride of the success- 
ful financial operation of the utilities supplying his wants. 

Therefore it is that years ago we reached the conclusion that 
the moving idea in the operation of utilities which damned the 
public was inherently wrong and calculated to ultimately bring 
disaster. Nothing so aggravates the general public as to feel 
that the utilities operating in their particular vicinity are con- 
trolled by a political machine. Every honest effort should there- 
fore be taken by the officers in command of the situation to 
demonstrate to the satisfaction of the public that they are free 
from political domination. Once convince the voting citizen 
that such is the case and that the utilities company is operated 
as a plain, straightforward business proposition, his services, 
his aid and his vote can ordinarily be commanded for the bene- 
fit and the upbuilding of such utilities. 

Therefore it is that we say that the fare question, the transfer 
question and the tax question were relative to the subject of this 
article. The earnest effort of every operating officer, every ex- 
ecutive head and every board of directors should be directed to 
the encouragement of the proper relationship of his company to 
the municipal and State governments. Those of the citizens of 
this country who desire to inordinately and improperly tax and 
restrict are but few in number comparatively. The average 
business man is bright enough to realize that his public utilities 
company should grow with the growth of his city, and that 
with the utility company and the territory in which he does 
business advancing perceptibly in the scale of commercial prog- 
ress, he is bound to be carried along by the tide and reap the 
resultant benefit. 

We appreciate fully the difficulty attendant upon this policy, 
which difficulty is made greater by the errors of the past. Great 
obstacles have been raised in the paths of the directing heads of 
companies by the methods in use not many years ago. It is 
hard to convince the public of the change of thought, and some 
will forever doubt the possibility of such a change. Even this 
disposition will be overcome by continued attention to the wants 
of the public. When that period has been reached, as it is gen- 
erally being reached in many of the cities and States of our 
country, we will hear less of restrictive legislation, less of un- 
due taxation, and will ultimately find that the public will not be 
led astray by demagogic suggestions of 3-cent fares and 5-cent 
electric light. 



Transportation is a commodity by whatever means it be 
accomplished. Passengers and freight should be carried by 
that kind of transportation which can perform the service 
most efficiently and cheaply. Sometimes that service is by 
water, sometimes by steam or electricity over a private right- 
of-way, sometimes by electricity over a highway, and some- 
times. by a wagon and team of horses. That seller of this 
commodity — transportation — will be the most successful and 
efficient who so controls all of it that he can apply each kind 
where economic laws dictate. For instance, pig iron, ingot 
copper, cotton, raw wool, hides and similar non-perishable raw 
materials may well be carried by the cheapest method of trans- 
portation, to wit, by water. 

On the other hand, the finished product of these raw 
materials, to wit, cotton cloth, steel, iron and copper producis, 
boots and shoes, woolen cloth and the like can afford and de- 
serve a speedier method of transportation, to wit, steam or 
electricity operating on a private right-of-way. 

Distribution from industrial centers which cannot be accom- 
plished by either of the two foregoing methods should be fur- 
nished witli transportation over highways by electric strict 
railways or, last of all, by the wagon and horse. 

All of these methods are naturally co-operative, and should 
not be competitive. Being, however, subject to one control that 
is a monopoly, there must be some check to prevent an abuse 
of monopolistic powers. That check is properly found by 
governmental regulation, This regulation may well in the first 
instance be brought about by an administrative body, but finally 



[Vol. XXXV. No. r. 

the rights and obligations of a transportation company must 
not rest with an administrative body subject to political influ- 
ences, but must be determined by a judicial body which so far 
as may be is free from such political influences. 

I believe in a monopoly of transportation. I believe that such 
monopoly should be required by law to furnish reasonable 
facilities at fair prices, and I believe that governmental regula- 
tion along the lines suggested is the surest safeguard of trans- 
portation properties. 




The single-phase system has made very substantial progress 
during the past year. It is reported that the commission ap- 
pointed by the Swiss Government has decided in favor of 
single-phase alternating current for the standard railway sys- 
tem for the State Railways, and several projects are in an ad- 
vanced state. In France the Midi Railway has adopted single- 
phase and ordered 30 multiple-unit car equipments and a num- 
ber of locomotives, the latter to be built by as many companies. 
The German State Railways have adopted single-phase as 
standard, and are pushing the development rapidly. In Nor- 
way and Sweden substantial progress has been made along the 
same line. In most of the electrifications under way in Europe 
high voltage is being used, ranging from 10,000 to 15,000 volts 
on the trolley. The favorite frequency is 15 cycles. This fre- 
quency has been recommended most strongly in Switzerland 
and Germany, and has been adopted by the Midi Railway in 

It is probable that the advantages secured for the motors by 
the use of 15 cycles will be sufficient to influence its adoption in 
this country for heavy work, except in instances where a large 
supply of 25-cycle power is available. The advantage for car 
equipments alone is not sufficient to pay for the introduction of 
a new frequency. 

In this country single-phase has not had as smooth sailing. 
Equipments for only one new road have been sold this year, 
and several of the old roads have been changed from single- 
phase to direct current, with either 600 or 1200 volts on the 
trolley. Judging from this fact alone, it would appear that 
the single-phase system has received a backset. However, care- 
ful analysis of the reasons for the abandonment of single- 
phase on the lines that have changed shows that they were not 
properly single-phase propositions in the first place. On one 
line, for instance, it was necessary to have direct current at 
both ends of a road of moderate length, with connections for 
underground conduit as well as overhead trolley on d.c, re- 
sulting in complications which outweighed the advantages 
gained by the use of single-phase current for the interurban 
portions of the line. In another case a large part of the mile- 
age made by the equipments was over d.c. lines. While in this 
case there was not as much complication as in the first instance, 
it was extremely expensive with the heavier and more expensive 
single-phase equipments to operate them so large a part of the 
time on direct current. The entire line might as well be direct 

In the first years following the introduction of the single- 
phase system there were undoubtedly extremists who wished 
to apply single-phase everywhere. This over-enthusiasm has 
resulted in injury to the system, because of its misapplication. 
Further, the equipments on a large part of the roads over which 
they have been operated have been overloaded and overspeeded. 
performing heavier service than would be possible with direct- 
current equipments of the same capacity, because of the speed 
characteristics and the high voltage available at the motors. 
It is refreshing to see, however, that in spite of the abuses and 
misapplications of the system, the equipments have operated so 
well in so many instances. Examples of steam railway elec- 
trification, notably the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
and the Grand Trunk, have been conspicuously successful dur- 

ing the past year. The train delays have been greatly reduced 
over those formerly encountered with steam operation, and 
very little trouble has been experienced in any way. On the 
New Haven lines the locomotives are doing far more work 
than was ever contemplated by their builders. On some of the 
interurban lines the operation has been thoroughly successful, 
resulting in a low cost of operation. In others there have 
been troubles, due, as stated above, to abuse of the equipments, 
including overloading and overspeeding. In this connection it 
is significant to note that there has not been a single instance 
of change from single-phase apparatus to direct current where 
the equipments were furnished by the largest manufacturer of 
single-phase apparatus. On the contrary, several of the lines 
have ordered new equipments for extensions, and further ex- 
tensions are probable in the near future. 

The new railway for which equipments are now being built 
is the Rock Island & Southern Railway, a road designed pri- 
marily for freight traffic, which will also be used for frequent 
and high-speed passenger service. This line will be operated 
exclusively from single-phase alternating current, which makes 
it possible to use inductive rather than conductive compensa- 
tion for the motors, thus rendering the most vulnerable part of 
the field winding perfectly safe from injury. The motors will 
also be operated from a two-coil transformer instead of an 
auto-transformer, so that the circuits will not be grounded, 
and thus the liability of breakdown of insulation will be much 
reduced. These equipments will possess a degree of simplicity 
which should be attractive to any one who is operating electric 

The net results of the experience with single-phase apparatus 
up to date are that single-phase equipments can unquestionably 
be built to operate successfully in either interurban service or 
on heavy railroads. The complication of making equipments 
operate interchangeably on direct current and alternating cur- 
rent is an undesirable one, but one which need not cause any 
trouble, provided the equipment is properly cared for. 

Preventive leads between the armature winding and the com- 
mutator are still advocated as reducing the losses in the motor 
and making it possible to reduce the size of motors beyond 
those built for a given output without leads. All that is neces- 
sary to make the resistance lead construction satisfactory is 
to have the leads of sufficient thermal capacity to stand the 
current for the maximum length of time necessary for the 
motor to develop its torque at a standstill, and to make the re- 
sistances substantial, so that they may not be affected by the 
mechanical vibration to which all railway motors are subject. 
It is a well-known fact that the resistance leads of the arma- 
tures of the New Haven locomotives have never given the 
slightest trouble, even though they are subject to the most se- 
vere starting conditions, and the motors are required to de- 
velop at starting from 100 to 150 per cent overload torque. 
The worst that can be said of resistance leads is that they 
furnish an expensive addition to the armature winding; how- 
ever, the total cost of the motor with resistance leads will not 
exceed that of the motor built for equal performance without 
resistance leads, since the number of armature conductors for 
the motor without leads must be very greatly increased, and 
frequently the number of poles increased on account of the 
iower inductions which are necessary. 

A discussion of single-phase naturally raises some question 
as to the natural competitors of that system. These are high 
voltage d.c. and three-phase. The 1200-volt d.c. system has 
made considerable progress in the past year for interurban 
railway service, and while there is apparently not much to be 
gained in applying this to heavy railway work, it is undoubt- 
edly receiving favor for interurban roads where a large part 
of the operation must be over standard 600-volt lines. The 
chief objection to this system is that the voltage is not high 
enough to meet the requirements for long lines, and it seems 
certain that if direct current is to be used for heavy work, the 
voltage must be very considerably increased. 

The three-phase system has also made a start in this coun- 
try in the Great Northern electrification. While apparently 

January i, 1910.] 



nothing has been demonstrated by this installation, which 
could not have been foreseen, it indicates a tendency to de- 
velop all of the possible systems of electric traction to the 
fullest extent, so that each problem may receive the most 
careful consideration as it arises, and the best system for that 
particular one may be applied. Undoubtedly this attitude will 
make for the greatest progress in electrification of steam rail- 
ways. The best part of it is that whichever system is adopted 
it is certain that it can be made thoroughly successful from an 
operating standpoint, the main difference between them being 
questions of first cost and cost of operation. 


The reasons for favoring single-phase system are just as 
strong at the present time as at any period in the past 10 
years. The simplicity of the distribution and the possibilities 
for extremely low first cost make it most desirable from that 
point of view of any of the three systems. The speed possi- 
bilities of the motor make it extremely desirable from that 
point of view. The handicap is, of course, that the locomo- 
tives must in all cases, except where very slow speeds are re- 
quired, be heavier and more expensive than for either of the 
other systems. Consequently, the maintenance must be higher. 
However, this extra cost of maintenance for the locomotives 
will for lines of any considerable length be more than offset 
by the decrease in first cost and cost of operation of the dis- 
tribution system. 

The matter resolves itself, as has frequently been said before, 
into a matter of dollars and cents, to decide which of the three 
systems will be the proper one to install for any given set of 

Judging from the great interest which is being manifested at 
the present time in railway electrification, there will be suffi- 
cient comparisons made before long, which will determine the 
particular field that each system is best adapted to serve. At 
the same time, it is possible that new developments may arise 
which will very materially change the outlook. At present 
the outlook for still further extensions of the single-phase sys- 
tem is very good. 



The most striking phase of the electric railway situation of 
to-day is not found in the progress or development of the art 
of constructing, maintaining and operating electric railways, 
highly important as this is, but in the growing recognition by 
street railway interests and public alike of the necessity that 
electric railway companies be placed on a basis of permanence 
with respect to franchises and of reasonable compensation and 
return with respect to fares. Both electric railway interests and 
the public have been driven to recognize these facts by the pres- 
sure of experience, frequently unpleasant, and in some cases 

The sanguine hopes of the pioneers in electric railway con- 
struction and development that the low rates of fare originally 
adopted for both urban and interurban properties would so 
stimulate travel as to overcome the apparent inadequacy of 
return as compared with service have been largely disappointed. 
The unit of service furnished by urban companies has been 
greatly expanded through extensions of lines and enlargements 
of transfer privileges, as well as abuses of those privileges. 
This increase in the service unit has reduced the financial re- 
turn to a point dangerously near, and in some cases below, the 
point of actual compensation. The correctness of the electric 
railway position in this respect has been publicly demonstrated 
within the past few years in the case of some of the largest 
and most important properties in the country through investiga- 
tions made in connection with franchise negotiations or com- 
plaints before public commissions, and through reports of public 
supervisory boards. 

In the ease of the interurban companies of the country the 

same result has become widely apparent. The extension of the 
length of the ride paid for by the unit fare is not a disturbing 
factor in the case of the interurban'lines, but it is generally true 
that the basic rates of fare originally fixed by the interurban 
companies — in some cases as little as 1 cent per mile — were un- 
duly low. These rates were fixed when lines were first put in 
operation, and when the amount of travel that would be ob- 
tained was purely a matter of conjecture. Furthermore, the 
heavy expense of renewals and replacements was disregarded, 
or minimized, when these lines were first constructed, and track, 
rolling stock and power equipment new. Interurban cars cannot 
be operated at the speed which the traveling public^ demands 
and service cannot be satisfactory in other respects unless these 
properties are maintained at a high standard. The original rates 
have, therefore, in many cases, been found non-compensatory, 
and increased rates established. In a number of instances, 
notably in Massachusetts, these increased rates have been at- 
tacked, but have been almost uniformly upheld by the public 
tribunal passing upon them. In the course of these attacks ex- 
haustive investigations have been made of the revenues and 
expenses of the companies in question, and the result has been 
to demonstrate the fairness, and even the necessity, of most 
of the increases that have been made. While the notoriety of 
these attacks has doubtless been highly annoying and unpleasant 
to the companies immediately affected, the general result has 
been most helpful to the electric railway interests of the country. 
The fact that public tribunals, the bias of which would naturally 
be against rather than in favor of electric railway inteersts, have 
found these advances justified has done much to convince the 
public of the fairness of such fare changes as have been else- 
where made. 

The result of the various investigations and reports that have 
been made touching both urban and interurban companies, as 
well as of a few very instructive object lessons, is that what 
before the managements knew, but the public could not be made 
to accept, the public now knows and believes. The idea en- 
couraged by the rose-colored prospectuses of a few years ago, 
than an electric railroad is a mine of wealth, constantly enriched 
by unreasonable profits filched from the public, is largely dissi- 
pated. Electric railway interests themselves universally recog- 
nize to a greater extent than ever before the necessity of ade- 
quate fares and the danger of gradually rendering inadequate 
fares originally adequate by an enlargement, through extensions 
and transfers, of the service rendered. At the same time, the 
public is more than ever disposed to take a reasonable and dis- 
passionate view of conditions, and to recognize the unsoundness 
of the demands for reductions in fares and enlargement of priv- 
ileges prevalent a few years ago. 

With respect to franchise rights, there can be no doubt that 
we are in a, period of transition, and that the final outcome will 
be to place these rights on a higher plane of permanence. A 
few years ago the individual who would contend that an elec- 
tric railway franchise should be for other than a brief period of 
years was regarded as corrupted by corporation bias, and an 
enemy to the community. A remarkable recent development is 
that the defects and weaknesses of short-term franchises from 
the standpoint of public welfare are now widely recognized. 
Among the most revolutionary of the public utility laws recently 
enacted are those of Wisconsin and New York. Yet the Wis- 
consin law provides for an indeterminate franchise, and in New 
York, Commissioner Maltbie, of the Public Service Commission 
for the First District, has made to that commission a report in 
which, after discussing the merits and defects of the various 
forms of franchises, the indeterminate form of franchise is 

There is doubtless serious objection to the indetcrmine fran- 
chise as defined and limited by the Wisconsin act, and as de- 
scribed and advocated by Commissioner Maltbie, but this is 
generally true of pioneer work. The important fact is that the 
Wisconsin act and the New York report alike indicate a realiza- 
tion on the part of the public authorities that under short-term 
franchises electric railway properties cannot be developed to 
the point of rendering the greatest possible service to (lie pub- 



[Vol. XXXV. No. i. 

lie, and that, therefore, the public interest demands long-term 

On the whole, the electric railway interests of the country are 
to be congratulated on the tendencies of the times in reference 
to the two phases of the electric railway situation above dis- 
cussed. It is not too much to hope that the next few years will 
see a settlement of some of the most vexatious of the questions 
confronting the public and the electric railway companies on 
a fair arid reasonable basis, satisfactory and advantageous to 



The three meetings of the Street Railway Association of the 
State of New York, which were held during 1909, were well 
attended, and the results were beneficial in the highest degree 
to the companies represented. Thorough discussion of papers 
has always been one of the most interesting features of our 
meetings, and the general participation of the delegates is of 
great encouragement to all who are concerned in the wise settle- 
ment of the various problems which are considered by the asso- 
ciation at its meetings. 

During the coming year the work of the association may 
tollow to advantage some lines of action which the present 
tendencies of the times appear to make desirable, although our 
efforts will not necessarily be confined closely to any subjects 
which seem advisable now. I can indicate, however, some 
topics which affect various members of the association, and if 
they are not taken up at this time they may be made a subject 
for future consideration. 

The question of block signals for interurban railways has 
been suggested by C. R. Barnes, of the Public Service Com- 
mission, Second District, as an appropriate subject for dis- 
cussion and action by the association, and this topic will prob- 
ably be placed on the program of one of the meetings of the 
coming year. 

Of the problems facing electric railways at the present time, 
none is more serious than the transfer situation, and we 
should endeavor to formulate a system of rules governing the 
issue of transfers, which will minimize the general public mis- 
use of the privilege. If a system could be devised that could 
be made the basis of the rules of all companies it might be 
desirable, but I do not know whether such a system is practic- 
able. It would have to contain rigid conditions designed to 
prevent abuse of the transfers, and yet be somewhat flexible, 
in order to meet the requirements of companies operating un- 
der different conditions. However, the subject is one which is 
of deep interest to all our members, and whatever we can do in 
the direction of solution of the problem will be of value. Sys- 
tems for the collection of fares may be taken up with profit at 
the same time. 

The interurban companies are especially interested in the 
subject of operating rules, which will be discussed during the 
year. At the last quarterly meeting, C. Loomis Allen stated 
that he would recommend the adoption by this association of 
the code of rules adopted at the Denver convention of the 
American Street & Interurban Railway Association, with such 
modifications as may be needed to meet our local conditions. It 
is hoped that members of the Street Railway Association of 
the State of New York will give a careful study to the Amer- 
ican Association rules, so that they may be prepared to dis- 
cuss the subject when it is brought formally before them at an 
early meeting. 

A topic of equal importance is the classification of accounts 
promulgated by the New York Public Service Commission, 
Second District. The operating accounts, as prescribed by the 
commission, have been used by the street railroad corporations 
for the last six months. Some of the companies have had a 
full year's experience with the classification as they intro- 
duced it, in order to gain experience, before the order of the 

commission required them to do so. Many points have arisen 
in connection with the accounts, which a full discussion will 
help to make clear. 

At our last meeting in Albany, C. Percy Hooker, chairman of 
the State Highway Commission, suggested that a friendly suit 
be instituted in court by one of our member companies, with 
the object of securing a decision to determine the relative rights 
of the State and interurban companies in connection with the 
construction of new State highways, and it appears advisable 
to act on this suggestion. 

The question of co-operation with the American Association 
should receive the earnest consideration of members. It is 
wise for us to strengthen our own organization in every way, 
but we should also bear in mind that the National Association 
is entitled to our support in all questions that work for the 
betterment of the industry as a whole. A working agreement 
between the American and the State associations should be 



Since the advent of the interurban railways, the question of 
how they should gain entrance into cities and upon what terms 
and conditions, whether over the tracks of already existing city 
roads by direct negotiation, or whether with independent fran- 
chises, and upon their own tracks over streets not already 
occupied, has been one of the most troublesome problems we 
have had to solve. No one will question the wisdom of hav- 
ing interurban roads enter cities over their own tracks, upon 
independent streets, except when it may be detrimental to the 
best interests of the city company, but in most cases, owing to 
physical conditions which preclude any other course, it is an 
absolute necessity to use a portion of city railway tracks in 
order to reach the business center; and in only a few known 
instances are the interurban roads required to transfer their 
passengers at the city line. 

I assume that laws have been passed by most, if not all of the 
States, governing this subject, but it may be of general interest 
to say that the laws of Ohio provide that interurban railways 
may enter cities without consulting city authorities, provided 
they do so over existing street railways, and also authorize 
existing street railways to make contracts with interurban rail- 
ways for such entry. This law has been very beneficial in 
promoting the construction and operation of interurban rail- 
ways in Ohio, because the interurban railways have not been 
delayed in obtaining such contracts upon equitable terms ; 
whereas, had it been necessary to consult city authorities be- 
fore such rights could be procured, great delay would have re- 
sulted, with possibly opposition from the city roads and others 
whose rights might be adversely effected. The right to enter 
cities and to make such contracts has undoubtedly influenced 
many city companies, because of general benefit to the city 
irrespective of financial return to the city company, to make 
such terms for the use of its tracks and power as would 
encourage the building of interurban railroads. I do not know 
what statistics may show, but I venture the opinion that the 
construction and development of interurban railways in the 
State of Ohio have been equal to the record in other States, if 
not far more rapid, and largely because of the ease with which 
city terminals could be obtained. 

In the city of Columbus the gages of the tracks differ, the 
interurban being 4 ft. &]4 in., as against the city road's 5 ft. 
2 in., and here the interurbans enter by independent tracks in 
such a manner as to avoid interference with the operation of the 
city cars. In Cincinnati the same gage of tracks exists as in 
Columbus, but the interurban roads transfer passengers to a city 
car especially scheduled to take care of the traffic. In Cleve- 
land the interurban cars are received by the city company and 
treated as their own, the city company paying to the interurban 

January r, 1910.] 



companies a given sum per mile for the use of the car. In 
Toledo, Dayton and some of the smaller cities the interurban 
companies are required to pay to the city companies some- 
thing less than maximum fare, and assume all risk of accidents 
and other minor burdens. 

There is a popular impression on the part of city officials and 
many individuals that city roads derive a large financial return 
from the interurban railways entering over the tracks, but I 
believe that a careful analysis of the subject, considering the 
additional power house investment required to meet extra- 
ordinary demands, weight of cars, delay in traffic, etc., will show 
no benefit to the city roads except indirectly by stimulating the 
growth of cities and bringing to business houses some new and 
additional customers. 




The Central Electric Accounting Conference is an organiza- 
tion of the accounting officers of electric railways of the 
Central States, as its name indicates. The constitution of the 
conference restricts its membership to persons connected with 
electric railways operating in the States of Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Michigan, Kentucky and Western Pennsylvania. All 
of these sections are well represented in the roster of mem- 

The conference was formally organized on March 2, 1907. 
M. W. Glover, who was then auditor of the Ohio Electric 
Railway, conceived the idea of forming an association of 
the accounting officers of electric railways of neighboring- 
States, on the plan followed by similar associations of the 
steam railroads. At the organization meeting Mr. Glover was 
elected president of the conference, in which capacity he served 
for two terms. 

From its inception the conference was found to be a valuable 
organization. Its first important work was the formulation of 
rules governing the interchange of freight and passenger busi- 
ness by electric railways. The growth of this business had been 
so rapid that much difficulty was experienced by the railways 
in making proper settlements between themselves. The topo- 
graphy of the country, the density of rural population and the 
class of communities served by the interurban lines of the 
Central States were all favorable to the rapid development 
of traffic. The network of electric railway lines in this terri- 
tory was made up of a few large interurban systems and many 
smaller "feeders" and connections. Previous to the organiza- 
tion of the Central Electric Accounting Conference, the inter- 
line accounting of these lines was far from uniform and much 
difficulty was experienced in equitably pro rating the revenue 
from interline business. 

The uniform rules governing the accounting and settlements 
of interline business were adopted by the conference .in 1907, 
after careful consideration and extended discussion. In brief, 
these rules may be said to follow the general plan of steam 
road interline accounting. Certain modifications were made 
necessary, however, because of the peculiar conditions found 
in interurban railway operation. Other changes were con- 
sidered desirable as effecting economies. By taking advantage 
of the latest saving devices it was found possible to simplify 
the accounting methods and yet secure greater efficiency than 
by using certain features of the steam road system of account- 
ing. The steam railroads are hampered by the fact that any 
change in existing methods would be annoying and expensive, 
hence they find it better to avoid radical departures from some 
of the most antiquated methods. The electric railways have 
not had the misfortune of precedence in this respect, conse- 
quently they have been enabled to select the best features of 
modern accounting methods. 

The rules adopted were distributed in printed form to the 
members of the conference and have since been very generally 
observed by the electric railways operating in the conference 

In March, 1909, a special committee of the conference sub- 
mitted a set of uniform blanks to be used in the settlement of 
interline transactions. The conference adopted these blanks, 
after making some slight alterations, and the railways are now 
using the uniform printed matter, as well as the methods of 
settlement. The result has been very gratifying and there is 
none of the confusion which existed when each railway com- 
pany used a method of its own in reporting its traffic with 
connecting lines. 

The blanks and rules of the conference were made the basis 
of a report submitted at the Denver convention in October, 
1909, by the committee on interline accounting of the American 
Street & Interurban Railway Accountants' Association. This 
report was fully discussed in the convention and was adopted 
as submitted. In view of the fact that the National Associa- 
tion has adopted the Central Electric Accounting Conference 
plan of settlement for interline business it is altogether likely 
that in the future the plan will be generally followed throughout 
the country. 

The conference holds meetings quarterly, in the months of 
March, June, September and December. The program gener- 
ally consists of several papers on railway accounting and the 
resulting discussions are usually interesting and instructive. 

One of the valuable features of such an organization as the 
Central Electric Accounting Conference is its ability to get 
together upon short notice and take action upon present-day 
topics. In this respect the neighborly conference has a distinct 
advantage over the National body whose membership is distri- 
buted over an entire continent. The value of the "get to- 
gether" ability was shown in a convincing manner when the 
tentative classifications of accounts of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission were submitted for criticism. At that time 
the electric railways in several of the Central States met on 
call of the president of the Central Electric Accounting Con- 
ference and thoroughly discussed the tentative classifications. 
The uniform criticism which was subsequently forwarded by 
the several electric railways to the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission was received very favorably by the commission, as it 
bore evidence of a thorough knowledge of actual conditions 
and contained the suggestions of practical railroad men, un- 
animously agreed upon every feature of the subject under dis- 
cussion. In consequence most of the suggested changes were 
accepted and put into effect by the Interstate Commerce Com- 

The work of the conference in the future will be governed 
to a considerable extent by the trend of affairs. 

At its meeting in Dayton, Ohio, on Dec. 11, 1909, the con- 
ference adopted a basic plan for the uniform compilation of 
statistics relating to car-miles and car-hours. As is well 
known, the value of statistics of this character is almost nil 
unless the statistics are used for comparative purposes. The 
operation of the same property may be compared month by 
month or year by year. Divisions or lines operated by the same 
company may be compared with each other. Such statistics 
are valuable as throwing light upon the internal workings of the 
railway, but to stop there is to miss the greatest good of the 
statistical work. Comparison of property with property has 
always been unsatisfactory and always will be, as long as the 
interests in control are indifferent to the methods used in 
compiling statistics. A car-mile, for example, may be a mile 
run by a little single-truck city car weighing 10 tons with 60-hp 
motor equipment, or a 62- ft. interurban motor car weighing 50 
tons with 600-hp motor equipment. It may be a mile run by a 
motor and trailer, a single motor car, or a three-car train with 
multiple-unit control. Tf these varying conditions can be taken 
into consideration, and methods adopted that will lead to sub- 
stantial uniformity in the final results, statistics will be real 
and valuable instead of misleading and unsatisfactory, as they 
so often arc at present. 

If the conference can successfully grapple with such prob- 
lems as these and others that are bound to arise from time to 
time, it will continue to uphold its reputation as an organ iza 
tion of real value to its membership, 




I have followed the controversy with reference to the regu- 
lations about the enforcement of the corporation tax law with 
a great deal of interest, and think we are all indebted to the 
expert accountants who took a determined stand for an inter- 
pretation of the law which would be practical and sound from 
an accounting standpoint. At the same time, I have never felt 
alarmed over the possibilities of being compelled to report the 
income and expenses on a strictly cash basis. Some of my 
friends had suggested the possibility of hiring expert account- 
ants or of increasing their own office forces to meet the re- 
quirements of the law. Nothing of this kind appeared to me 
to be at all necessary, for I believed that any company which 
made an honest return in compliance with the spirit of the law 
would not be the subject of criticism. 

The spirit of the law is clearly stated in the first paragraph 
of Section 28. Boiled down, it reads as follows: "Every cor- 
poration * * * shall be subject to pay annually a special 
excise tax * * * equivalent to 1 per centum upon the entire 
net income over and above $5,000 received by it from all sources 
during such year, exclusive of amounts received by it as divi- 
dends upon stock of other corporations * * * subject to 
the tax hereby imposed." 

The law, as above stated, is clear, and is only made confusing 
by the balance of the act, stating the method of determining 
the net income, in which it would appear the lawmakers were 
attempting to combine the methods of accounting used by the 
corner grocery store and the large corporation, with the natu- 
ral result. 

If some of these instructions were to be interpreted as to 
reflect only cash transactions, it would become impossible to 
truly state the net income, and the law does not contemplate 
that any one should perform an impossibility. An account is a 
statement of facts. Accounts cannot state facts that do not 
exist. For example, if a railroad company owes a manufac- 
turing company $10,000, of which one-half is for current sup- 
plies used in maintenance and the other half is for new and 
additional equipment, and on the last day of the year makes a 
payment of $5,000 on account without specially applying it to 
any portion of the account, it becomes an impossibility to state 
what portion of the account was settled by that payment, be- 
cause, in fact, it did not settle anything in particular, but was 
simply a partial payment on the whole account. True, it would 
be possible to prepare a statement which would be approxi- 
mately correct, and if it had been determined that the net 
income should be prepared on the basis of actual cash receipts 
and expenses, I believe accounting officers could have prepared 
a statement which would have been reasonably correct and 
which would have fulfilled the spirit of the law. 

However, the Secretary of the Treasury in the recent inter- 
pretation placed upon the act has entirely cleared the atmo- 
sphere in the two rulings below quoted : 

"It is immaterial whether any item of gross income is evi- 
denced by cash receipts during the year or in such other man- 
ner as to entitle it to proper entry on the books of the corpora- 
tion from Jan. I to Dec. 31 for the year in which the return 
is made." 

"It is immaterial whether the deductions are evidenced by 
actual disbursements in cash or whether evidenced in such 
other way as to be properly acknowledged by the corporate 
officers, and so entered on the books as to constitute a liability 
against the assets of the corporation, stock company, association 
or insurance company making the return." 

These instructions are strictly in accordance with correct 
accounting and good common sense, and will, I have no doubt, 
command the approval of all accountants. From an accounting 
standpoint, there is nothing which now stands in the way to 
prevent an easy compliance with the law by transportation com- 


The problem of securing an adequate revenue from pas- 
senger fares appears to be the most serious issue now confront- 
ing the electric railway industry. In the early days of electric 
transportation the 5-cent fare unit was, on the whole, appro- 
priate to the standards and cost of service rendered. The roll- 
ing stock was composed of small, light cars, usually of the 
single-truck type; the speed of operation was relatively low; 
the power demands per car were moderate ; the cost of labor 
and materials was far below present figures ; comparatively 
light roadbed, track and line construction met the require- 
ments of the traffic, and the investment per mile of track 
varied from one-half to one-sixth that of the present, depend- 
ing upon the size of the community served and other local 
conditions. Even -in the larger cities the transfer facilities 
were greatly limited, and the average haul per passenger was 
much shorter than to-day. 

The standards and costs of service now rest upon an en- 
tirely different plane. The expansion of city systems into sub- 
urban territory has raised the average length of haul inde- 
pendently of other causes. The transfer situation has become 
serious, through its extension beyond reasonable limits. The 
purchasing power of the nickel from the standpoint of the 
passenger has greatly increased. From the point of view of 
the operating company, however, the nickel pays for the con- 
duct of considerably less transportation and for the mainte- 
nance of less service and equipment than a few years ago. The 
cost of power has been reduced to some extent by improved 
technical administration of generating and distributing equip- 
ment, but not enough to offset the enlarged demands of heavier 
cars operated at increased speeds. The growth in the size 
and weight of cars has increased the rolling stock investment 
account and necessitated the expenditure of large sums of 
money for physical plant, including heavier track and more 
permanent roadbed construction, multiplied capacities in power 
stations and lines and enlarged facilities for the economical 
maintenance of equipment. The advances of the past few years 
in the cost of labor and material have placed a premium upon 
new construction work and have narrowed the margin be- 
tween receipts and expenses. Under the early conditions, 
average fares of from 1 to 1% cents per mile enabled the 
companies to make progress ; to-day these returns are insuffi- 
cient to provide a reasonable dividend in many properties and 
maintain the most modern standards of service. The increased 
length of ride now possible upon a single fare of 5 cents makes 
it difficult for the larger city properties to earn a reasonable 
dividend, and only in a less degree does this condition bear up- 
on the companies of smaller size. The relatively great density 
of traffic in the larger city is sufficient to offset the burdens 
of the transfer, the extension of lines into outlying districts 
and the rising cost of operation. 

In the larger cities there must be some change in the trans- 
fer situation in order to secure a fair return to the companies. 
Scientific administration of properties is insufficient to meet the 
rising costs of service rendered to the traveling public. The 
average haul per fare must be reduced, through the restriction 
of the transfer privilege or the imposition of some sort of a 
charge for transfers issued. The policy of selling fares at 
reduced rates must be closely scrutinized, and in many instances 
abolished. The fare unit in itself will have to be raised to 6 
cents or over in cases where it is clear that a line cannot be 
operated with reasonable profit on a 5-cent fare basis, or else 
the fare zones will have to be shortened. Otherwise, a line 
honestly capitalized will have to reduce its capital to a point 
below the actual investment in the property. Denial of a rea- 
sonable return upon a proper investment and insistence upon 
the highest standards of service closely approach confiscation. 
The maintenance of a reasonable return through adequate fares 
and controlled transfer situations, through economical adminis- 
tration and a liberal executive policy is to the advantage of the 

January i, 1910.] 



public as well as of the companies, for in the last analysis 
the cost of an unsuccessful utility operation and the benefits 
of a profitable public service fall upon the community supplied 
with facilities. So long as present fare limitations apply, the 
expansion of existing systems and the development of new 
enterprises can only be retarded. 



It is quite plain to the student of electric railway problems 
that the most serious mistake that has been made, and is still 
being made, by both the public generally and many of the 
people responsible, or who should be responsible, for the proper 
treatment of electric railway properties, is in thoughtlessly 
treating and handling them as "cheap John" concerns, when 
exactly the opposite should be the case. 

Every "Tom, Dick and Harry" seems to think it is an easy 
matter to build, equip and operate an electric, commonly called 
street, railway, and it is true that a great many undertake such 
propositions and after expending the money of themselves 
and friends make failures. So are there a great many failures 
of steam railway undertakings, and, doubtless, more real 
"cheap John" or "jerkwater" steam roads, the most of them now 
being branches of the larger systems of steam railways, than 
there are of such electric railways ; but the idea seems to 
prevail, almost generally, that, if a neighborhood or village 
wants a railway, all there is to be done is to organize a com- 
pany, even though a neighborhood company, sell a few thousand 
dollars of stock, and a railroad will be the result. The actual 
results from such undertakings are, as a general proposition, 
more failures than successes and the construction, or partial 
construction, of a lot of railroad mileage under misapprehension 
as to the amount of traffic necessary to support a railway line, 
even though its mileage be limited. The time for constructing 
cheap railroads and cheap operation of railroads is fast passing 
away; in fact, has long since passed in this part of the country. 

It seems to be beyond the comprehension of many railway 
promoters, as well as many railway operating men, that elec- 
tric railways cost, if well constructed and equipped, more than 
double the cost of construction and equipping the same mileage 
of steam railways. In the first place, the rights-of-way, both 
street or highway, franchises and private rights-of-way, cost 
more for electric railways and are more restricted and burden- 
some than for steam railways. 

In the State, and in many States, electric (street) railway 
franchises have by law to be, after being applied for, advertised 
and sold at auction to the highest bidder. In Los Angeles and 
many other cities and towns in this State laws have been 
passed, at the behest of the advocates of municipal and govern- 
ment ownership of public utilities, restricting the li'fe of such 
franchises to 21, and in some cases only 20 years, which, of 
course, makes such franchises uninviting, as the railways can- 
not dispose of securities covering short-lived properties; and, 
notwithstanding these adverse conditions and the provisions 
by such franchises for the payment by the railway company of 
2 per cent of its gross earnings from lines constructed under 
them, along comes the United States Government with its new 
corporation tax law, imposing another percentage tax upon the 
earnings, which simply means a still further tax, and adding that 
much more to the already heavy burden of the railway com- 


Then, after all the restrictions, the first cost of the right- 
of-way, franchise or otherwise, is only the beginning. 

After rebuilding and paving or repaying streets, frequently 
to the extent of two-thirds their width, the railways are re- 
stricted as to the use of them ; are subjected to all manner of 
assessments, taxes and whatever licenses, in addition to all 
these, any and every city and town council, or board of super- 

visors, generally politicians, sees fit to levy, and from which 
there does not seem to be any adequate recourse. 

With the steam roads the conditions are entirely different. 
If a steam road wants a franchise for tracks over streets, all 
it does is to apply for it and for such term of years as may 
be desired up to 50 years. Such applications are passed upon 
by the councils and boards of trustees, or supervisors, and 
granted or declined, generally granted, without any advertising 
or bidding. In fact, the State charters of the steam roads 
generally give them the right to build upon and occupy with 
tracks public highways not under the jurisdiction of city or 
town municipal bodies. 

The burden of crossings with steam roads, cost and main- 
tenance is, as a general rule, upon the electric road, whether the 
crossings be in the streets under franchise rights or other- 
wise. This crossing and special work expense is one of the 
largest items of the cost, both construction and maintenance, 
of anything like an extensive system of electric railway lines. 

The first cost of the most of the interurban passenger cars 
of the Pacific Electric Railway Company, equipped and ready 
for service, several hundred in number, averages about $10,000 
per car. 

How many steam railway coaches in the country cost any- 
thing approximating such figures? 

The cost of constructing up-to-date electric railways, through 
localities able to support such transportation facilities, is, mile 
for mile, about three times that of a steam railway. 

The cost of operation, due to the enormously large number of 
employees necessary for conducting suitable and anything like 
satisfactory transportation, is, for the same mileage, more than 
twice, if not three times, that of steam roads. As an example 
of this : The Pacific Electric Railway, with a distance mileage 
of roadway of approximately 325 miles, carries upon its operat- 
ing pay-rolls a monthly average of more than 3500 employees, 
of whom approximately 1000 are trainmen, motormen and 
conductors ; shopmen 600 to 800, and correspondingly large num- 
bers in all other departments. How many passenger cars, cost- 
ing a less price per car, and how many employees are required 
by the steam roads for operating the same mileage? One- 
half? No; not one-third! 

Still the prevailing impression seems to be that electric rail- 
ways and their service are cheap and should be cheaper; and, 
strange to say, the most electric railway owners and managers 
have tried, and are still trying, to conform to this view of the 
matter in handling the properties under their management, thus 
encouraging and fostering the general belief that it costs next 
to nothing to build, equip and operate electric railways. 


As a whole the owners and promoters of electric railway 
properties, men of means, who should also be men of experi- 
ence, are responsible for the failures of their properties to meet 
their operating expenses and fixed charges, due to insistence 
upon "getting along with the public" without friction and 
lawsuits, without considering and realizing the dear public, 
like Oliver Twist, continue!"; to demand more; yes, more and 

Every manager knows that the general demand is for im- 
proved service as well as improved and more expensive equip- 
ment and facilities generally. The public demands that the 
employees be better paid in support of the demands of the 
employees themselves, but let the electric railway company make 
a move toward increasing its rates a half cent or a cent per 
passenger or per trip, or toward effecting any economy in the 
direction of readjusting its service by cutting out a few light 
and losing trips, or correcting abuses of the transfer privileges 
and limiting the use of transfers and commuters' tickets to 
strictly their legitimate purposes, and a howl goes up all along 
1 he line and turns loose upon the company every demagogue 
and "citizen fixit" who can get the newspapers to print his 
views and his name. 

Electric railway taxes, licenses and like fixed charges are 
almost constantly being increased arbitrarily by political as 



[Vol. XXXV. No. i. 

sessors and municipal bodies, principally for the purpose of 
showing their constituents they are doing something to earn 
the salaries they are drawing from the public, and because the 
public service corporations are "easy marks" for them. The 
Pacific Electric's taxes have been practically doubled over what 
they were only two years ago, with very little additional mile- 
age and equipment. 

The price of almost everything used in the construction and 
operation of electric railways, as well as wages, is constantly 
advancing, and we are expected to meet these conditions with- 
out increasing passengers' fares and rates one iota. 

Does the ordinary person or electric railway manager stop to 
think how the 5-cent street carfare originated, and that half 
a generation ago it was considered cheap for an uncomfortable 
ride in an uncomfortable horse or mule-car, and that such 
rides were limited to a few miles, at most, and transfers were 
unheard of and unexpected ? Why is it the public does not 
object to paying largely increased hotel rates, or higher prices 
generally for the necessaries for living, without protest or 
raising a fuss about the increased cost of living, and at the 
same time raises such a row over the refusal of a transfer or 
the increase of a passenger fare by a cent or such matter, due 
to the efforts of the railway company to meet its increased ex- 
penses while constantly improving its facilities and service? 
If a citizen is charged $1 for a steak he has been in the habit 
of buying for 75 cents or 80 cents, or 25 cents for a cigar he has 
been getting for 15 cents or 20 cents, does he raise a row 
about it and run to the newspapers, city councils or legislative 
bodies complaining of the "robbery?" No! Why? Because 
upon being told the cost of the article has increased, he says he 
believes in the policy of "live and let live" and lets it go at that. 
But let the street railway, or any other railway company, at- 
tempt to meet its fast increasing expenses and public demands 
in the same manner, and note the "tempest in a teapot" that is 

The costs of constructing and operating electric railways in 
an up-to-date manner have increased correspondingly with the 
cost of operating first-class hotels and other enterprises of a 
public or semi-public nature and with the general increase in 
the cost of living. 


Then why cannot the electric railway companies increase 
their prices by an amount corresponding to the increased cost 
of their service? 

The electric railway managements thetfiselves have a large 
share in the responsibility for such adverse conditions and 
general beliefs and lack of understanding on the part of the 
public of the actual necessities for fair and living revenues for 
their railways. . * 

They have themselves ijheapened their properties and their 
service by voluntarily,**^ not upe"n noisy demands by agitators, 
reducing fares orfe^fcejistpn of transfer limits, etc. 

In many. mnn# cases where city lines have been extended be- 
yond city limits, as they Existed when franchises were secured, 
and even where interurban lines have been built between nearby 
towns and cities, no notice has been taken of the increased mile- 
age and consequent increased operating and maintenance ex- 
penses, and the city 5-cent fare has been allowed to apply almost 
indefinitely. In many cases where city lines have been ex- 
tended to outlying districts, Government posts, smelters, parks, 
etc., with little or no local traffic between terminals, the 5-cent 
fare, like the Constitution following the flag, has followed to the 
ends of the rails of the electric roads ; and not only is this too 
often the case, but the transfer habit has been allowed to follow 
to the same extent. One of the best known firms of street and 
electric railway promoters and owners in the United States has 
done more damage to the electric interurban railway interest in 
this respect than can well be reckoned, and is found, sooner or 
later, to suffer severely for its carelessness or recklessness in 
the respect indicated, which seems to indicate either incom- 
petent management, or misinformation and misguided judg- 
ment. Incompetence on the part of the owners as well as on 

the part of managers, because the owners employ the managers. 

As one example of many of the public's view of the electric 
railways operating cost : A shipper of cement in large quan- 
tities recently offered the Pacific Electric a shipment of several 
thousand tons of cement from a port to a point to which the 
rate is 80 cents per ton, a very low rate for the haul. The 
shipper's condition upon which he would route the business 
via the electric road was that it should cut the rate below the 
published tariff. Upon being told that this electric road's 
freight rates are the same as the steam roads and its service 
quite superior, which latter fact he conceded, he "cussed" the 
office out, saying he could not see any use for electric roads 
unless they were to cut the rates. He routed his shipments via 
the steam road. He was and still is under the general im- 
pression that it doesn't cost anything to own and operate elec- 
tric railways. Why this impression? Because of incompetent 
or inexperienced managements of electric railways. 

As a general thing where electric railways have entered into 
the package, express, or freight carrying business, they have 
done so at ridiculously low and unremunerative rates and re- 
sorted to irregular methods of securing and handling the 


I am told that in many parts of the country the interurban 
electric roads take boxes of freight, boots and shoes, hats, 
clothing, etc., from the trade or jobbing centers into the country 
along their lines on the platforms of passenger cars at rates 
very much less than those of the old established steam roads, 
thus giving very superior express service at less than fair and 
living freight rate, while, as a matter of fact, the service of the 
electric roads, being superior to that of the steam roads, the 
electric roads should, if any difference in rates is to be made, 
get higher rates, particularly on their freight and express serv- 
ice, on the general rules that the "servant is worthy of his 
hire" — in other words, the buyer paying the value for what he 
gets. The question is how long can they last at it, and do they 
realize how much such practices are losing for their com- 
panies ? 

How many men doing this for their companies know what the 
service is costing and look ahead far enough to realize what the 
result of this kind of thing will be? 

In looking over the rates of one interurban road, which was, 
and is still, doing a package and freight business, I found 
rates provided as follows: "Meat, little pieces 5 cents; big 
pieces 10 cents; baby carriages, without baby 10 cents, with 
baby 25 cents," and so on throughout the list; the conductors 
being provided with the sheets, and using their own discretion 
as to what is a little or big piece of meat. 

Is is any wonder that the established steam roads refuse to 
join the electric roads in the application and prorating of joint 
through rates? Can they be blamed for refusing to do so as 
long as such practices by the electric roads prevail? 

Every traffic man of experience must know that the steam 
roads, having been in the business for so long a time, have the 
carrying business down to an exact science, and that competi- 
tion in transportation long since brought all rates down to 
figures as low as the roads can well exist on and keep apace 
with the demands of the times for improved service at increased 
operating expenses, and that it is no longer a question of com- 
petition in rates but in service. 

It is very easy for anyone to reduce rates and give more 
for the money. Any incompetent man can do that, but, oh ! 
how hard it is to increase rates and fares correspondingly with 
increased operating expenses and get a fair price for the 
service given. It takes an able and competent man to do so, and 
nine times out of ten he sacrifices his position and his reputa- 
tion making the effort and becomes the most unpopular manager 
in the company, both with the public and the company for 
which he is working. 

The general impression seems to be that street and electric 
railways are "mints" when it comes to making money, and it 
is quite true that some of them have made a little money from 

January i, 19 10.] 



operation, but how many? The number is extremely small as 
compared to the number of companies and the amount of 
capital invested in the business. 

Many companies, or the owners thereof, may have made 
money out of electric railways by selling their stocks" and bonds 
and "unloading" them, leaving the properties in fit condition 
for the hands of the courts and receivers. But how many 
electric roads have really made their fixed charges, taxes, 
licenses, street and road assessments, etc., and paid any divi- 
dends upon their legitimate stock, and at the same time per- 
formed good service and maintained their properties, roadway, 
equipment and facilities in first-class shape as they should be 
from their transportation revenues? 

As already stated, they are the exception and are very few 
and far between in the electric railway world, and unless the 
owners and managers of such properties awaken to a realiza- 
tion of the situation that is now confronting them and unite in 
getting the governing powers, National, State and municipal, 
to allow them fair returns for their service and upon the 
capital invested in them, they are, before many years more 
elapse, going to be fewer. 



This year, as last, a meeting of the executive committee of the 
American Street & Interurban Railway Engineering Association 
was held as soon as possible after the annual convention, so as 
to plan the work of the coming year, select the committees and 
allow the maximum time for committee work. There were five 
standing committees last year. Each presented a report at the 
Denver convention and it is a matter worthy of note that every 
one of these reports was ready for distribution and was sent 
out with the first package of papers issued from the secretary's 

It is unnecessary to review for the readers of the Electric 
Railway Journal any portion of the work accomplished at 
Denver. The convention was all that could have been desired 
and the reports submitted by the committees were concise and 
complete and the discussions were well maintained. The visit 
to Denver was also particularly instructive to the members of 
the Engineering Association, because of the novel type of cars 
and track in use in that city. If any criticism of the sessions 
of the association could be made, it is that there was an attempt 
to cover too much ground. It is undoubtedly true that the time 
at the disposal of the association did not permit it to devote as 
much time to all of the reports as might have been desired and 
which they deserved. It should be remembered, however, that 
one advantage of committee work is that the entire range of 
investigation required in any topic does not have to be done on 
the floor of the hall. A great deal of the preliminary study of 
any subject can best be undertaken in the committee meetings 
so that the association has to consider only the carefully selected 
and final product. Again, the committee reports presented this 
year so many interesting topics that it would have been impos- 
sible to have exhausted their possibilities of debate if the con- 
vention had been extended continuously over a week. Both of 
these conditions form arguments, consequently, not against 
association work, but in its favor, and as many of the subjects 
taken up in the reports presented at Denver will be continued 
by committees during the year, there will be ample opportunity 
for their further consideration. 

Among the topics which will form part of (he program of the 
Engineering Association during the coming year will be those 
connected with mechanical and electrical problems of heavy elec- 
tric railroads. This branch of electrical engineering seems to fall 
particularly within the province of the Engineering Association. 
Most of the questions relating to this class of engineering arc 
similar in kind, though perhaps not in degree, to those con- 
fronting street and interurban railway companies and arc even 
more closely approximated on the subway and elevated railroads 

of the country. The question of standards for the heavier class 
of electric transportation has become serious and calls for im- 
mediate attention. Some work along these lines had already 
been undertaken, especially by the equipment committee of this 
association, but under the direction of our special committee on 
heavy electric traction, which has just been appointed, progress 
can be made much more rapidly and systematically. 

The greatest need of the association this year is more mem- 
bers and the hearty support of all member companies. Our 
committees for 1910 will soon begin work on the preparation 
of their reports and many of them may ask for information by 
mail on data sheets. Every effort will be made to select and 
frame the questions so as to minimize the work of replying to 
them, but it is very important for the committees to have the 
hearty co-operation of the managements in securing data in re- 
gard to practice in different parts of the country. With this 
information available the Engineering Association can be of 
even greater value to the industry than ever before. 



While it is true, as you say, that "a large part of the prob- 
lems which affect one property affect all in some degree," yet 
there is so great a difference in the degree by which they are 
affected that almost all questions not purely technical are in a 
way local. 

We, in the growing cities of the West, have to make ouf 
business to a considerable extent, while you in New York 
devise the best means of carrying the people that are clamoring 
for transportation. Your patrons are waiting for you while 
we are. in a measure, waiting for them and are always building 
in advance of present needs. This difference affects all con- 
sideration of questions of taxation, franchises, fares and trans- 
fers, and an argument from our point of view may not be at 
all pertinent in large and older cities where from the very 
beginning of the industry the business was there for the taking. 
The most difficult problem for us is to keep up with the reason- 
able demands of the public and get a living while doing it. 

In a city covering so much ground as Denver, the increasing 
length of the 5-cent ride, even though confined to the city 
limits, is a problem of constantly growing anxiety. We know 
that a part of our business is done at a loss, but we feel that, 
having the whole city, it is our duty to do this losing business 
because we have the good lines to support it. There is, how- 
ever, a limit to it and we find difficulty often in deciding where 
to draw the line and in keeping a proper balance between the 
good and the bad ends of the business. 

These thoughts, of course, apply with equal force to trans- 
fers which are only an artificial method of lengthening the 
5-cent ride. We have avoided, of course, transferring so as 
to allow a round trip, but, much more to the point, we have 
avoided and intend to avoid the deadly transfer on a transfer 
which has done such an injury to lines in larger cities. Our 
idea of a transfer is not to allow a passenger to get from any- 
where to anywhere for 5 cents, but to give a transfer good on 
one specified line to be used within a reasonable time for one 
fare. So far and no further we consider the interests of the 
public and our own to be identical. 

In connection with these matters, while we pay franchise 
taxes in addition to taxes on property, we fully believe, from 
the standpoint of the public interest alone, that franchise and 
all other taxes not paid by everyone are indefensible and we 
are constantly trying to show the public that a special tax of 
any kind is, so far as it goes, a limit upon the service and a 
wrong to the poorer part of the community. We hold ami we 
preach the quantity and quality of service are by far the best 
contribution that street ear companies ran make to the "com- 
mon good." 

And in this same line of thought we think that long-term and 
even perpetual franchises properly guarded, are for the best 
interest of the public. This heresy, too, we preach at every 



[Vol. XXXV. No. i. 

opportunity at the risk of being charged with false pleading, 
selfish interest and with forgetfulness of the rights of the 
people to the streets. But all of these unfashionable heresies 
which I have expressed are true, and if hammered into the 
people, will stick soon with some and finally with all. All 
franchises being revocable if the public good required under 
eminent domain should be in the true interest of the public 
perpetual. There is no use, in a street railway journal, in set- 
ting forth the public injuries that result from limited fran- 
chises. Recent history is too full of them. 

You will perhaps think that what I have written is fitter for 
an audience at a town meeting than for one of street railway 
managers, but I really think that we should take high ground in 
these matters and, so far as we can, help the public in the di- 
rection of straight thinking about their and our affairs. 





During the past year the Accountants' Association, through 
its classification committee, has taken up with the Interstate 
Commerce Commission many questions in reference to the 
application of the new system of accounts under certain con- 
ditions, and has obtained rulings which have been distributed 
by the commission in pamphlet form. Many of these questions 
were important, and the decisions show a logical interpretation 
of the theory of accounting. 

A joint committee was appointed by the Engineering Associa- 
tion and by our association to bring about a more uniform cost 
system for shop and power station work. A large amount of 
data has been secured from member companies, and progress 
made toward compiling the information. Both committees were 
continued for the coming year and no doubt the report will be 
presented in good time so that the recommendations can be 
discussed and acted upon at the next convention of the associa- 

Another question, that of statistics for mterurban electric- 
lines, was brought before the last convention. A large num- 
ber of the members of our association operate interurban lines 
which have been developed by extensions and consolidations 
into large systems that have already become an important ele- 
ment in the transportation field. With their development has 
arisen the necessity for more uniform and more serviceable 
statistics, and this subject is of such interest that it should be 
given more attention during the coming year. 

There is also a demand for data as to the prevailing practice 
in many branches of our work, such as methods of paying em- 
ployees, computing mileage, handling invoices, stores, etc., not 
with the expectation or intention of bringing about any uni- 
formity, because the varying local conditions will make this 
impossible, but that the experience of others may be available 
as a guide. 

Reviewing the work of the association, it seems that up to 
the present time its members have given much of their time 
and attention to their duties to the executive officers of their 
companies. This is unquestionably of most importance, but the 
educational work of the association must soon broaden along 
other lines, and at this time especially accounting officers may 
well consider their duties and responsibilities to stockholders, 
to investors and to the public. One kind of statistics furnished 
for years, the cost of carrying passangers, is a subject of great 
interest, and no doubt many accountants have theories about 
some items of cost in addition to operation and maintenance 
which should be added to their reports to give the correct 
answer. A number of years ago there was no experience to 
guide them in solving some questions, but for some time electric 
lines have been operating under conditions as nearly uniform as 
can be expected in the future, and accounting officers should 
work out this important problem and be prepared to defend 
their analyses, for at the present time in many localities the 

public is greatly interested in this question, and executive 
officers and directors, too, are giving this basic item of cost and 
the other problems which grow out of it more serious at- 



Street railways as a thing by themselves have a history of 
50 or 60 years— a large part of it being a blank; but street 
railway service is a branch of transportation in general which 
is as old as almost anything else. The old street car was, of 
course, a horse car. It began as a slightly transformed coach 
or stage, with the driver sitting up in front, drawing $1 per 
day, and with passengers mounting on a step at the rear. Ex- 
cept for the two tracks that it ran upon it was very little dif- 
ferent from any other omnibus. No doubt all the old rules 
for omnibuses were applied to the new vehicle. It would be 
interesting to inquire how long a time elapsed before the 
people made an ordinance requiring that these tracks were not 
to be continuously held by other vehicles. I will venture the 
guess that it was some considerable time, and that the owners 
and drivers of other vehicles feigned to believe that their own 
rights in the street were grievously infringed. But here was 
one change made from the older times ; here was the begin- 
ning of the specialization of the track. 

I do not know what the old custom was, but I have no doubt 
that at one time omnibuses stopped wherever a passenger sig- 
naled them. Of course, they stopped at the curb. Here, then, 
when passengers went out onto the street to get a car and 
when the car itself stopped only at the street intersections 
was another considerable change from the old time. In fact, 
this limitation of stops at the street intersections was so great 
a change and so sudden an innovation that the world has not 
become entirely accustomed to it yet, and in many cities will 
still be found ordinances requiring street cars to stop in the 
middle of long blocks. 

Now, when the above changes had been instituted, the street 
car of former days was fairly well provided for. It was 
drawn by horses or mules, and there was no particular harm, 
if the slower traffic teams could occasionally be induced to" 
leave the track, in allowing the street car teams and the other 
teams to move along together. The cars, too, were light, and 
the speed was slow, so there was no great loss of time in 
making these one-block stops. Moreover, the cities in the old 
days were much smaller, and what there was of them was 
more congested, so that the trips were short even with the 
slow speed and the frequent stops. 

The circumstances of street railway service are now, of 
course, vastly different. Here in Chicago, instead of a service 
extending y/ 2 miles to the "Limits" on the north, or 3 miles 
to Western Avenue or 4 miles to Thirty-ninth Street, we 
have true street car service extending to the north end of 
Evanston, about 15 miles; to the west line of Maywood, n}4 
miles; to Jefferson, g l / 2 miles; to Lyons, a miles; to the south 
limits of the city, 17 miles. The distances are now three 
times what they were in 1875 and twice what they were in 1885. 

At the same time the cars have increased in size and weight. 
They were formerly mere stages on car wheels, weighing, 
perhaps, 2 tons. They are now like the cars on steam roads, 
and weigh 25 tons. The motive power is no longer the horse, 
with its limited speed, but electricity. In 1875 here in Chicago 
we had about 400,000 people ; now we have 2,500,000. More- 
over, the 400,000 lived close together and did not need to ride 
on the street cars ; the 2,500,000 live with great distances to 
traverse, and depend on the street cars. 

The people of Chicago have for a considerable time felt a 
strong need of radical improvements in the street railway 
service. Many of the necessary improvements have been made. 

January i, 1910.] 



Since 1906 about $40,000,000 has been spent in Chicago largely 
in the physical rehabilitation of cars and tracks, but with all 
this outlay of money on the physical parts of the system the 
method of operation remains practically the same as in the 
simple old horse-car days. The cars still divide the right-of- 
way with the teams, and they still stop at each street intersec- 
tion and "in the middle of long blocks where signs are placed." 

I believe that easily practicable changes in the system of 
operation would add as much or more to the comfort and 
efficiency of street railway service -as has the expenditure of 
this large sum of money. I see in the history of transporta- 
tion in the past, and in evolution of all kinds, assurance that 
presently the large cities will ask for and demand a street 
car service unimpeded by other traffic, and with stopping 
points for the cars at intervals corresponding to the length 
of the routes traversed. I understand that the first railroad 
charter in the United States provided that the rails should be 
so designated and laid as to allow wagons to use them, but 
when the steam cars attained a high speed the road of the 
steam car was made special to itself. In the early history of 
steam railroading, too, all the passenger trains stopped at every 
station, but now this is changed, to the vast improvement of 
the service. 

While cities have been multiplying their population and still 
more rapidly extending their limits, there are yet some things 
that remain as they were, and to which, if possible, all other 
things must be made to fit. Thus, the people now who live 
6 or 8 miles from the center of the city have still only 24 
hours a day in which to live and do their work; they have 
no more time to devote to riding on street cars than they had 
when the trips were half as long. Whatever the maximum 
speed of a car, trips from the center of the city to the resi- 
dence district will take more time than people can afford to 
use if the cars are to be obliged to work their way like a 
wedge through the other traffic. And again, if there were no 
other traffic upon the tracks, and the cars still followed the 
old horse-car rule of stopping every block (not forgetting to 
stop in the middle of long blocks where signs are placed), the 
average trip would still consume altogether too much time. 

T thoroughly believe that, to as great an extent as possible, 
the right-of-way of street cars should be reserved for street 
car use, and that it should not, except when necessary, be used 
at all by other traffic. I know that a very great saving would 
be made in time, and a vast addition made to the satisfaction 
of the public if the number of stops were to be greatly cur- 

I think that the public authorities and the street railway men 
should study this problem with their minds entirely free from 
old methods, which are to a great extent merely an unmeaning 
heritage from the old days of stages and omnibuses. T think 
that the kinds and amounts of traffic upon streets should be 
ascertained and that then rules should be made governing 
this traffic, according to its kind and amount. For instance, 
I know that about one and a half million people who pay 
cash fares ride on the surface roads of Chicago every day of 
the year, and that this traffic is one of enormous importance. 
Tt would not be difficult to determine what the team traffic 
amounts to : we know that in Chicago there are about 2800 
miles of streets and 1400 miles of alleys, and that less than 
450 miles of Chicago streets are occupied by street car tracks. 
On a street that has a double track 16 ft. is taken up by the 
tracks, and outside of this width about 22 ft. remains. Now, 
it seems to me very likely that a little figuring would show 
that this 16 ft. on the 450 miles of streets could well be de- 
voted almost exclusively to the use and accommodation of 
these 1,500,000 daily travelers, and that when the 22 ft. re- 
maining on these 450 miles of streets, together with the entire 
roadway on the other 2350 miles of streets not occupied by 
tracks, are left to the exclusive use of team traffic, the latter 
has all that it needs, and certainly all that its comparative im- 
portance would justify. The paved streets in Chicago amount 
to 1618 miles. 

I am absolutely satisfied that a large proportion of the 

stopping places should be eliminated. Unless boulevards or 
steam or railroad crossings interfere, or unless the blocks are 
of unusual length, street cars in the large cities should have 
established stopping places at every fourth block. 

I have made a great many observations, and find in brief 
that on the lines of the Chicago Railways this rule as to estab- 
lishment of stopping places would eliminate 64 per cent of 
the stopping points ; out of 199,000 actual stops counted 53,000 
were unnecessary, or 26 per cent. I find that of all passen- 
gers carried on the trips observed 68 per cent already made 
use of the main stopping points, and I found that only 16 per 
cent of the passengers would be at all inconvenienced by the 
establishment of these stopping points. 

Between Monroe and Dearborn Streets and Devon Avenue 
there are now 125 points at which cars will stop for pas- 
sengers. Of course, the cars do not, in fact, stop every block, 
but in the rush hours the percentage of stops becomes very 
large. There should be but 46 stopping points on this line, 
instead of 125. On Lincoln Avenue the 71 present stopping 
points should be reduced to 23 ; on Ogden Avenue the present 
108 should be reduced to 40, and on Madison Street the pres- 
ent 84 should be reduced to 30. These figures assume that in 
the downtown district the cars will stop once at each inter- 

I believe that both of the changes which I suggest here are 
practically bound to be brought about. The rapidly growing 
population of the cities and the more rapidly growing area of 
the cities demand these changes. The benefits from these 
changes will be many. They will not only greatly shorten the 
time, but they will make the schedule far more certain. They 
will do away, too, with some of the extreme vexations and 
irritations of street car travel. Every one now who has 
definite hours to keep must allow from 15 minutes to half an 
hour every day for possible and even probable delays beyond 
the time required by the actual schedule. 

With the best of cars, the best of roadbeds, with abundant 
power and with the energy of the people and their keenness 
in getting at the reason and logic of things, it seems to me 
that it will not be very long before the old haphazard horse- 
car methods will be abandoned and street-car service be made 
rapid and certain. 




For some time the question of lighter city cars has been most 
carefully considered by railway managers and car builders. 
After the discontinuance of short single-truck cars, which were 
superseded on most of the larger roads by cars having double- 
trucks and greater capacity, the trend of practice was toward 
the use of still larger and heavier cars. This tendency con- 
tinued until in many places the cost of operation, from the in- 
creased weight, became such a factor that railway managers 
began to turn their attention to the possibilities of using a car 
which would be much lighter but would have a slightly de- 
creased carrying capacity. A number of experiments have been 
made and show that for most types of service and under 
ordinary conditions it is easily possible to build a car varying 
in length of body between 28 ft. and 32 ft. and fitted with 
pay-as-you-enter platforms, which seem now to be almost 
universally used, light enough to enable the car to be operated 
by two motors and mounted on single-motor trucks. At the 
same time the electrical manufacturing companies have de- 
veloped for such a service a light motor of increased capacity, 
which, in proportion to its output, makes a two-motor equip- 
ment weigh much less than a four-motor equipment. 

The best construction to obtain lightness and strength is 
governed by so many conditions that it is almost impossible to 
give any fixed rule for obtaining these results. In some in 
stances lightness may best be obtained by the use of steel un- 
dernames strengthened by steel plates reaching to the windows. 



[Vol. XXXV. No. r. 

In other instances it is better to build cars almost entirely of 
wood with strengthening steel members in the underframes 
and platforms. I believe, however, that more intelligent effort 
is being directed now toward the economic utilization of every 
pound of weight in a car body than at almost any previous 

In the case of interurban equipment, managers do not ap- 
pear to consider the question of lightness as important as other 
features which affect the operation of their roads. The ten- 
dency has been rather to use a large and proportionately heavier 
car with a view of competing with cars of steam railways. 

The American Street & Interurban Railway Association 
standardization committee has been doing excellent work in 
endeavoring to standardize a number of wearing parts on 
car trucks, notably wheels and brake shoes. Its efforts are be- 
ing appreciated by the different roads and its specifications are 
being used largely in orders for new equipment. This principle 
of standardization can be, and no douM will be, extended 
gradually with benefit to the industry. 



The most important problem to the street railway industry 
to-day, in my opinion, is : How long can the nickel remain the 
flat rate of fare for unlimited street transportation within 
large cities? 

The tendency of diminishing profits at the 5-cent fare is 
shown from the following brief consideration of the income 
account : 

A. Gross Receipts. 

It is believed that, due to the recent experiences in Cleveland, 
Philadelphia, New York City and elsewhere, the tendency will 
be away from a further imposition of decreased fares with un- 
limited transfers, such as six tickets for a quarter, 4 cents 
cash ; seven tickets for a quarter and 3 cents cash. The charge 
made for transfers in Cleveland indicates this tendency. 

In large cities there is a greatly increased investment obliga- 
tion with increased gross earnings ; as the city expands the 
transportation interests must keep pace, providing, first, surface 
lines ; second, elevated railroads, and third, subways. The 
investment per mile of street quadruples approximately at each 
of these steps. 

The larger the city the longer the ride and the slower the 
speed on the surface: real estate and operations become more 
expensive. The largest cities sometimes demand the under- 
ground trolley for surface railways. 

Street railway rates should be determined as scientifically as 
are those for steam railroads, electric light, etc. All other 
transportation rates, such as steam railroads, steamboats, stage 
coaches, cabs, etc., are based on a charge per weight-mile and, 
as the passenger will average about 150 lb., in passenger trans- 
portation, this unit is usually the passenger-mile. 

The 5-cent nickel is a convenient fare piece and its use as a 
flat rate has been advocated largely because street railways 
owners and managers have thought it would produce more than 
a reasonable return. In large cities with unlimited transfers 
it is questionable to-day whether this provides as much as a 
reasonable rate. 

B. Operating Expenses. 

The tendency of increased cost of operation is shown for the 
period 1902 to 1907 by an increase of the operating ratio for the 
street railways of the United States from 57.5 per cent to 
60.2 per cent of gross earnings, due largely to 

1. Increase of service per 5-cent passenger, caused by in- 
creased length of ride, from : 

1. Increase of populated area. This has resulted in a de- 
crease of passenger receipts per mile of track of the 
larger street railways during recent years. 

2. Increased use of transfers. The per cent of transfer 
to fare passengers for the entire United States has in- 

creased from 22.3 per cent to 26.8 per cent during the 
same period. 

2. Increased cost of labor, due to increased cost of living, 
high tariff, gold production, etc., is shown as follows: 

1902. 1907. 

1. Wages per employee $605 $658 

2. Wages per car-mile, cents 7.1 8.5 

3. Wages per cent of gross earnings 32.7 33.0 

The increased rate of wages is offset partly by more wholesale 
business and by use of labor-saving devices. 

3. Increased cost of materials and supplies. The average 
wholesale prices of railroad materials and supplies, as reported 
by the United States Bureau of Labor, show large increases 
from 1897 to 1907. For the period from 1902 to 10,07 the cost of 
materials and supplies of street railways of the United States, 
as evidenced by operating expenses, less wages and salaries, 
increased from approximately 4.7 cents to 6.2 cents per car-mile, 
or from approximately 21.9 per cent to 24. per cent of gross 

4. Increase due to heavier weight of cars per seat. The 
weight of 650 lb. per passenger seat of the single-truck car of 
1900 compares with over 1300 lb. for the double-track four- 
motor pay-as-you-enter car of 1909. The cost of transporting 
this increased weight has been estimated at from 6 cents to 
10 cents per pound per year. This accounts largely for the in- 
creased power consumption per car-mile of recent years. 

5. Increased cost of maintenance due to higher standards re- 
quired by : 

1. More scientific management. 

2. Public opinion as expressed generally and through 

3. Heavier rolling stock and increased cost of labor and 
materials, as stated above. 

4. Renewals due to wear charged to operating expenses, 
where formerly capitalized. 

The total cost of maintenance charged to operating ex- 
penses for the larger street railways has increased con- 
siderably during recent years, both per car-mile and in 
percentage of gross earnings. 

6. Increased cost of fuel. From records of United States 
Geological Survey average cost of bituminous coal at mine in- 
creased from 81 cents per ton in 1897 to $1.14 in 1907. For 
street railways the fuel cost per car-mile has increased, but due 
to power-house economies the cost of fuel and the entire cost of 
power in percentage of gross earnings have not changed ma- 

7. Increased cost of damages. During recent years damages 
and legal expenses in connection have increased considerably 
in percentage of gross earnings. 

8. Increased cost of general officers and clerks due to : 

1. Necessity for more scientific management. 

2. Cost of statistics for security holders and public au- 

3. Increased salaries. 

The increase from 1902 to 1907 of the average salary of 
general officers and clerks was from $1,040 to $1,100 
per man, or from 3 per cent to 3.1 per cent of gross 

9. Small decreased cost of operation of cars. During recent 
years the cost of operation of cars, the remaining large operat- 
ing expense, has continued practically stationary in percentage 
of gross earnings, although this is usually the item to which 
economies are directed. 

C. Fixed Charges. 

The tendency to increase fixed charges is shown as follows : 
1. Taxes. While taxes paid directly in cash have not in- 
creased during recent years in percentage of gross earnings 
other tax items have increased largely, such as : 

1. Paving renewals (formerly capitalized). 

2. Paving maintenance. 

3. Change of grade or relocation of track due to street 
improvements (formerly capitalized). 

4. Street sprinkling. 

January r, 1910.] 



5. Snow removal from streets. 

6. Cleaning streets. 

7. Bridge tolls. 

8. Free passes for government employees. 

9. Free lighting and use by municipality of poles and 

2. Division with municipalities of net income, such as : 

r. In Chicago the city receives 55 per cent of net income. 

2. In Cleveland the city will receive all net income above 
5 per cent on bonds and 6 per cent on stock, represent- 
ing a low valuation of actual investment. 

3. In Philadelphia the city will receive 50 per cent of net 
income above 6 per cent on capital stock. 

3. Reserve funds for : 

1. Depreciation. This is required by such State commis- 
sions as the Public Service Commissions of New York 
and Wisconsin and provisionally by the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission. Some of these commissions go so 
far as to require this fund to provide not only for 
present renewals, but also for both past and current 
depreciation due to wear, "obsolescence," "supersession" 
and "inadequacy." 

2. Unliquidated damages for previous and current years. 
This is required by the Chicago traction settlement 
ordinance, and is provided for by many other com- 

3. Amortization of tangible capital : 

1. Due to mortgage requirements, such as sinking 

2. Due to franchise requirements by which city obtains 
physical property at end of franchise without pay- 
ment, such as New York subway. 

4. Amortization of intangible capital : 
1. Bond discount. 

3. Cost of organization. 

3. Interest and taxes during construction. 

4. Franchise cost and additional franchise value, in- 
cluding promotion profits. 

Most of these reserves are recommended or required by the 
commissions mentioned. 

4. Interest. 

1. The average rate of interest on bonds has remained 
practically the same from 1902 to 1907, being 4.39 per 
cent and 4.25 per cent, respectively. 

2. The proportion of total capital allowed to be issued in 
bonds has decreased, thus increasing the cost of financ- 
ing the remainder. 

5. Return on capitalization. 

1. Dividends and surplus decreased from 1902 to 1907 from 
12.2 per cent to 9.4 per cent of gross income. 

2. Compare total return on capitalization with other in- 
dustries of the United States. 

The return per $1,000 of capitalization for 1905 is given by 
Logan G. McPherson, in the Railway World, as follows : 

Industry. Gross. Net. 

1. Manufactures $1,216 $151 (15.1%) 

2. Agriculture 191 98 (9.8%) 

3. Steam railroads 150 44 (4.4%) 

Compare street railways for 1907 $'-7 $46 (4.6%) 

Where the period from 1902 to 1907 is given above reference 
is made to the preliminary report of the United States Census 
and to all street railways of the United States. 

— — 

The Ft. Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Company has 
equipped one of iis large interurban cars with tungsten lamps 
as an experiment. The new lamps arc said to give a better 
light when the trolley voltage is low than can he obtained 
with ordinary carbon filament lamps. 



The chief problem which the new year will press upon 
Chicago traction is traffic and the scientific operation of the 
rehabilitated properties. Unification and co-ordination of the 
various street railway lines of the city is the obvious first 
step in its solution. A beginning has been made in this direc- 
tion in the consolidation of the lines operated in the southern 
division of Chicago. 

Congestion of traffic in the downtown or intra-loop district 
is steadily increasing, and is adding not only to the hazards 
of operation, but to the difficulty of maintaining schedules 
and up-to-date service. The situation is crucial in many re- 
spects, and there is little room for ill-considered experimenta- 
tion or blundering. Mistakes made at this time would prove 
costly, both to the public and to investors in street railway 
securities. Personally, I am confirmed in the opinion that 
Chicago can obtain relief only by extending the limits of the 
present central business district and by reducing to a mini- 
mum interruptions to traffic in the heart of the city. This, in 
my judgment, can be accomplished only by straight-line oper- 
ation and by use of the zone system. At present the elevated 
and surface lines are being operated at cross purposes with the 
actual demands of the traffic. In short, what we need most 
is system based upon the traction needs, present and future, 
of the entire city. To work out in theory and practice such 
a system is the task and opportunity of traction management 
in Chicago. 

The Chicago City Railway has practically completed its 
work of "immediate rehabilitation" as required by its fran- 
chise ordinance, and is well equipped to meet the greater 
problem of operation which confronts it. Our relations with 
employees and public during the past year have been most 
gratifying, and the prospects for increased prosperity are like- 
wise encouraging. 


Every street car in Rotterdam carries a small package of 
first-aid-to-the-injured supplies, It is placed in a case beside 
the fare register, and contains bandages, adhesive plaster, anti- 
septic; and Other Supplies useful in case of injury. 

Under date of Sept. 11, 1909, the Deutsche Strassenbahn 
und Klcinbahn Zcitung published a special number in connec- 
tion with the Hamburg convention of the Vereins Deutscher 
Strassenbahn und Kleinbahn Verwaltungen (German Street 
& Interurban Railway Association). This is said to be the 
first convention issue ever published by a German railway 
paper. The introductory feature is a very interesting descrip- 
tion of Hamburg, accmpanied by a frontispiece illustration of 
the colossal Bismarck monument and numerous views of other 
noteworthy places in the famous Hanseatic city. This is fol- 
lowed by a brief statement showing the size and track condi- 
tions of the Hamburg street railway system. About 18 miles 
of track in Hamburg are thermit-welded. Mr. Stahl, of the 
Dusseldorf tramways, contributes an article describing several 
special cars developed on his system for cleaning grooved rails, 
sprinkling car using compressed air and a vehicle for the trans- 
portation of invalids. G. A. A. Culin, of Hamburg, writes 
on the mystery of corrugation, and F. Melaun, of Berlin, on 
the oxy-acetylene process as applied to rail cutting and rail 
welding. Dr. Dietrich, manager of the Berlin municipal lines, 
describes an automobile tower wagon. Another striking feat- 
ure of this convention number is the number and length of 
the articles written by several of the most important manu- 
facturers of electric railway equipment to describe their shops 
and general facilities. 

The first electric railway in Bolivia was opened in July, 1909, 
ai I .a Paz, by the Bolivian Rubber & General Enterprise Com- 
pany, which is a corporation with headquarters in London, 
England. The company will furnish free electric lighting to 
the city and the latter is |u grant subsidies as the railway sys- 
tem is extended, 

3 2 


[Vol. XXXV. No. i. 


The orders placed by electric railways for rolling stock in 
1909 are shown in detail in the accompanying table. The 
total of all cars, locomotives and miscellaneous rolling stock 
ordered was 4957, an increase of 53 per cent over 1908. As in 
previous years the table has been compiled from our own 
records kept from week to week, from returns received from 
the railway companies known to have placed orders and from 
reports obtained from the car-building companies. It is there- 
fore exceptionally complete and accurate in the details given. 

The orders classified according to the service in which the cars 

are used are given below : 




Passenger cars, city 




Passenger cars, interurban 




Freight and miscellaneous cars 



1 175 

The cars shown in the table marked with an asterisk (*) are 
of the prepayment type. A total of 1096 out of 2537 city cars 
ordered were of this type. 

The prospects for large orders of cars to be placed in 1910 
are indicated by partial returns which show that 101 roads 
expect to purchase more than 2600 cars next year. 


Albia Int. Ry. 

No. Class Length Serv. Truck Builder 


Amarilla St. Ry 1 

Aroostook Valley R. R 2 


Atlantic Shore Line Ry 3 

Auburn & Syracuse Ry.. . 
Augusta Ry. & Elec. Co. . 
Aurora, Elgin & Chicago 

Asheville & E. Tenn. R. R. 

Ashland Lt., Pwr. & St. Ry . . 
Atchison Ry., Lt. & Pwr. Co. 
Atlantic & Sub. Trac. Co 

Benton Har.-St. Joe Ry. 

Birm'gham Ry., Lt. & P. Co. 
Bloomington & Nor. Ry. 
Blue Hill St. Ry 


Austin Elec. Ry 2 

Bait. & Ohio 2 

Bangor Ry. & Elec. Co 2 


Beaumont Trac. Co 5 

Beloit Ry. Co 2 



Boston & Nor. St. Ry 32 

British Col. Elec. Ry 4 






Buffalo Construction Co 2 

Buffalo & Lock. Trac. Co 10 


Buffalo, Lock. & Roch. Ry 6 

Burlington Trac. Co 4 

Cairo Ry. & Lt 3 


Calgary St. Ry ' . 8 


Calumet & So. Chicago Ry. ... 2 

Camden & Trenton Ry 1 

Cape Girard-Jack. Int. Ry . ... 2 

Capital Traction Co 39 



Carlisle Construction Co 2 


Cedar Rapids & Iowa City. ... 1 


Cedar Rapids & Marion 1 

Centerville Lt. & Trac. Co 1 


. 2 
. 5 

Charleston Consol. Ry. Co . . . 2 


Chattanooga Ry & Lt. Co. . . . 10 

Cheyenne Elec. Ry 1 

Chicago & Mil. Elec. R.R 12 

Central 111. Construction Co . 

Central Kentucky Trac. Co.. . 
Central Penn. Trac. Co 

Closed 28-0 


Gas. Mot 

Comb. 43-9 

Bag & Ex. 36-0 

Flat 50-0 

Closed 27-8 

Convert. 43-0 

Trail., O. 43-0 

Flat 36-0 

Snow Plow 20—0 

Semiconv. 27-8 

Semiconv. 41—9 

Work 40-0 

Flat 40-0 

Semiconv. 30-8 

Open .... 

Semiconv. 21—0 

Closed 22-8 

Comb. 46-0 

Closed 33-0 
Elec. Loco. 39-6 

Closed 28-0 
Snow Plow .... 

Semiconv. 25—0 

Closed 28-0 

Closed 46-0 
Semiconv. *20— 8 

Flat 34-0 

Gondola 36-0 

Closed 39-6 

Closed* 46-0 

Open 21-0 

Semiconv. 21-0 


Snow Plow .... 

Semiconv. 39—6 

Closed* 55-0 

Closed* 43-0 

Semiconv. 43—4 

Semiconv. 43-4 

Semiconv. 28-0 

Comb. 43-4 

Comb. 55-0 

Bag & Ex. 53-8 

Comb. 31-8 

Closed* 43-0 

Exp.,M. 50-0 

Snow Plow 40-0 

Sweeper 2 7-6 

Comb. 51-6 

Open .... 

Closed 28-0 
Semiconv.*20— 8 

Express .... 
Semiconv. *41— 
Semiconv. *4 1—0 

Funeral 43-1 

Sprinkler 29-6 

Sweeper .... 

Open 34-0 

Closed 26-0 

Trailer, O. 35-0 
Semiconv. *41-0 
Semiconv. *42— 8 

Sweeper 2 7-6 

Comb. 41-0 

Trailer, C. 58-0 

Comb. 58-0 

Box 34-0 

Flat 36-0 

Gondola 34-0 

Ballast 36-0 

Sweeper .... 

Refrig. 34-0 

Sweeper .... 

Closed 42-0 

Closed 32-0 


Closed* 48-8 

Trail., C* 48-8 

Comb. 46-1 

Semiconv. 31—5 

Semiconv. 41—9 

Sweeper 27-8 

Open 44-8 

Semiconv. 31-9 

Open .... 

Closed* 44-0 

Closed 28-0 

Open 49-0 

Chsed 51-2 

Trail., C. 51-2 
















City ' 








S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
S. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 

S.'T. ' 

D. T. 


D. T. 




D. T. 

S. T. 


























City ' 

S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 

S. T. 
D. T. 


D. T. 






D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 







Am. Car 




Co. Shop 

Am. Car. 






St. Louis 



Am. Car 

Gen. Elec. 



St. Louis 

St. Louis 





St. Louis 









Co. Shops 



Am. Car. 
















St. Louis 









St. Louis 
Am. Car 
Am. Car 
St. Louis 
Am. Car 
Am. Car 


No. Class Length Serv. Truck Builder 

Chicago & Oak Park El. R.R. 
Chicago & Southern Trac. Co. . 
Chicago, Aurora & DeK. R.R. 


. 4 

Chicago.Blue Is. Jol. Trc. Co. . 1 

Chicago City Railway 50 


Chicago, L. S. & So. Bd. Ry. . . 1 
Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Ry. 2 

Chicago Railways Co 350 



Chicago, So. Bd & N. Ind. Ry. 



Chicago, Wheaton & W'n Ry. . 2 

Chihuahua Tramways 2 


Chillicothe El. R.R. L.&P.Co.. 
Chippewa Val. Ry. L. & P. Co. 

Cia del Ferrocarril Ogarrio. . . 

Cleveland & Erie Ry. Co. 
Clev. , So'w'rn & Columbus Ry 


Cicero-Proviso Ry. Co 1 

Cincinnati Traction Co 50 


Columbus, Del. & Marion Ry. 1 

Columbus Ry. & Light Co 30 

Comp. Elec. y de Fer. de Chi.. 2 

Connecticut Valley St. Ry.. . . 2 

Consolidated Traction Co 1 

Co-Operative Constr. Co 3 


Corpus Christi St. & Int. Ry. . 6 

Corsicana Transit Co 2 

Cumberland Ry. Co 2 

Dallas Consolidated Elec. Ry . 2 
Dayton & Troy Electric Ry. . . 4 
Dayton, Sp'fld & XeniaSo.Ry. 6 
Denison & Sherman Ry. Co. . . 2 

Denver City Tramway 1 


Conestoga Traction Co. 

Des Moines City Railway 2 


Detroit United Railway 25 


Durham Traction Co 

Eastern Pennsylvania Rys. . 
East St. Louis & Sub. Ry. . 
Edmonton Radial Ry. Sys . 


El Paso Elec. Railway Co 4 

Emigration Canyon Railroad. 2 

Enid City Railway Co 1 

Evansville Sub.&Newbgh.Ry . 1 
Fairmont & Clarksburg Tr.Co . 4 

Fairmont & Mannington R.R.. 2 

Farmington St. Ry 1 

Ft. Dodge, Des Mo. & SoR.R.. 2 







Trail., O. 








S. Plow 


Clo ied* 






S. Plow 







Trailer, O. 
Elec. Loco 
Trailer, C. 


Trailer, C. 




Snow Swp. 








Snow Swp. 


CI sed 

Trailer, O. 

Elec. Loco. 











Elec. Loco. 

51-2 Both 


.... Int. 


47-4 City 
50-0 Elev. 

47HD iiit.' ' 

45- Int. 
56-0 Int. 

46- City 

42-i City 
.... Int. 
50-0 Int. 
46-0 City 

D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 

D. T. 
D. T. 

D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 

Am. Car 















D. T. McGuire-C. 

51- Int. 
45-0 Both 

52- lOInt. 
30-O City 

D. T. 
D. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 

11-4 Private S. T. 



24-0 City 

28-0 City 

45-0 Int. 

30-0 Int. 

18-0 Int. 

30-0 Int. 

44^0 City' 
2 3-0 Int. 
56-0 Int. 
56-0 Int. 
50-0 Int. 
52-0 Int. 
28-8 City 
30-0 City 
30-0 City 
30-0 City 
18-4 City 

24- City 
40-8 Int. 

40- Int. 
30-0 Int. 
20-8 City 
30-8 City 
30-0 Int. 


41- 6J 

28- City 

25- 4 City 


S. T. 
S. T. 

D. T. 
D. T. 

D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
D. T. 
S. T. 

34-0 D. T. 

30- S. T. 

City D. T. 

38- 1 City D. T. 
43-10City D. T. 
45-0 D. T. 

39- 6 City D. T. 

S. T. 

42-3 City D. T. 
42-3 City D. T. 
D. T. 

31- 9 D. T. 




43- 9 




City ' 





D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
S. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
S. T. 
D. T. 
S. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 

Freight D. T. 
Coal D. T. 
Freight D. T. 




Am. Car 

Am. Car 

Am. Car 


Am. Car 


St. Louis 

St. Louis 

Sta Ana Sh. 

Gen. Elec. 



Niles J 



















McGuire-C . 










Co. Shops 




Co. Shops 










Barney & S. 









Haskell B 

Haskell B 


January i, 1910.] 



Purchaser No. Class Length Sent. Truck Builder 

1 Elec. Loco Freight S. T. Westngh. 

Ft. Wayne & Wabash Val. Tr. 1 Pass. .... Int. D.T. Co. Shops 

20 Semiconv. 32-1 City S. T. Cincinnati 
4 Comb. 5 5-0 Int. D.T. Cincinnati 

4 Exp. Trail . 40-0 Int. D.T. Cincinnati 

2 Exp. 60-0 Int. D. T. Cincinnati 
10 Gondola 40-0 D. T. Haskell-Bar. 

1 Sprinkler City S. T. McGuire-C. 

1 Steel Tr D. T. McGuire-C. 

Fresno Traction Co 10 Calif, type 37-2 City D. T. American 

Galesburg Ry. & Lt. Co 1 Sweeper .... City a T McGuire-C. 

Gallatin Val. Elec. Ry 1 Semiconv. 51-2 Int. D.T. Brill 

1 Elec. Loco Baldwin 

1 Comb Int A. C. & F. 

Galveston Electric Co 10 Open 28-8 City S. T American 

5 Narragan. 36-0 City D. T. American 

3 Closed 20-0 City S. T. Kuhlman 

Gary & Interurban Ry 4 Pass D. T. McGuire-C. 

Genev.i, Waterloo, SenecaFalls 

& Cayuga Lake Trac. Co.... 13 Closed 47-0 Int. D.T. Wason 

3 Closed 28-0 City S. T. Wason 
Georgia Railway & Elec. Co. . 6 Closed 39-0 City D. T. Co. Shops 

12 Closed 30-0 City S. T. Co. Shops 

Grand Forks St. Ry 1 Pass. .... . : . . . . S. T. McGuire-C. 

w _vi 3 Semiconv. 30-8 City S. T. American 

Grand Rapids Railway 12 Pass. 43-6 City D.T.American 

2 Closed 42-0 Int. D.T. American 
2 Trailer, C. 42-0 Int. D. T. American 

GreafFalls Street Railway.... 2 Closed 20-0 City S.T. American 

Gulf port & Miss. Coast Tr. Co.. 3 Semiconv City S. 1 . Brill 

Hagerstown Railway 1 Comb. 42-0 Int. D. T. Cincinnati 

Halifax Electric Tramway.... 2 Closed 30-0 City S.T. Ottawa 

Helena Lt. & Ry. Co 2 Closed •■■•City S^ r. Cincinnati 

The Hocking-Sun. Crk. Tr. Co. 1 Gas.-M. 5 7-0 Int. D.T. McKeen 

Houston Electric Co 25 Pass.,S.E.* 3 1-0 S.T. Cincinnati 

5 D E* 31-0 S.T. Cincinnati 

5 Closed 28-0 City S.T. Cincinnati 
Hudson & Manhattan R. R . . . 90 Closed 48-0 Int. D. T. Pressed St. 

2 Bag & Ex. 50-7 D.T. Brill 

Hull Electric Co 2 Closed 30-0 C.&Int. S. T. Ottawa 

U 1 Snow Plow 32-0 C.&Int. D.T. Ottawa 

1 Snow Plow 45-0 C.&Int. S. T. Russell 
1 Sweeper 28-0 C.&Int. S. T. Ottawa 

Huntington Railroad 1 Snow Plow 17-0 Int. S. T. Russell 

Illinois Central Electric Ry... . 2 Closed 44-0 Int. D.T. McGuire-C. 

1 Comb. 49-1 Int. D.T. McGuire-C. 

1 Work 43-0 D.T. McGuire-C. 

Illinois Central Traction Co. . . 2 Trailer, C. 44-0 D.T. McGuire-C. 

„ „„., 1 Ga< Mot. 54-0 D.T. McGuire-C. 

Illinois Traction System 7 Trailer 52-6 Int. D.T. Danville 

4 Comb. 52-6 Int. D.T. McGuire-C. 

2 Sleepers • ■ • A- C. & F. 

1 Trailer 52-6 Private D. T. Danville 

4 Exp. Mo. 52-6 Int. D.T. McGuire-C. 
32 Ex. Trail. 41-5 Int. D.T. McGuire-C. 
40Frt.,Box 40-0 Int. D.T. A. C. & F. 
50 Gondola 40-0 Int. D. T. A. C. & F. 

4 Cabooses D.T. Hicks 

Indiana Union Traction Co... . 6 Gondolas 34-0 D.T. Hicks 

Ind'lis, New Castle & Tol. Ry.. 6 Pass. 60-0 Int. D.T. Jewett 

2 Express 58-0 Int. D.T. Jewett 
Ind'lisTraction&Term'lCo...l0 Open 42-2 City D.T. Cincinnati 

44 Closed 46-8 City D.T. Cincinnati 
Interborough Rap. Tran. Co.. . 40 Closed, M. 47-0 Elev. D. T Barney & S. 

20 Closed, M. 47-0 Elev. D. T. Jewett 
110 Closed, M. 51-0 Sub. D.T. A. C. &F 
40 Closed, M. 51-0 Sub. D.T. Standard 
100 Closed, M. 51-0 Sub. D.T. Pressed 
20 Trailer, C. 47-0 Elev. D. T. St. Louis 
20 Trailer, C. 47-0 Elev. D.T. Wason 
20 Work 33-0 S. & E. S. T. Ralston 

Ithaca Street Railway Co 2 Closed 43-0 City D.T. Brill 

Jacksonville Electric Co 5 Pass.* 31-0 City S.T. Cincinnati 

Jacksonville Ry. & Lt. Co 2 Pass. 32-0 City S. T. Danville 

Kansas City Ry.&Lt. Co 25 Trailer, C. 26-0 S.T McGuire-C. 

Lack. & Wyom. Val. R.R. Co. 1 Frt.,Box 36-0 D.T. A. C. & F. 

5 Gondola 36-0 D. T. Hicks 

Lake Shore Electric Co 10 Gondola 36-0 Coal D.T. Haskell 

Lawrence Ry. & Lt. Co 7 Open '-City S.T. St. Louis 

12 Semiconv. 21-0 City S.T. St. Louis 
Lehigh Valley Traction Co. .. . 4 Closed 29-5 S. T Bnll 

1 Bag & Ex D.T. Brill 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co 2 Snow Plow . . . . C.&Int. S. T. Russe 

2 Snow Plow City D.T. Russell 

Lewiston & Youngstown Fron- „. 

tier Ry. Co 6 Trailer, C . . . . . Co. Shops. 

Lew'n, Aug. & Wville St. Ry. 2 Frt., Box 36-0 Int. D. T. Co. Shops 

3 Flat 36-0 Int. D. T. Co. Shops 
1 Snow Plow C.&Int. S. T. Russell 

1 Sprinkler 28-0 City S. T. Co. Shops 
Lexington & Interurban Rys. . 3 Pass. 31-0 City S. T. Kuhlman 

1 Freight 45-0 Int. D. C Co. Shops. 

Lincoln Traction Co 3 Express 41-0 Sub. D.T. Co. Shops 

Linwood Street Railway 1 Closed 42-0 Int. D. T. Stephenson 

Long Island Railroad 100 Closed 62-0 Tunnel D. T. A.C.&K 

15 Comb. 62-0 Tunnel D. T. Standard 
15 Exp. Comb.62-0 Tunnel D.T. A. C. & F. 
Los Angeles & RedondoRy . .. 10 Pass. 47-0 Int. D.T. Co. Shops 

1 Elec. Loco. 30-0 D. • . . . . • • • • • ■ 

Louisville & Eastern R. R 5 Closed .... Int. >. A. C. & r . 

Louisville Railway 33 Pass.* 45-0 City D. T. Cincinnati 

Lowell & Fitchburg St. Ry.... 2 Pass. 41-0 Int. D.T. Wason 

Mah'g& Shen'go Ry.& Lt. Co. 6 Closed 51-0 Int. D.T. Niles 

12 Closed 40-0 City D.T. Ni es 

2 Express 45-0 Int. D.T. Nlles 
2 Freight Nlles 

Manor Valley Rv 2 Semiconv. 28-0 City S.T. Kuhlman 

Manor vauey n.y < g^niconv. 20-8 City S. T. Kuhlman 
1 Express 28-0 City D.T. Kuhlman 
Maryland Electric Railways. . 3 Passenger 56-9 Int. D.T. Jewett 
Mason City & Clear Lake Ry . 2 Passenger 5 7-3 Int. D.T. American 
Memphis Street Railway 1 Express Co. g hops 

1 Flat Co. Shops 

Metropolitan St. Ry. Co 6 Passenger 36-0 CJty D.T. Jewett 

50 Passenger 47-0 City D. V. Tcwctt 

25 Trailer, C S.T. McGuire-C. 

Michigan United Railways. . . 5 I'assenger 40-0 City D.T. St Louis 

2 Express 50-0 Int. I). I. St. Louis 
Milford& UxbridgeSt Ry.Co 1 Sprinkle! 17-0 City Single Brill 


No. Class Length Serv. Truck 


MilwaukeeElec.Ry.&LtCo.lOO Passenger 50-0 City D.T. ^Loufc 

D. T. Hicks 


D T. Niles 
D. T. American 
D. T. Ottawa 

1 Work 

20 Flat 

15 Dump 

Milwaukee Northern Ry 2 Comb 50-4 Int. 

Missouri & Kan. Int. Ry. Co . . 2 Closed 43- lOInt 
Montreal & So. Counties Ry. . 8 Closed 49-8 Int. 

1 Snow Plow • • • • 

1 Swpr. D. 32-0 C.&Int. S. T. Ottawa 
MontrealStreetRailway 25 Closed* ^ 4 5-0 City D.T. Ottawa 

1 SnowSpr. 27-8 S.T. Bnll 

Morris County Traction Co.... 2 Closed 34-0 C.&Sub .. . Barber 
Mt. Pleasant & Red Spg. Ry.. .J Gas.-Motor . „ . . . . S. T Fairbanks 

Municipal Traction Co 25 Passenger* 52-0 City 

Muskogee Elec. Trac. Co 6 Semiconv. *_2 1-0 City 

S. T. 
S. T. 


Mutual Lt. & Wtr. Co 4 Closed* 33-10 . . . S. i. Brill 

Nashville Interurban Ry 1 Semiconv. 33-4 Int Uanv e 

1 Express V a . 

Nebraska Trac. & Pwr. Co.... 1 Pass. & B. 44-4 C.&Int. D.T. American 

New Paltz, H'l'd & Poug. Ry. 3 Open 20-0 City S.T. Wason 

N. Y. & No. Sho. Trac. Co 3 Pa,senger 34-4 .... £ rl ' 1 , 

4 Semiconv. 34-4 D. 1. Kuhlman 

1 Work 35-0 D.T. Brill 

N. Y., Auburn & Lansing R.R. 10 Closed 50-0 Int. D.T. fewet 

N. Y. N. H. & H. R. R 2 Elec. Loco Freight . . . ^ estmgh se 

New York State Railways.... 4 Passenger j^Ift D.T. Kuhlman 

2 SnowSpr S.T McGuire-C. 

Niagara, St. Cath. & Tor. Ry. 2 Closed^ q 55-0 Lit.^ D. T. BnU^. 

Nipissing Central Ry .... i Open 45-0 Int. D. T. Preston 

North Alabama Traction Co. . 1 Semiconv. .... £„,' lman 
Northern Ohio Tr. & Lt. Co. . . 1 Closed 35-6 Int. D. T. Kuhlman 

4 Closed 22-6 City S.T. Kuhlman 

6 Convert. 35-6 City D.T. Kuhlman 

1 Private 52-0 Int. D.T. Niles 
Norther. Texas Trac. Co 12 Closed 28-0 City D.T. Cincinnati 

4 Closed 51-6 Int. D.T. Kuhlman 
North Jersey Rapid Tran. Co.. 6 Closed 30-0 Int. D.T. Jewett 
Ocean Electric Railway 6 Passenger* 34-0 Int. D.T. StLOTK 

8^1^^°°:: i S^*i«r If !!£•' 

Ohio Electric Company 6 Closed^ 61-6 Int. D. T. Cincinnati 

8 Freight 38-6 Int. D.T. Cincinnati 
Oklahoma Railway 3 Passenger 54-0 Int. D. T. Niles 

6 Closed 20-0 City S.T. American 

10 Closed 30-0 City S. T. American 

4 Semiconv. 30-0 City D.T. American 

2 Work, Lo. 34-0 D. T. Co. Shops 

Old Colony Street Railway.... 12 |emiconv. 39-6 Both D.T. Laconia 

Omaha & Council Bluffs ..AO Closed*. . . . 40-4 City D.T. American 
Orange County Traction Co. 1 SnowSpr. | T. McGuire C. 

Ottawa Electric Railway Co. . 12 Semiconv.^ 30-0 City S.T. Ottawa 

Pacific Electric Railway 30 Passenger 39-1 City D. T. St. Louis 

5 Passenger 34-10City D.T. ••••• 

52 Frt Box 36-8 Int. D. T. Mt. Vernon 

60 Flat 41-lllnt. D.T. Pressed Stl. 

15 Gondola 36-0 Int. D.T. Hicks 

200 Dump 34-0 Int. D.T. Hicks 

4 Elec. Loco. 36-2 Int. D. T. Co. Shops 
1 Pile Driver , 

& Tender Work D.T. Llewellyn 

Parsons Ry. & Lt. Co 5 Semiconv. 31-0 ... . . . S.T. St. Louis 

Peninsular Rv 4 C bsed 44-0 Int. D. T. St. Louis 

Penna Tun 8c T Co 24 Elec. Loco Tunnel . .. Westing. 

PeoriaRaihvfy Co 10 Passenger* 3 2-0 City S. T. DanyiUe 

Peoria RailwayTerminal Co. . 1 Comb. 56-0 Int. D.T. McGmre-C. 

Phila. & Easton Elec. Ry 1 Gondola. . .40-1 OInt. D.T. Bnll 

Phila. & West Chester Tr. Co. . 1 Frt., Box 50-0 In t. D. T. Jewett 

1 Express 46-0 Int. D. I . bt. Louis 

1 Frt. Box 36-0 Int. D. T. Co. Shops. 
Phila. Rapid Transit Co 10 Passenger 49-7 Elev. D.T. Pressed 

2 Ash 33-6 U. 1. 

Pittsburg, Harmony, Butler & 

New Castle Ry 4 Passenger 46-0 Int. 

Pgh & Kan. City Ry. Co 4 Closed Pas. 

rgn. a. & Smok. 40-0 Int. D. T. American 

Pittshureh Rvs Co 1 Passenger* Int. D. T. Niles 

Fittsburgn Kys. uo 2 Closed 52-8 Int. D.T. Kuhlman 

80 Semiconv.*46-8 City D. T. Bnll 

2 Express 45-0 Int. D.T. Kuhlman 

Port Arth & Pt Wil 4 Close.l* 42-0 City D.T. Preston 

Port' Arthur Traction Co 12 Closed 34-0 C.&Int. S. T. Barber 

Portland, Eugen & East. Ry.. 1 Open :--;City S.T. Danv.l e 

1 Semiconv. 25-4 City S.T. Danville 

Portland Rv.. Lt. & Pwr. Co.. .40 Passenger* 28-8 City D. T. American 

1 Closed* 46-6 City D.T. Amencan 

20 Flat Hicks 

Public Service Railway 9 Closed* 44-0 City D. T. Co. Shops 

Puget Sound Elec. Ry 1 Closed 55-0 Int. D.T. Cincinnati 

1 Parlor, tr 1 55-0 Int. D.T. Cincinnati 

2 Pass. Int. D. T. Ottawa 

10 Open P. T. Ottawa 

Closed 29-0 City S. T. Ottawa 
2 Closed 60-0 Int. D.T. Ottawa 
2 S. Plow 30-0 City S. T. Ottawa 

1 Snow Swp S. T. McGuire-C. 

2 Sweeper, 28-0 City S. T. Ottawa 

Quincy Horse Railway & Car- 

rying Company 8 Open ..... Amencan 

l Snow Swp S.T. McGuire-C. 

Rochester Ry (Closed 41-4 Int. D.T. Kuhlman 

Rochester, Syracuse & East 

P P 13 Pass. St. Louis 

13 Closed 42-9 Int. D.T. Kuhlman 

1 S. Plow 39-0 Int. D. T. Russell 

Rockford & Interurban Ry. . 5 Closed* 37-5 Both D.T American 

D. T. St. Louis. 

Oucbec Ry., Light & Pr. Co. 



[Vol. XcXV. No. I. 


Rock Island Southern R. R. 

No. Class Length Strv, JTruck Builder 



Rockland, So. Thomaston & 
St. George Ry 2 


Rome Railway & Light Co. . . 1 
Sacramento Elec, Gas & R. Co. 10 

Saginaw & Flint Railway 4 


St. Joseph Ry., Lt., Ht.& Pr. . 5 
St. Joseph Valley Traction Co. 1 
St. Lawrence Elec. Ry. Co. . . 1 
St. Lawrence Int. Elec Ry. & 

Land Co 1 

St. Louis Elec. Term. Ry. Co. 20 

Salt Lake & Ogden Ry 10 

San Antonio Traction Co 10 

San Diego Electric Railway. . 12 
San Francisco, Vallejo & Napa 

Valley Ry 2 

Sapulpa & Int. Ry 4 

Saunders Motor Car Co 1 

Savannah Electric Co ? 

Schuylkill & Dauphin Tr. Co. 

Scioto Valley Traction Co. 
Seattle Electric Co 

Seattle & Everett Int. Ry. . . . 
Seattle, Renton & South'n Ry. 
Sea View R. R. Co 


Second Avenue R.R. of N. Y.. 2 
Sheboygan Lt., Pr. & Ry. Co . 2 
Shelburne Fls & Coleran St.Ry 1 

Shore Line Electric Ry 12 

Sioux Falls Traction System... 1 
S. Bethlehem & Saucon St.Ry. 2 

Southern Cambria Ry 2 

Southern Michigan Ry 

Southern Wisconsin Railway. 
Southwest. Mo. R. R. Co 




Springfield Street Railway Co. 12 

Springfield Traction Co 2 


Southwestern Interurban Ry. 

Southwestern Traction Co. . . 
Spokane & Inl Empire R. R. 

Springfield Consol. Ry. Co. 

Trailer, C. 


S. Plow 
S. Plow 


Trailer, O 










Elec. Loco. 


Freight, B 





Snow Swp. 




















Trailer, C. 



Elec. Loco. 

Elec. Loco. 





Pass., trail. 







D. T. 


D. T. 



D T 


d! t'. 



D. T. 

36— 7i 


D. T. 



D. T. 



S. T. 



S. T. 

31-0 City 

S. T. 



D. T. 



D. T. 


S. T. 

D. T. 



50-0 City 

50-0 City 


56-0 Int. 

42-0 City 


56-0 Int. 

D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 

D. T. 


22A City 
30-0 Int. 
26-0 Int. 
28-0 Int. 

26- Int. 

47- 8 City 
40-0 City 

51- Int. 
40-0 Both 
50-0 Both 
25-0 Both 
42-0 Int. 
36-0 Int. 

27- 6 

50-0 Int. 
34-4 Int. 
30-0 Int. 


25-0 Both 


48- Int. 
48-0 Int. 

52- Int. 

D. T. 

S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
S. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
S. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 

D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 

46-0 Int. 

46-0 Int. 

36-0 Int. 

29- 5 City 

30- 1 Int. 
41-8 Int. 
24-0 City 



55- llCity 

56- 3 Int. 


. . . . Int. 



32-0 City 

34-4 City' 
45-0 City 
30-8 City 


S. T. 

D'. f .' 
S. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 

St. Louis 
St. Louis 





Co. Shops 




St. Louis 









Co. Shops 

St. Louis 

Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 

Barney & S. 

St. Louis 

Co. Sh jps 


C i. Shops 


Co. Shops 

Co. Shops 

Co. Shops 












Co. Shops 

Co. Shops 

Co. Shops 






St. Louis 



C '. S lops 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 

Purchaser No. Class Length Serv. 

Springfield & Wash. Ry 1 Comb. 53-0 Int. 

Sterl., Dix. & East. Elec. Ry. . 4 Closed 32-2 City 

Stroudsburg Pass. Ry. Co 1 Open 34-0 

Sunbury-North. Elec. Ry. Co. 2 Closed 31-0 Gen'l 

Syracuse & Suburban R. R. .. . 3 Semiconv. 42-9 Int. 

Syracuse R.R.ConstructionCo. 1 Snow Plow Size 3 Int. 

2 Cljsed 42-9 Int. 
Tampa Sulphur Spgs. Tr. Co. . 4 Open 30-0 City 
Taylorville Lt., Ht. & Pwr.Co. 1 Closed 29-5 City 
Terre H., In's. & East. Tr. Co.. 1 Passenger 61-6 Int. 

1 Frt., trail.. 45-0 Int. 

Texas Traction Co 3 Trailer, C Int. 

1 Wk.&Loco 

Texarkana Gas & Elec. Co. . . . 6 Semiconv City 

Third Avenue R. R 375 Convert. 43-0 City 

1 Gas.-Mot. 2 7-0 City 

3 Sprinkler 31-0 

Tide Water Power Co 3 Closed 51-0 Int. 

4 Semiconv. 31-9 City 

Toledo Rys. & Lt. Co 20 Semiconv. *41-6 City 

Topeka Railway 12 Passenger 40-8 City 

Tri-City Railway 10 Closed 33-0 City 

Tulsa Street Railway Co 3 Passenger 31-4 City 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co. . . 1 1 Closed 46-8 Both 

3 Snow Plow 44-2 Both 

Union Electric Co 6 Closed* 21-0 City 

Union Railway Co. of N. Y. .. . 5 Snow Swp 

Union Street Railway 12 Closed 30-0 

Union Traction Company 1 Open 42-2 Int. 

2 Closed 45-0 Int. 
2 Semiconv. 30-1 City 

United Railways Co 2 Closed 56-3 Int. 

United Traction Co 1 Port. S. S'n 36-6 

Urb. & Champ. Ry. & Lt. Co. . 3 Passenger* 32-0 City 

Vancouver Power Co., Ltd. .. . 2 Comb. 53-8 Int. 

2 Bag & Ex. 53-8 Int. 

Vancouver Traction Co 1 Semiconv. 39—4 City 

Visalia Electric Ry. Co 2 Comb. .... Int. 

Wab. & North. Ind. Tr. Co 7 Closed 30-0 Int. 

Warren Street Railway Co. .. . 2 Semiconv. 30-1 

Wash., Alex. & Mt. Vn. Ry.. . . 3 Semiconv. 28-0 Int. 

Wash., Bal. & Annap. El. Ry.. 17 Closed 50-0 Int. 

tU„ ^ 10 Comb. 50-O Int. 

H i 1 Express 50-0 Int. 

Wash. Ry. & Elec. Co. System. 50 Closed* 42-0 City 

2 Snow Swp. 27-6 

Washington Water Power Co.. 10 Closed 43-0 City 

1 5 Semiconv. 43-0 City 

Wassau Street Railway 1 Semiconv. 42-0 Int. 

Webster, Monessen, Belle Ver- 
non & F. C. St. Ry. Co 2 Semiconv. 21-4 City 

West Chester El. R. R. 25 Convert.* 43-0 

Westchester, Ken. & Wil. El. Ry..l Express 25-0 lnt 

W'n N. Y. & Penn. Trac. Co.. . 2 Semiconv. 30-1 City 

W. Jersey & Seashore R. R. . . . 6 Closed .... Int. 

Whatcom Co. Ry. & Lt. Co 3 Dump 16-0 ...... 

Wheeling Traction Co 8 Semiconv. *30-0 Sub'n 

Wichita Falls Traction Co. .. . 4 Semiconv. 30-0 Both 

4 Trailer, O Both 

Wichita Railroad & Light Co. . 10 Closed* 42-0 City 

5 Closed* 40-0 City 

W'msport Pass. Ry. Co 1 Sweeper 

W.-B. & Wyom. Val. Tr. Co. . . 10 Comb. 42-1 Int. 

Wil. , N . Castle & So. Ry. Co. . . 1 Express 40-0 Int. 

Wis. Trac, Lt., Ht. & Pwr. Co. 6 Closed 53-5 Int. 

Wor. & B'stone Val. St. Ry . . . 2 Closed 30-4 City 

Waterloo, Ced. Falls & No. Ry. 10 Open 28-0 City 

13 Closed 28-0 City 

5 Closed 

8 Closed 

4 Comb. 60-0 Int. 

1 Express 50-0 Int. 

Yakima Valley Transp. Co. . . . 2 Closed 30-0 City 

1 Comb. 45-0 Int. 

1 Express 44-10 

1 Work 41-0 Int. 

Yazoo City Light, Water & 

Sewerage Plant 1 Semiconv. 30-1 City 

Truck Builder 

S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 

S T 
D . T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
D. T. 


D. f . 
S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
D. T. 

D. T. 
S. T. 
D. T. 


S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
D. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
D. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
S. T. 
D. T. 
S. T. 
D. T. 

St. Louis 










St. Louis 







Barney & S 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 

J. M. Jones 










Moran Co. 













C >. Ships 

A. C. & F. 

St. Louis 
St. Louis 

A. C. &F. 



McGuire-C. I 










S. T. American 


The accompanying table shows in detail the new electric 
railway track mileage built and opened for operation during 
the year 1909 in the United States, Canada and Mexico. The 
table has been compiled from answers received from the rail- 
way companies whose names appear, and the mileage given 
in each instance is therefore correct. Unfortunately, replies 
were not received from all the railway companies to which a 
request for information was sent, and hence there are prob- 
ably some omissions. The only mileage represented in the 
table is track which was completed and placed in operation 
during the year. A number of long lines made substantial 
progress in track construction during the year, but were not 
opened for operation up to the time the returns were sent in. 
This mileage does not appear in the table. In a few instances 
mileage will be found in the table this year which also ap- 
peared in the table compiled last year. This duplication arises 
from the fact that, through a misunderstanding in sending in 
the returns, track which was built but not opened for opera- 
tion in 1908 was given and included in the table published at 
the beginning of 1909. 

The total new mileage represented this year is 887.16, as 

against 1258.51 miles built in 1908. The new construction in 
1908 was much less than the unofficial figures compiled for 
1907, and the mileage of 1909 represents another large de- 
crease over 1908. This is due in a large measure to the after 
effects of the period of financial depression in 1908, with the 
uncertainty of securing the necessary funds for the comple- 
tion of electric railway projects which had been under con- 
sideration for two or three years. The falling off in 1908 
was not so great as in 1909 because those projects that were 
nearly completed were finished and placed in operation, while 
few, if any, of the new projects on which work was started 
in 1909 were finished by the end of the year. Much new work 
has been going on during the past 12 months, however, and the 
results will no doubt appear as a large increase in 1910. Ac- 
cording to reports received, much new work will be started 
early in 1910, with good promise of rapid completion. 

In the classification of the mileage by States, New York 
again heads the list, with 129.08 miles, as against 183.76 miles 
of single track built last year. The largest mileage built by 
any one company in New York State was that of the Rochester, 
Syracuse & Eastern Railroad, which completed 44 miles be- 
tween Port Byron and Syracuse. The extension of the electric 
zone of the Long Island Railroad and the construction by that 

January i, 1910.] 



company of a number of double-track cut-off lines accounts 
for another 20 miles in the State of New York, and if to this 
be added the 15 miles of the Huntington Railroad which is 
owned and operated by the Long Island Railroad, the con- 
struction work of the latter would total 35 miles of single 
track. Ohio again appears second in the list of States, with 
77.13 miles. This is largely made up of two long interurban 
extensions, that of the Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus 
Railway from Ashland to Leroy, 30 miles, and that of the 
Ohio Electric Railway from Lima to Defiance, 42 miles. The 
latter road is a steam railroad which has been rehabilitated 
and equipped for electric operation. 

Reports from railway companies up to the time of going to 
press indicate that at least 1800 miles of new electric railway 
track will be built in 1910. 



Birmingham Railway, Light & Power Co 1.00 

Mobile Light & R. R. Co 1.13 

Montgomery Traction Co. — Oak Park, Chisom and Pickett 

Springs 4.00 

North Alabama Traction Co 0.50 

Sheffield Co 0.05 

Total 6.68 


Phoenix Railway Co 1.75 

Total 1.75 


Bakersfield & Ventura R. R. — Oxnard 2.00 

East Shore & Suburban Ry 2.00 

Glendale & Eagle Rock R*y — Between Glendale and Eagle 

Rock 2.25 

Los Angeles Ry 5.80 

Los Angeles & Redondo Ry 2.61 

Pacific Electric Ry. — Between Wilmington. San Pedro and 
Long Beach; between Santa Ana and Huntington 

Beach 25.86 

Peninsular Ry. — Los Altos, Mayfield, Palo Alto 4.00 

Sacramento Electric, Gas & Railway Co 1.00 

San Diego Electric Ry 2.00 

South San Francisco Railroad & Power Co .50 

United Railroads of San Francisco 5.13 

Total 53.15 


Colorado Springs & Interurban Ry 1.50 

Denver City Tramway Co 10.00 

Denver & Interurban R. R. — In Fort Collins 1.00 

Grand Junction & Grand River Valley Ry 4.00 

Total 16.50 

New York, New Haven & Hartford, R. R. — East of Glen- 
brook 1.13 

Total 1.13 

Capitol Traction Co 10.00 

Total 10.00 


Pensacola Electric Co 1.63 

Total 1.63 


Columbus R. R. — Spur track into Base Ball Park 0.23 

Georqla Railway & Electric Co 10.50 

Rome Railway & Light Co 1.50 

Total 12.2.°, 


Boise & Interurban Ry. Co., Ltd 1.50 

Total 1.50 


Bloomlngton, Pontiac & Jollet Electric Ry. — Pontiac to 

Chenoa 10.00 

Calumet & South Chicago Ry 5.15 

Chlcaqo City Ry 0.12 

Chicago Railways Co 8.08 

Chicago & Southern Traction Co. — Tn Chicago Heights.... 100 
Dixon, Rock Falls & Southwestern Electric Ry. — Tampico. 

Yorktown and Hooppole 10.00 

Illinois Central Electric Ry. — Brereton and Norris 5.00 

Murphysboro Electric Railway, Light, Heat & Power Co. — 

Murphysboro and Carbondale 2.50 

Total 41.85 


Bluffton, Geneva & Cellna Traction Co.— Bluffton, Vera 

Cruz, Linn Grove and Geneva 18.50 

Chlcaqo, Lake Shore & South Bend Ry. (Kensington & 

Eastern R. R.). — Hammond. Ind., to Kensington, III... 7.83 

Indianapolis, Newcastle & Toledo Electric Ry. — Indian- 
apolis to Newcastle 20.00 

Winona Interurban Ry. — Warsaw and Men tone 11.00 

Total 56.83 


Centervllle Light & Traction Co. Ocntcrvllle lo Mystic... 7.00 

Colfax Springe Ry 100 

Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Soulhern R. R. — Ogden, Ogden 

Mines and Fraser 6.00 

Mason City & Clear Lake Ry 1.02 

Sioux City Service Co 5. 00 

Tri-City Ry 2.00 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern Ry 10.00 

Total 32.02 


Kansas City-Western Ry. — Marshall Creek 1.50 

Lawrence Railway & Light Co 9.00 

Manhattan City & Interurban Ry 2.00 

Southwestern Interurban Ry. — Arkansas City and Winfield. 14.00 

Wichita Railroad & Light Co 7.00 

Total 33.50 


Central Kentucky Traction Co. — Lexington to Nicholasvllle. 12.00 

Total 12.00 


Alexandria Electric Railways Co 1.75 

Lake Charles Railway, Light & Water Works Co 1.25 

Total 3.00 


Bangor Railway & Electric Co 0.25 

Rockland, South Thomaston & St. George Ry 0.27 

Total 0.52 


Maryland Electric Railways 1.52 

Total 1.52 


Boston Elevated Ry 15.00 

Boston & Northern Street Ry 1.10 

Dartmouth & Westport Street Ry .83 

Lowell, Acton & Maynard Street Ry. — South Acton to West 

Acton 1.60 

Middlesex & Boston Street Ry 1.00 

Old Colony St. Ry 60 

Total 20.13 


Benton Harbor-St. Joe Railway & LHht Co. — Benton Har- 
bor to Coloma 10.68 

Michigan United Railways Co. — Jackson, Lester, Mason and 

Lansing . . 37.00 

Saginaw & Flint Ry. — Flint, Mt. Morris, Clio, County Line, 

Birch Run and Frankenmuth Junction 21.00 

Saginaw Valley Traction Co .64 

Twin City General Electric Co 1.00 

Total 73.32 


Duluth Street Ry 2.46 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co 2.41 

Total 4.87 


Columbus Railway, Llaht & Power Co 1.25 

Municipal Street Ry— Yazoo City 1.00 

Total 2.25 


Cape Girardeau-Jackson Interurban Ry 1.00 

Kansas City, Lawrence & Topeka Electric R. R. — Shawnee 

to Monrovia 100 

St. Louis, Lakewood & Grant Park Ry 3.00 

Springfield Traction Co 100 

Total 6.00 


Butte Electric Rv 2.00 

Gallatin Valley Electric Ry 18.00 

Total 20.00 


Reno Traction Co 0.50 

Total 0.50 


Blnghamton Ry.— Extension of Downsville division to Stella 0.68 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co 2.34 

Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Co 9. 00 

Buffalo Southern Ry. — Buffalo City Line through Ebenezer 

to East Seneca 5.40 

Elmlra, Corning & Waverly R. R. — Wellshurg to Elmlra. . 6.00 

Elmira Water, Light & Railroad Co 0.40 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R. — Between Jersey City and New 

York 6.80 

Huntington R. R. — Huntington, Farmlngdale and Amity- 

ville 15.00 

Long Island R. R 20.00 

New York City I nterborough Ry 4.50 

New York & North Shore Traction Co. — Flushing and 

Whltestone; Roslyn and Manhasset 8.00 

New York State Railways Rochester Lines 1.75 

Oneida Railway Co. — Sherrlll to Kenwood 1.70 

Rochester, Syracuse & Eastern R. R. Port Byron, Weeds- 
port, Jordan, Memphis, Warners. Ainbov. Belle Isle 

and Syracuse 44.00 

Syracuse Rapid Transit Ry. Co 1.79 

Utlca & Mohawk Valley Ry 1.72 

Total 129.08 


Charlotte Electric Railway, Light & Power Co 1 .00 

Durham Traction Co 0.75 

Weavervllle Electric Co 4.80 

Total 6 55 



[Vol. XXXV. No. i. 


Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Ry. — Ashland, West 

Salem, Lodi and Leroy 30.00 

Dayton, Springfield & Xenla Southern Ry.— In Spring 

Valley; in Dayton 1.50 

Hocklng-Sunday Creek Traction Co 3.00 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co. — Between Canton and 

Massillon 0.63 

Ohio Electric Ry. (Columbus & Lake Michigan R. R.) — 

Lima to Defiance 42.00 

Total 77.13 


Oklahoma City & Suburban Ry 6.00 

Oklahoma Ry.— Oklahoma City to Putnam City S.00 

Oklahoma Union Traction Co.— Tulsa to Orcutt Lake 2.50 

Total 15.50 


Oregon Electric Ry. — From West Woodburn to Woodburn.. 2.50 

Portland Railway, Light & Power Co 3.00 

Total 5.50 


Allegheny Valley Street Ry 3.00 

Central Pennsylvania Traction Co 1.05 

Chambersburg, Greencastle & Waynesboro Street Ry. — 

Through Chambersburg 2.50 

Conestoga Traction Co.— Connects Christiana and Parkes- 

burg 5.00 

Mahoning & Shenango Railway & Light Co 2.20 

Pittsburg Railways Co 10.00 

Scranton Ry 3.00 

South Bethlehem & Saucon Street Ry.— Friedensvi'lle and 

Centre Valley 3.40 

Southern Cambria Ry. — Johnston, Conemaugh, Echo, 

Mineral Point and South Fork 11.00 

Stroudsburg & Water Gap Street Ry 0.50 

Wilkes- Barre & Wyoming Valley Traction Co.— Wilkes- 

Barre to Hudson, Parsons, and Miners Mills 6.00 

Total 47.65 


Rhode Island Co 1.38 

Sea View R. R 0.10 

Total ; 1.48 

Sioux Falls Traction System 1.50 

Total 1.50 


Memphis Street Ry 0.75 

Total 0.75 


Corpus Christl Street & Interurban Ry 5.50 

Houston Electric Co 0.93 

Mt. Pleasant & Red Springs Street Ry 1.13 

Northern Texas Traction Co 1.00 

Port Arthur Traction Co 7.00 

San Antonio Traction Co 6.43 

Uvalde Street Ry. — Sansom to Uvalde 4.00 

Wichita Falls Traction Co.— In Wichita Falls; to Lake 

Wichita 8.00 

Total 33.99 


Norfolk City & Suburban Ry 1.00 

Roanoke Railway & Electric Co 1.50 

Total 2.50 


Everett Railway, Light & Water Co 0.08 

Great Northern Ry 6.25 

Seattle Electric Co 25.00 

Seattle-Everett Interurban Ry. — Seattle and Everett 8.00 

Seattle, Renton & Southern Ry 3.00 

Spokane & Inland Empire R. R 17.00 

Whatcom County Railway & Light Co 4.50 

Yakima Valley Transportation Co 13.00 

Total 76.83 

Morgantown & Dunkard Valley R. R. — West Morgantown, 

Riverside, Granville and Randall 3.00 

Total 3.00 


Ashland Light, Power & Street Railway Co 0.75 

Chippewa Valley Railway, Light & Power Co 0.64 

Eastern Wisconsin Railway & Light Co 2.00 

Grand Rapids Street R. R.— Grand Rapids, Centralia, Port 

Edwards and Nekoosa 8.00 

Milwaukee Northern Ry 2.00 

Wausau Street Ry. — Weston 1.00 

Total 14.39 


British Columbia Electric Railway Co., Ltd 12.35 

Calgary Street Ry 16.00 

Hull Electric Co 2.25 

International Transit Co 0.31 

Montreal & Southern Counties Ry 6.00 

Niagara, St. Catharines & Toronto Ry.— Welland, Hum- 

berstone and Port Colborne 9.00 

Nipissing Central Ry.— Cobalt, Port Cobalt and Haileybury. 5.00 

Port Arthur & Fort William Electric Ry 3.00 

Sandwich, Windsor & Amherstburg Ry 0.25 

Sarnia Street Ry. Co., Ltd 0.38 

Total 54.54 


Companla Electrica y de Ferrocarriles de Chihuahua 3.89 

Total 3.89 


A large amount of work was done in 1909 on the construction 
and extension of heavy electric traction projects in the United 
States. New York City was the center of activity with the 
Pennsylvania cross-town tunnels nearing completion and im- 
portant extensions of their terminal electric zones being made 
by the New York Central & Hudson River, New York, New 
Haven & Hartford and the Long Island railroads. In the 
Middle West the Michigan Central's tunnels and approaches 
under the Detroit River, which are to be operated by electric 
locomotives, will be opened early in 1910, good progress having 
been made on the construction and equipment. The Great 
Northern three-phase division over the Cascade Mountains was 
put in operation during July, 1909. No new track to be 
operated electrically was built during the year by the Baltimore 
& Ohio in Baltimore or by the St. Clair Tunnel Company at 

In the following paragraphs the progress of the year on each 
of the projects on which active work was done is briefly sum- 


The Pennsylvania Railroad is building its new entrance into 
New York City under the name of the Pennsylvania Tunnel & 
Terminal Railroad. The extension begins at Harrison, just east 
of Newark, and crosses the Hackensack Meadows to the west 
portal of the tunnels under Bergen Hill on the west side of the 
Hudson River. The tunnels extend under the Hudson River, 
the Island of Manhattan and the East River, emerging in Long 
Island City and connecting with the Sunnyside yard. The ex- 
tension connects with the Long Island Railroad near Woodside 
Avenue, Borough of Queens. The total length of the extension 
is 14.9 miles, of which 9.83 miles is on the surface, 2.29 miles 
under the two rivers and 2.78 miles under ground. Exclusive of 
the switching tracks in the Harrison transfer and Sunnyside 
yards, the total length of track in the extension will be 49.75 
miles, all electrically operated. The Harrison and Sunnyside 
yards contain nearly 80 miles of track, not all of which will 
be electrically operated. 

During the year 1909 the work has progressed actively on the 
extension, including the Harrison and Sunnyside yards. All the 
tunnels have been completed and main tracks have been laid 
in the tunnels and approaches from Harrison to Winfield, east 
of the Sunnyside yard. Ballasting is in progress and will be 
completed early in the spring of 1910. Yard tracks have been 
laid at Harrison for the interchange yard, and practically all 
the tracks in the Sunnyside yard have also been laid. Work is 
progressing actively on the interlocking and signaling through- 
out. Yard buildings at Sunnyside yard are under construction 
and will be finished early in the spring. The main station, 
facing Seventh Avenue between Thirty-first and Thirty-third 
Streets, has been completed on the exterior, and the work of 
finishing the interior is well advanced. It is anticipated that 
it will be practically completed early in the coming spring. 

The installation of electric power cables, third-rail, power 
plant and substations is well advanced and will be completed in 
the spring of 1910. It is believed that early in the spring 
partial service of the Long Island Railroad into the station will 
be inaugurated, and in the early summer a partial service of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad will be in operation. 

The initial order for electric locomotives to haul through 
trains in the tunnels included 24 double units of 4000 hp. Two 
of these locomotives have been delivered. They were described 
in the Electric Railway Journal of Nov. 6, page 982. The 
proposed initial daily service to be handled in the terminal sta- 
tion is 400 trains of the Pennsylvania Railroad and 600 trains 
of the Long Island Railroad. 


The Long Island Railroad completed the equipment for elec- 
tric operation of 40 miles of track on which work was com- 
menced in 1909, thus increasing its electric trackage to 140 
miles. The most important pieces of work completed, or well 

January i, 1910.] 



advanced during the year, were the construction of two addi- 
tional running tracks, reduction of grades and elimination of 
grade crossings between Winfield and Jamaica, thus providing 
four tracks from the portal of the Manhattan tunnels to 
Jamaica, and the construction of the Glendale cut-off from 
Glendale to Woodhaven Junction to furnish a double-track 
connection from the Far Rockaway and Rockaway Beach divi- 
sions. Work has been begun on the double tracking and elec- 
tric equipment of the North Shore division from Winfield 
to Port Washington. This will be finished by the end of next 

On Feb. 1, 1910, the company hopes to begin through electric 
operation from Jamaica to the Manhattan terminal and by 
June 1 to run all trains into Manhattan. 

Contracts were placed during the year for 130 new steel cars 
for suburban service which will be delivered before May 1. 
This will give the company 400 steel motor and trail cars for 
the service on the electric lines betwen Manhattan and the 
present Brooklyn terminal at Flatbush Avenue. The through 
service to Manhattan will effect a saving in running time on all 
trains of 25 minutes each way as compared with the present 
ferry and crosstown street car trip required to reach the sta- 
tion site in New York. 


During the year 1909 the extension of the New York Cen- 
tral electric traction system has progressed a distance of 12 
miles, between Wakefield and North White Plains, and it is 
contemplated that on or about Feb. 1 all passenger trains on the 
Harlem division will be operated electrically between Grand 
Central Station and North White Plains, thus eliminating the 
temporary terminal at Wakefield. 

The extension includes the erection of two new substations, 
one known as No. 8, located at Tuckahoe, and the other as No. 
9, at White Plains. Each station contains three 1000-kw ro- 
tary converters, with the necessary step-down transformers 
and switching equipment. The general arrangement of the two 
new substations is the same as those already in service on this 
system, with the exception that electric storage batteries, with 
their boosters, regulators, etc., have been omitted. The electric 
signal equipment, which at the other stations is in a detached 
building, in the two new stations has been installed under the 
same roof. 

The aerial transmission lines have been extended a distance 
of about 13 miles to the end of the North White Plains yard. 
The construction is identical with that previously adopted, ex- 
cept that it has been necessary in several instances to use 
temporary wooden poles where a change in track alignment 
or the elimination of grade crossings prevented the permanent 
poles being located. 

The third-rail work includes about 27 miles of new third- 
rail on main track and in yards. The type of construction is 
the same as that formerly adopted, with the exception that 
since the first installation it has been possible to, obtain rolled 
steel offset side inclines in place of cast iron. This is a de- 
cided improvement, both in conductivity of the rail and from 
a construction standpoint. 

There will be six new circuit-breaker houses containing the 
remote controlled circuit breakers through which the third- 
rails will be fed, the arrangement conforming to the existing 
practice on this road. 

All passenger and freight stations on the division will be 
lighted electrically and the current will be taken from the 
2200-voH signal circuits, which are carried on the high-tension 
transmission line poles. A 2200-volt signal circuit from sub- 
station No. 9 will feed a small light and power station which 
is located in the North White Plains engine house, and will 
replace the present steam-driven generators. 

The temporary inspection sheds and repair shops for electric 
equipment located at Wakefield will be abandoned, the plant 
dismantled and the forces transferred to the permanent elec- 
tric inspection shed and repair shop at North White Plains. 
The temporary steam locomotive house, turntable, water supply, 
etc., will be no longer required. 

During the past year the electrical work has kept abreast of 
the civil engineering developments at the Grand Central Sta- 
tion terminal, and as existing tracks were dismantled the third- 
rail and feeders were taken down and returned to stock, while 
the new tracks were equipped with third-rail and permanent 
feeders, so that they were ready for electric operation as soon 
as the construction work permitted them to be turned over to 
the operating department. 

For light and power purposes in the Grand Central Station 
terminal a 1500-kw lighting rotary has been temporarily installed 
in the Fiftieth Street substation. The primary current is ob- 
tained from the main generating station at Port Morris. This 
rotary, with an auxiliary connection to the Edison service, 
will be used for temporarily lighting the Grand Central Station 
terminal pending the construction of the terminal plant. 


The New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad made no 
extensions of its electric zone between Woodlawn, N. Y., and 
Stamford Conn., during 1909, but in the Stamford yard and east 
of Stamford it erected a number of experimental catenary sec- 
tions. The most important of these was a section about 6000 ft. 
long erected east of Glenbrook, the object being to study the 
best type of catenary construction to be adopted for future four- 
track and six-track electric operation. The partially electrified 
Stamford yard was completely equipped with a new form of 
catenary construction. 

As the company made no extension of its suburban electric 
passenger service during the year, it did not order any addi- 
tional passenger locomotives. In May, 1909, however, an order 
was placed with the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company for two electric freight locomotives, one of which has 
been received and the other rapidly nearing completion. These 
locomotives will be capable of hauling the heaviest freight 
trains on the New Haven road at an average schedule speed 
much higher than that now obtained with steam locomotives. 
In 1908 the company ordered four steel motor cars and six 
steel trail cars to be equipped for multiple-unit operation. 
These cars have been received and after thorough tests have 
been made they will be placed in suburban service early in the 
year. The activities of the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
in 1909 were concentrated chiefly on a study of the cost in- 
volved in the contemplated extension of its electric zone from 
Stamford to New Haven, within which it is proposed to operate 
both freight and passenger trains by electric locomotives. 


On July 10, 1909, electric operation was begun on the Cascade 
tunnel section of the Great Northern Railway in the State of 
Washington. This is the first mountain section of a steam 
railroad to be equipped and operated by electric locomotives. 
Its distinguishing feature is the use of the three-phase alter- 
nating current system taking current at 6600 volts from two 
overhead trolley wires. The total length of track which has 
been equipped for electric operation is 6.25 miles, which includes 
J 3.873 ft. of tunnel, the remainder being in the yards at each 
end. The tunnel has a rising grade of 1.7 per cent eastbound 
and at the present time all eastbound freight and passenger 
trains are hauled through it by electric locomotives, but pas- 
senger trains only are hauled by electric locomotives westbound. 
The electric rolling stock consists of four locomotives each 
equipped with four three-phase motors having a one-hour 
rating of 475 hp or 1900 hp for each locomotive. 

As previously stated, electric operation was begun on July 
10, 1909, and was continued until Aug. it, when the hydroelec- 
tric generating station was shut down on account of failure of 
both water wheels. The service was resumed on Sept. 9 and 
has been continued regularly since. 


The Michigan Central Railroad is building a double track 
tunnel under the Detroit River connecting Detroit, Mich., and' 
Windsor, Ont. It will be operated electrically by direct-current 
locomotives, which were described in the Electric Railway 
Journal of June 19, 1909, page 1125. Six of these locomo- 



[Vol. XXXV. No. r. 

tives of 1200 hp each will be delivered by March i, 1910. The 
tunnel and approaches will contain about 6.25 miles of single 
track equipped for electric operation. The progress made in the 
construction and equipment of the tunnel and approaches may be 
summarized as follows : 

With the exception of rodding the ducts and cleaning up, 
the construction of the approach tunnels is completed. The 
last section of the subaqueous tunnel was sunk Sept. 14, and on 
Oct. 15 an opening for passage from portal to portal was made. 
The work of placing the 20-in. ring of reinforced concrete in- 
side the forms is progressing rapidly, and if the present rate of 
progress continues the tunnel construction will be finished early 
in March. 

The electrical equipment is being installed as fast as condi- 
tions permit. The substation is nearing completion and the 
duct system follows closely the completion of the tunnel and 
yard work. Track bonding and the installation of the third- 
rail work are going forward on the Canadian side of the river 
and will be completed during the winter months. The placing 
of special ties in concrete in the approach tunnels has been 

The entire reconstruction and enlargement of the Detroit 
yards and the separation of the grades between Fifteenth and 
Twenty-fourth Streets is going forward rapidly, and such 
tracks as are needed for the handling of trains through the 
tunnel will be ready when needed. It is expected that the 
tunnel will be ready for regular operation by electric locomo- 
tives early in the spring. 


OF 1907 

The Swiss Government has just issued its railway statistics 
for the year ending 1907. There were then 36 street railways 
in operation with a total length of 402 km (249 miles), of 
which 31 meter-gage lines having a combined length of 261 km 
(162 miles) were served by electric apparatus only. The only 
4 ft. 8^2-in. gage street railway reported in Switzerland is a 
2.9 km (1.8 mile) line in Lucerne. The street railways car- 
ried 97,367,553 passengers and 181,561 metric tons of freight 
over 23,072,029 train-km (14,304,664 train-miles). Their total 
gross income was 12,313,430 Fr. ($2,376,492) and the total 
operating expenses were 9.455.353 Fr. ($1,824,874). These re- 
sults were obtained with 2848 employees, eight steam or elec- 
tric locomotives, 109 freight cars and 859 passenger coaches, of 
which 66t were motor cars. 

There were in service 42 interurban narrow-gage railways, of 
which 21 roads with a total length of 416.6 km (258.3 miles) 
were operated exclusively with electricity, while three others 
with a total length of 24.7 km (15.3 miles) used a mixed service 
with steam locomotives. All of the electric and mixed lines 
were of meter (39.37 in.) gage. The total length of the steam 
narrow-gage lines was 514 km (318.7 miles). The combined 
railways carried 11.317,588 passengers and 787,616 metric tons 
of freight over 5,586,722 train-km (3,463,768 train-miles). Their 
total gross income was 13,402,307 Fr. ($2,616,645) and the 
operating expenses were $8,527,102 Fr. ($1,645,731). 

The rack and pinion railways numbered 12 and totaled 97 km 
(60 miles) in length. Only three lines having a combined 
length of 16.9 km (10.5 miles) were all-electric and three 
more totaling 26.1 km ( 16.44 miles) were mixed steam and 
electric. The 12 roads carried 1,031,006 passengers and 69,989 
metric tons over 302,538 train-km (187,573 train-miles). Their 
total gross income was 3,793, 781 Fr. ($732,200) and the operat- 
ing expenses were 2,026,505 Fr. ($391,115). 

The cable railways numbered 36 and had a total length of 
31.66 km (19.63 miles), mostly of meter gage. Of these lines, 
22 having a total length of 21.32 km (13.22 miles) were operated 
electrically. They carried 6,060,926 passengers and 163,698 
metric tons of freight over 570,716 train km (353.833 train- 
miles). Their total gross income was 1,879,714 Fr. ($362,785) 
and the operating expenses were 1,049,889 Fr. ($202,628). 



The plan originally followed by the German Street & Inter- 
urban Railway Association to secure technical papers for its 
meetings was to assign the subjects which required investiga- 
tion to temporary committees. Later on, the association ap- 
pointed four permanent committees, among which all topics 
were divided. This method proved unsatisfactory because the 
number of committees was too small to permit thorough work, 
but a remedy was found in the appointment of subcommittees. 
The men selected for the subcommittee work are always those 
who have had considerable experience in the matters assigned 
to them, but before a subcommittee report goes before the asso- 
ciation it must be examined and approved by the parent com- 
mittee. This method has proved very satisfactory, because it 
insures a thoroughgoing report by specialists, and the recom- 
mendations can be moderated if necessary by the broader point 
of view of a second body. The subcommittee system has also 
created considerable enthusiasm for association work, because 
it gave a larger number of members a chance to participate 
actively. Still another good feature of the plan is that the sub- 
committee reports attract more attention and are apt to be more 
valuable when signed by individuals than if the work of a com- 
mittee. It was originally believed that the report of a single 
person would not be as unbiased as that of several men. This 
in a sense is true, but when a report has to be signed by several 
men with different ideas there is danger of its being a colorless 
compromise which provokes little debate. The committee 
method had also the great disadvantage in the German associa- 
tion of keeping out men of strong convictions who did not wish 
to see their personalities lost, or merged with the inferior work 
of others. 

The standing committees of the association now are : 
Committee "A," on organization and legal matters. 
Committee "B," on construction and operation. 
Committee "C," on electrical matters. 
Committee "D," on steam interurban railways. 
Committee "E," on miscellaneous city railway topics. 

The following statements summarize the work accomplished 
during the last two years of committees "B" and "C," which 
are those in charge of technical subjects connected with elec- 
tric railway matters: 


An idea of the importance of this committee may be gained 
from the fact that it discussed 15 topics, as follows: Rail 
specifications, standardization of rail sections, preparation and 
modification of the contract with the selling agency of the asso- 
ciated lamp manufacturers, rail corrugation, revision of the 
present ordinances relative to permissible braking distances, 
value of snow plows, co-operative buying of rails and other ma- 
terials, rolling stock serviceable for both track and trackless 
operation, switches with cleansing and drainage means, man- 
ganese rails and ties, tire shrinkage for car wheels, projecting 
fenders, noiseless paving such as wood and asphalt, sprinklers. 


The rail specifications were prepared particularly for rail- 
ways which are too small to employ engineers competent for 
that purpose. Up to the time of its adoption such lines were 
obliged either to buy what the rolling mills offered or to imitate 
without reason the practice of large railways with heavier traffic 
conditions. Conditions in Germany in regard to rail standards 
before this committee commenced its work were even worse 
than in the United States, for the "Phoenix" mills alone have 
been obliged to roll 129 different types of grooved rails to 
satisfy their customers. To terminate this condition the Ger- 
man association undertook a comparison of about 200 rail sec- 
tions which had been used in Germany under various traffic 
conditions for the past 10 years, and, as a result, has recom- 

January i, 1910.] 



mended just four sections of straight track and four companion 
sections for curves. The lightest section is shown in the ac- 
companying illustration. The others are of the same general 
form, and the data concerning them appear in the following 
table. The suffix "a" refers to curved rails. 











1 a. 































Thickness of web in mm. . 

1 1 

1 1 



1 2 




Width of groove in mm.. 









Depth of groove in mm.. 









Width of head in mm . 









Width of lip in mm 









Moment of resistance in 









It will be observed that the lightest rail recommended weighs 
42.8 kg per m (about 85.6 lb. per yd.), although it has been 
customary for many roads to use rails weighing only 32 kg per 
m (64 lb. per yd.). A heavier minimum was adopted because 
experience had shown that the slight saving in metal was more 
than balanced by the increased cost of maintenance. Further- 
more, the committee rejected rails higher than 180 mm (7.1 in.), 
although some of the larger systems had been experimenting 
with rails 200 mm (7.8 in.) high. On this point the com- 
mittee was of the opinion that the lower rail was ample for 
ordinary stone paving and that from the standpoint of main- 
tenance the higher rail had not proved so superior when set 
in concrete foundations as had been expected. In high rail 

Typical German Standard Rail Sections for Straight and 
Curved Track 

work with asphalt foundations it had been found that the 
cost of the extra concrete and the heavier expense involved 
in removing it at the time of renewals amounted to more than 
the reduction in the repairs of loose rails. 

Many roads in Germany have in the past followed the practice 
of using for the outside rail on a curve a rail with a shallow 
groove (8 mm or 0.31 in.) so that the outer wheel runs on its 
flange instead of its tread. This reduces the wheel slippage as 
it increases the effective diameter of the outside wheels and 
has been employed successfully for 10 years by such large sys- 
tems as that of Hamburg, where not a single derailment has 
occurred from this cause. The original groove depth in Ham- 
burg was 8 mm (.31 in.), but the standardization committee 
has recommended that users of this method employ a depth of 
10 mm (.39 in.) to be on the safe side. In future the railways 
will build up their curves either of two similar standard wide- 
groove rails or of a wide-groove rail for the inner side and a 
flat-groove rail for the outer side. It may be mentioned here 
that the committee also recommended four standards for the 
JIaarman or two-part girder rail, which are quite popular in 


The committee on structures and operation broadened its 
contract with the associated lamp manufacturers to include the 
new metallic filament lamps. Under this agreement a rebate 
of 25 per cent is made to all railways which buy their total 
annual supply through the common sales agency. Following the 

method pursued in the purchase of rails, specifications were 
drawn up for buying copper wire, but the committee complains 
that the wire syndicate refuses to accept the minimum require- 
ments laid down. 

Corrugation, of course, has been a prominent subject with 
this committee. It has now entered into an agreement with 
the International Street & Interurban Railway Association and 
German rolling mill interests whereby all concerned will share 
the expense of determining whether corrugation is due to the 
composition or the rolling of the rail. It is agreed that the rail 
makers will conduct mill and laboratory tests ; that the German 
and the International railway associations will pay the greater 
part of the market price for the rails tested, and that the ex- 
penses of installation will be borne by the companies operating 
over test tracks. Arrangements have been made to conduct 
the roadway trials in Berlin, Hamburg, Cologne, Dresden, 
Diisseldorf, Essen, Munich, Nurnberg, Leipsic and Frankfort. 

The proposal to use manganese rails owed its origin to the 
belief that corrugation was caused by hard wheel-tires running 
over the softer rail. On conferring with the rail manufac- 
turers, the committee learned that even a trifling percentage 
of manganese would involve great difficulties in rolling. Hence 
this subject has been closed for the present. 

The subject of snow plows has received little attention as 
snowstorms in Germany rarely are as severe as in Canada and 
the northern part of the United States. 

During the past eight years several German railways have 
been interested in the development of a vehicle capable of 
operating over railway tracks as well as the highway. The 
Hanover company, for example, desires such a vehicle to bring 
produce into the city without reloading. No satisfactory 
method has yet been devised for this purpose, but the com- 
mittee is trying to persuade car and wagon makers to study the 
problem, owing to the large field there would be for the sale of 
a successful type. 

The necessity for finding a standard tire shrinkage was 
brought about through disagreements between the wheel makers 
and wheel users. The committee found that the most common 
shrinkage allowance to avoid loose tires was 1 mm (.039 in.) 
for wheels of 600 mm to 800 mm (23.6 in. to 31.4 in.) diameter, 
but several companies have gone up to 1.5 mm (.058 in.) with- 
out serious results. 

The fender question was revived by the Hamburg-Altona 
Railway, which presented for wider adoption a fender devised 
on its own lines. The committee investigated this device and 
concluded that it presented no novelties or unusual efficiency. 

The committee was pleased to receive from several municipal 
railways data confirming the complaints made by privately 
owned lines against the expense of asphalt paving. It is hoped 
that this evidence from unprejudiced sources will help the com- 
panies in their campaign against asphalt. Wood paving blocks 
have not yet been used in Germany. 


The committee on electrical equipment confined itself to the 
discussion of interpole motors, main circuit fuses and oxydized 
aluminum wire. The study of electrolysis was also continued 
by this committee in co-operation with the German Electro- 
technical Society and the German Gas & Water Association. 
Measurements have been made in Braunschweig, Cassel, Nurn- 
berg, Benthen, Diisseldorf and Warsaw (Russian Poland). 
When the experiments are completed, the test commission will 
prepare a specification covering the installation of return cur- 
rent circuits. 


The German Street & Interurban Railway Association was 
founded in iHqo at Munich with 38 member companies. The 
membership now numbers 128 out of 172 street railways and 64 
out of 137 interurban railways in Germany. During the first 
eight years the administrative work of the association was in the 
hands of the Hamburg Street Railway Company after which it 
was turned over to the Great Berlin Street Railway Company. 
The latter company is still in charge. 



[Vol. XXXV. No. i. 



Electric railway construction in the Central Western States 
has not been at a standstill in 1909. Some work of importance 
has been carried out in each State within the territory shown on 
the accompanying map. The new mileage in several instances 
was composed of connections of more than passing interest. 
Groups of electric railways have been united, and to-day, as 
compared with a year ago, it not only is possible to make 
longer trips over unbroken electric routes, but it also is easier 
to travel "the electric way," because of the excellence of the 
"through limited" cars now operated. Ambitious plans have 
been announced for new fast through lines and some existing 
systems have greatly improved their roadbeds with a view to 
shortening the schedule time over existing routes. This de- 
velopment of through long-distance service becomes more im- 
portant with each added line in the already vast network of 
electric railways which covers the Central States. 

How farreaching the electric railways are and how thor- 
oughly they have linked the population centers can best be 
appreciated by a study of the map of interurban roads in the 
Central States which accompanies this issue. The original 
drawing from which the engraving for this map was made is 
owned by The Arnold Company, Chicago, 111. 

This year, as in the past, the new lines and those under con- 
struction or recently proposed are shown on the map. The in- 
formation added has been checked with the track and roadway 
items as published from week to week in the news department 
of the Electric Railway Journal. Special care has been 
taken in revising the map, but on account of the wide scope of 
the territory there may be some errors of location ; and if such 
are observed this paper will greatly appreciate any advice that 
may assist in making more complete its records of new con- 

One who studies the trend of interurban growth from year 
to year will note that in Ohio and Indiana the existing large 
mileage so well fulfills the needs of the territory that the annual 
additions to that mileage are mostly extensions and connec- 
tions, rather than new construction of independent roads. 
Several projects in Illinois, in addition to the Illinois Traction 
System, are striking out across country and promise to be- 
come extensive lines similar to their forerunners in Ohio and 
Indiana. In the States between the Mississippi and Missouri 
Rivers the interurban railway systems are few in number, but 
the program for 1910 announces the construction of several long 
lines extending from the larger population centers into new 

Referring particularly to the projects in the several States 
it is found that in Ohio the Cleveland, Southwestern & Colum- 
bus Railway, during the last week of February, 1909, inaugu- 
rated service on its important Seville-Ashland-Mansfield exten- 
sion. This line, 42 miles in length, joins the interurban net- 
work near Cleveland with the lines radiating from Columbus 
and offers a new through route from Cleveland to Columbus by 
way of the Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus from Cleve- 
land to Mansfield ; the Ohio Central Traction Company from 
Mansfield to Bucyrus, and the Columbus, Delaware & Marion 
from Bucyrus to Columbus. The roadway construction of the 
Mansfield-Seville division follows the latest design. One fea- 
ture of particular interest is the type of substation construc- 
tion, employing metal lath and concrete for structural ma- 
terials in buildings 70 ft. long by 16 ft. 8 in. wide. 

Service recently has been inaugurated over the lines of the 
Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Railway between Cleve- 
land, Mansfield and Bucyrus. The route is 116 miles long and 
three limited trains daily now cover the distance in 4 hours and 
30 minutes. These trains connect at Bucyrus with those of the 
Columbus, Marion & Bucyrus Railway operating to Columbus. 
The railway companies owning this through route are said to be 
planning a fast limited service for the 170-mile run between 
Cleveland and Columbus. 

The Ohio Electric Railway opened its electric service be- 
tween Lima and Defiance late in December. This line for- 
merly was operated by steam, but it has recently been re- 
ballasted, and with the completion of new concrete culverts, 
steel bridge spans and the erection of overhead lines, regular 
interurban service on a three-hour headway was inaugurated. 
One year ago the Ohio Electric Railway had completed its 72- , 
mile Lima-Toledo division, but had not entered the city of 
Toledo. An excellent roadbed has been built on private right- 
of-way to a new terminal station within a few blocks of the 
hotel district in Toledo, and through passenger and express 
service is now operated to and from this terminal. 

Early in the year the Youngstown & Ohio River Railway 
Company completed its line from Leetonia to East Liverpool 
and traffic arrangements were made jointly with the Youngs- 
town & Southern Railway for the operation of through cars 
from Youngstown to East 'Liverpool. Some of the longer 
routes of electric travel in Ohio now available are from Cincin- 
nati through Dayton, Springfield and Lima to Toledo over the 
Ohio Electric Railway; from Dayton through Lima and Find- 
lay to Toledo over the Western Ohio route, and from Columbus 
to Cleveland by way of Marion, Bucyrus, Mansfield and either 
Norwalk or Seville, as earlier mentioned. In addition to these 
there is an unbroken electric service over the older high-speed 
lines of the Lake Shore Electric Railway from Toledo to Cleve- 
land, and over the Cleveland, Painsville & Eastern to Ashtabula, 
thence over the Pennsylvania & Ohio to Conneaut, and over 
connecting lines in Pennsylvania and New York to Buffalo and 
the larger cities along the route of the New York Central & 
Hudson River Railroad. A passenger may also travel from 
Cleveland to Wheeling, W. Va., or Pittsburgh, Pa., by electric 

In Michigan two important connections have been made 
during the past year. The Saginaw & Flint Railway on Feb. 
22 opened service on its line from Saginaw to Flint where con- 
nection is made with the through service of the Detroit United 
Railway to Detroit. The connection of the Detroit United 
system from Detroit to Flint with the Saginaw & Flint line, 
and the existing Saginaw & Bay City line, makes possible 
through electric travel northwest from Detroit 125 miles to Bay 
City. The Michigan United Railways Company recently com- 
pleted an important line connecting its Kalamazoo-Battle Creek- 
Jackson division with its Lansing-St. Johns division. The new 
line is 37 miles long and was constructed closely in accord with 
the standards which were followed in building the Jackson- 
Battle Creek line. Current is distributed to the cars through a 
60-lb. third rail supported on vitrified insulator blocks. Limited 
cars will make the run between Lansing and Jackson in one 
hour and there connect with the limited trains of the Detroit 
United Railway, which give service between Jackson and 
Detroit. The running time between Detroit and Lansing will 
be 3 hours and 45 minutes for the 113 miles. 

Considered broadly, the most important electric project in 
Michigan is that of the Detroit River tunnel of the Michigan 
Central Railroad, which is referred to in the summary of heavy 
electric traction projects on page 37 of this issue of the Electric 
Railway Journal. 

In Indiana the one break in the otherwise continuous chain 
of electric railways between Wisconsin and Central New York 
is rapidly being closed. This break is found in the line of the 
Winona Interurban Railway between the towns of Mentone and 
Akron, in the north central part of the State. A recent item in 
the Electric Railway Journal stated that cars were operating 
over a 10-mile section at the southern end and a 12-mile sec- 
tion at the northern end of the 44-mile section which intervened 
a year ago. On the remaining 22 miles the grading is largely 
completed and rails are being laid. It is expected that through 
cars will be in operation by Feb. 1. This link will make pos- 
sible through electric travel between Indianapolis and Chicago 
and will complete the electric route from Wisconsin into the 
State of New York. 

Arrangements have been completed for opening the first 
section of the Indianapolis, Newcastle & Toledo Railway and the 

January i, 1910.] 



larger part of the construction work between Indianapolis and 
Newcastle has been finished. This section is about 45 miles 
long and as originally promoted was intended as part of a 
through route between Indianapolis and Toledo, running north- 
east from Newcastle. During the early part of the year the 
connection between the western end of the Chicago, Lake Shore 
& South Bend Railway in Indiana and Pullman on the Illinois 
Central Railroad in Illinois was completed. For some months 
through fast service has been operated by this road between 
Chicago and South Bend, the electric cars connecting with the 
Illinois Central suburban express trains at Pullman. A pas- 
senger from Chicago to South Bend taking a suburban express 
train on the Illinois Central road to Pullman, 14 miles, and 
there changing to a limited car of the "South Shore Route" 
running east to South Bend, 76 miles, may make the 90-mile 
trip in 2 hours and 57 minutes. The running time for the first 
14 miles on the Illinois Central Railroad is 36 minutes and for 
the 76 miles to South Bend on the electric line is 2 hours and 
17 minutes. 

In Illinois the most important electric railway project which 
has been under construction during the past year is the St. 
Louis terminal of the Illinois Traction System. This company 
is spending $6,500,000 in building an entrance into St. Louis, 
Mo. The project includes the construction of a bridge over the 
Mississippi River, which, with its approaches, will be about 2 
miles long. On the Illinois side a double-track line connects the 
eastern approach to the bridge with the main line of the 
Illinois Traction System. On the Missouri side a double-track 
route 2.5 miles long, partly through the streets of St. Louis and 
partly on private right-of-way, connects the western approach 
to the bridge with the large terminal station property located 
within one block of the commercial center of the qity. This 
double-track entrance into St. Louis has been completed and 
awaits the erection of two more spans of the Mississippi River 
bridge before service can be inaugurated. Other important 
work carried out by the Illinois Traction System during the past 
year has included the construction of high-speed belt railways 
from 3 to 5 miles long around the cities of Edwardsville, 
Springfield and Decatur. With the completion of these belt 
lines it will be necessary to haul long freight trains over the 
city streets, and the through passenger schedules may" be 

A year ago the plans for the northern extension of the Illinois 
Traction System toward Chicago had not been announced. 
During the past 12 months construction work has been com- 
pleted on one section of the through line which the Illinois 
Traction System eventually will operate between St. Louis and 
Joliet or Chicago. It has been announced that the northern 
extension of the through line now operating from St. Louis 
though Springfield and Lincoln to Mackinaw, 157 miles north, 
will soon be extended through Eureka to Streator, about 35 

A recently completed section from Streator north to Ottawa 
will connect the new line with the east and west line of 
the Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Railway, which is being built to 
Morris, 20 miles distant from Joliet. The latter line is under 
the same management as the Illinois Traction System. From 
Joliet Chicago may be reached over three existing electric 
routes. Announcement recently has been made that the in- 
terests which control the Joliet & Southern Traction Company 
will build a high-speed electric line from Joliet to connect 
with the Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railway, which will 
furnish an entrance into Chicago for the intcrurban cars of the 
new line. 

The Rock Island Southern Railway has just completed track 
laying for its 40-milc line between Rock Island and Monmouth, 
111. This new road does not parallel any steam railway for 
more than a short distance and will give transportation facilities 
to rich coal fields not yet fully developed. The road has been 
designed for handling heavy traffic and it is expected that elec- 
tric passenger car operation will be begun early in iojo, while 
freight trains will be handled for a limited time by steam 

A new third-rail line has been built from Wheaton 11 miles 
directly west to Geneva, 111. This road connects at the eastern 
end with the Elgin-Chicago division of the Aurora, Elgin & 
Chicago Railway, and at Geneva with the Fox River division of 
the same road. The construction standards of the Aurora, 
Elgin & Chicago third-rail line were followed and that com- 
pany is operating the train service. 

The Aurora, Rockford & DeKalb Electric Traction Company 
until recently has operated its 30-mile line between Aurora and 
DeKalb with gasoline motor cars. Trolley wire is now being 
strung along the route and two substations are under con- 
struction. These substations will receive power from the 
Batavia generating station of the Aurora, Elgin & Chicago 
Railway and electric service will shortly be inaugurated between 
Aurora and DeKalb. 


During 1909 a total of 22 electric railway properties went 
into the hands of receivers. They involved 558 miles of 
track and a total outstanding capitalization of $52,287,200, 
of which $22,325,000 was in bonds and $29,962,200 in capital 
stock. The Illinois Tunnel Company was omitted from 
the list for the reason that this subway road, although op- 
erated electrically, carries no passengers. A list of the 
receiverships follows: 



of Outstanding Outstanding 
Company. track. bonds. stock. 

Albany & Hudson R. R 47 $1,850,000 $1,750,000 

Angelo Power & Traction Co 2 

P>eaumont Traction Co 12 500,000 600,000 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Ry 60 3,685,000 4,000,000 

Burlington County Ry 15 475,000 484,000 

Chicago & North Shore Street Ry 675,000 650,000 

Columbus, Delaware & Marion Ry 58 915,000 3,000,000 

Columbus, Marion & Bucyrus R. R 20 500,000 500,000 

Consolidated Railway & Power Co 4 60,000 

Holmesburg, Tacony & Frankf'd Elec. Ry. 17 400,000 750,000 

Indianapolis, Crawfordsville & Western 

Traction Co 45 1,500,000 1,500,000 

Manistee Light & Traction Co 10 600,000 1,000,000 

Meadville & Conneaut Lake Traction Co. 29 1,100,000 1,000,000 
Montgomery County Rapd Transit Co.... 8 400,000 300,000 

North Shore Street Ry 

Norwich & Westerly Ry 24 750,000 668,200 

Ocean Shore Ry 53 2,800,000 5,000,000 

Philadelphia, Bristol & Trenton St. Ry... 21 650,000 1,000,000 

St. Francois County Ry 14 125,000 300,000 

Southern Colorado Power & Ry 21 1,000,000 1,000,000 

Southwestern Street Ry 16 400,000 400,000 

Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis 

Electric Ry 82 4,000,000 6,000,000 

Totals 558 

$22,325,000 $29,962,200 

The foreclosure sales during 1909 involved 21 properties 
operating 488 miles of track. The outstanding securities on 
these properties aggregated $43,439,700, of which $21,174,000 
represented bonded debt and $22,265,700 capital stock. The 
Norfolk & Southern Railway was not included in the re- 
turns, as it is primarily a steam property, although operat- 
ing 48 miles of track by electricity. Some properties which 
have been in financial difficulties were reorganized without 
foreclosure proceedings. The foreclosure sales were as fol- 
lows : 



of Outstanding Outstanding 
Company. track. bonds. stock. 

Albany & Hudson R. R 47 $1,850,000 $1,750,000 

Anderson Traction Co 18 163,000 

Angelo Power & Traction Co 2 

Auburn & Turner R. R 13 125,000 100,000 

Conneaut & Erie Traction Co 30 1,087,500 800,000 

Danbury & Harlem Traction Co 16 319,500 320,000 

Dayton & Xenia Traction Co 51 800,000 800,000 

Denton Intcrurban Railway & Power 

Plant Co. 3 

Erie, Cambridge, Union & Cony Ry 42 1,000,000 1,000,000 

Gainesville Electric Ry 8 250,000 300,000 

Gettysburg Transit Co 9 100,000 

300,000 200,000 
390,000 300,000 
90,000 25,000 

Las Vegas Railway & Power Co 5 

Meadville & Cambridge Springs St. Ry... 16 

Miami Electric Co 3 

Mineral Wells Electric System 6 

Missouri Water, Light & Traction Co.... 5 

Philadelphia, Iliistol & Trenton St. Ry... 21 
I'm I h i vis Electric Light, Power, Gas & 

R. R. Co 4 

Tarrytown, White Plains St Mamaroneck 

Hy 24 300,000 300,000 

Toledo Urban & Inlei urban Ry 71 810,000 761,700 

Virginia Passenger & Power Co 94 13,007,0011 14,096,000 


650,000 1,000,000 

95,000 1 50,000 

Totals 488 $21,174,0011 




[Vol. XXXV. No. i. 


Beginning with the first day of the new year, the United 
Railways & Electric Company, Baltimore, Md., is instituting 
a pay-as-you-enter service, with its Pennsylvania Avenue line 
as the pioneer. The company has provided for this purpose 
32 Brill semi-convertible cars with 30-ft. 8-in. bodies, which 
have been altered under license of the Pay-As-You-Enter Car 
Corporation by A. T. Clark, superintendent of shops. Pre- 
vious to the actual operation of the cars the Baltimore com- 
pany has been conducting a vigorous advertising campaign 

weakened. On the contrary, the results would justify one in 
saying that the cars were materially strengthened. When the 
cars were brought to the shops they were stripped of con- 
trollers, circuit breakers and other electrical parts; also of 
the side panels, hoods, vestibules, dashers, brake shafts, plat- 
forms, outside platform knees and supporting angle iron for 
knees, double sliding doors, together with the inside end wall 
finish and longitudinal seats on the motorman's left-hand side. 
The first alteration consisted in replacing the outside platform 
knees with longer ones, the angle-iron supports formerly 
used being put back. The center platform knees were spliced 

Baltimore Pay-As-You-Enter Cars — Side View 

under the direction of W. A. House, president, and T. A. 
Cross, general manager. The Baltimore newspapers have 
also lent their news columns for the same object. In one 
interview Mr. House is quoted as strongly indorsing the pre- 
payment cars because of the greater comfort and safety which 
they will afford to the riding public. The Baltimore car-- 
embody several special features, as will appear from the fol- 

out g'A in. The former crown-pieces were put back and the 
flooring was laid and stripped. The dasher, dasher post and 
dasher rails were all used again, but the steps were lengthened 
to suit the altered platforms. The original malleable iron step 
hangers were retained, and a new wooden tread, with Uni- 
versal safety treads, was substituted. The hoods were used 
again by splicing in a neat and substantial manner j l / 2 in. to 

Baltimore Pay-As-You-Enter Cars — Rear Platform 

lowing description of the alterations and from the accompany- 
ing cuts. 

Briefly, the alterations consist of lengthening the platforms 
from 5 ft. to 5 ft. g l / 2 in. and arranging the end walls of the 
cars with a pair of narrow sliding doors and a single swing- 
ing door. The cars lent themselves extremely well to these 
alterations, as none of the vital parts of the construction was 

Baltimore Pay-As-You-Enter Cars — Door Arrangement in 
End Bulkheads 

each end of the hood bow, and the hood boards lengthened 
accordingly. When completed it is almost impossible to tell 
where the hood has been altered, and, in fact, its appearance 
is identical with that of the original hood in all except length. 
The brake shafts were moved 1 in. closer to the dasher. 

The platform was divided into two parts by vertical and 
horizontal railings, the horizontal railings being arranged as a 

January i, 1910.] 



barrier to keep the entering and leaving passengers from 
coming into conflict and to make a suitable location for the 
conductor and the fare box. The box can be removed from 
the rail by unlocking the padlock and carrying to the other 
end of the car. On the motorman's platform the horizontal 
railing is raised out of the way by sliding it upward close to 
the hood. The company's standard lazy tongue gates are 
installed on both platforms as illustrated. It will be observed 
that passengers alighting from the motorman's platform leave 
on the near side of the vertical step rail, the other half of 
the platform being kept closed by a gate. This feature tends 
to prevent the motorman from being jostled by departing pas- 

The alterations to the end wall of the cars were entirely 
upon the motorman's left-hand side of the car. The head- 
piece and end sill were mortised to receive the posts forming 
the narrow center bulkhead between the double sliding doors 
and the swinging door. The narrow end lining was attached 
to this bulkhead, and both were braced by using a iVS-in. x 
2^4-in. x 5/r6-in. angle iron, which also forms a pocket for 
the sliding door. The narrow bulkhead has a narrow sash 
with double thick glass, and the inside lining also has the 
same kind of sash, arranged to swing. The swinging door. 

Baltimore Pay-As-You-Enter Cars — Front Platform 

which is arranged to swing inward from the corner post, to 
prevent passengers from falling into the street, was made by 
using the former sliding doors, but placing wider stiles upon 
them. For the double sliding doors new, narrow doors are 
made. As the swinging door was located in the corner of 
the car, the longitudinal seat on this side was cut on a line 
with the first side post, and that section of the car between 
the corner post and the first side post was furnished with a 
seat arranged to drop when this end of the car is at the rear. 
This change required special treatment of the cable, cable 
box and sand box. The last item is beneath the car, and is 
filled from an opening in the car floor. The location of the 
swinging door in the corner necessitated the removal of the 
semi-convertible feature between the corner post and the first 
side posts on this side. The whole appearance of the interior 
was made to conform to its original lines, so that the cars as 
completed present a finished appearance and do not show to 
the average eye where the alterations have been made. The 
cables and circuit-breaker heads were spliced out to suit the 
longer platforms, but otherwise there was no change to any of 
the car wiring. 

The cars were carefully overhauled and painted, and the 
brass trimmings and other fittings were polished and lacquered. 
The painting, striping and lettering were made to accord with 
the railway company's standards. 

The wording "Pay as you enter" and "Please have exact 

fare ready" occurs on the outside panels, upon each side of the 
car in the lower corner. The glass in the upper vestibule sash 
on the motorman's right-hand side has the wording "Pay as 
you enter" in black letters on ground glass. The cars were 
equipped with special Brill fare-boxes. The registration device 
is not contained in the fare-box, but is cared for by Inter- 
national registers. One register rod passes through the car 
from end to end, with an outside connection to enable the 
conductor to operate from the rear platform the register in the 
front of the car. As the cars are equipped for double-end 
operation, this arrangement is duplicated at the other end of 
the car. 

The cars are mounted upon Brill 27 GE-i trucks, have four 
Westinghouse No. 101-B motors, and are equipped with West- 
inghouse Traction Brake Company's S. M. E. brake equip- 
ments. Each car has 14 transverse rattan seats of Hale & 
Kilborn manufacture, besides the corner seats. The cars are 
also equipped with Hunter illuminated signs. The total weight 
of a car with its equipment is 54,500 lb. 


At a meeting of the Institution of Civic Engineers held in 
London, Nov. 9, papers were presented on three of the elec- 
trically equipped steam roads in England. The titles of these 
papers were : "The Single-Phase Electrification of the Hay- 
sham, Morecambe and Lancaster Branch of the Midland Rail- 
way," by J. Dalziel and J. Sayers ; "The Equipment and Working 
Results of the Mersey Railway Under Steam and Under Elec- 
tric Traction," by J. Shaw, M. Inst. C. E., and "The Effect of 
Electrical Operation on the Permanent-Way Maintenance of 
Railways, as Illustrated on the Tynemouth Branches of the 
North-Eastern Railway," by C. A. Harrison, D. Sc., M. Inst. 
C. E. 

An article on the road described in the first paper was pub- 
lished in the Electric Railway Journal for July 4, 1908. The 
authors of the paper state that the choice of this particular 
section of the line for a more or less experimental electrification 
was partly due to the fact that it could be worked from an 
existing power-station at Haysham. Though the traffic is light 
it is long-hour throughout the year, and, consequently, is ex- 
pensive to work by steam, so that there was scope for saving 
in working expenses; the summer traffic is heavy and liable 
to congestion, two of the stations being terminals, and there 
is a considerable local traffic between Morecombe and the 
third station, Lancaster, which tends to congest the main-line 
trains. The operation with electric cars is very similar to that 
with locomotives. The motor cars haul daily trains having a 
total weight of 190 tons, which is 125 per cent over the load 
originally specified to the contractors. The paper reviews the 
points in which single-phase apparatus is sometimes alleged 
to be unsuitable, namely, high-speed schedule, frequent stops, 
suburban and interurban traffic with high acceleration, etc., 
and then states that the apparatus is equally as capable for such 
service as direct-current apparatus, that the weight of the 
single-phase train is only a very small percentage greater than 
that of corresponding direct-current trains, and that the energy 
consumption is appreciably less. The paper concludes by giving 
details of the results in service of the equipments, an indica- 
tion of the probable cost per train-mile of such service, detailed 
notes of the mileages accomplished and lost by defects, a note 
as to the development, cause, results and steps taken to remedy 
and obviate such defects, and detailed figures as to the amount 
of cleaning, repair and attention required; also, where possible, 
the mileage life of the various wearing parts, including bows, 
commutators, brushes, bearings, contactor contacts, wheel-tires, 

The Mersey Railway runs under the Mersey River and joins 
Liverpool with Birkenhead. It was described in the Street 
Railway Journal for April 4, 1903. The electric service was 
inaugurated in May, 1903, The traffic conditions call for train 
service of 19V2 hours per day, with a peak-load for a few hours 
in the morning to Liverpool, and another peak load for a few 



[Vol. XXXV. No. i. 

hours in the evening in the reverse direction. During steam . 
working the peak was met by increasing the number of trains 
in service, and, under electric working, the peaks are met by 
increasing the number of cars per train, keeping the interval 
between the trains constant throughout the day. The road is 
operated by direct current with four-car or five-car trains with 
a motor car at each end during heavy traffic and with trains 
of one motor car and one trailer in light traffic. The electro- 
pneumatic system of control is used. Electricity is also em- 
ployed for elevators, pumping and ventilation. The authors 
give some interesting statistics in regard to cost of operation. 
With electric traction i lb. of fuel, costing 8s. od. ($2.10) 
per ton, moves 1 ton of load 2.29 miles at an average speed of 
22J4 m.p.h. ; whereas, with steam, the same weight of fuel, cost- 
ing 16s. ($3.84) per ton, moved the same load 2.21 miles at an 
average speed of 17% m.p.h. As regards the life of rails under 
the two systems, the average rolling load over the track before 
the rails require renewal has been increased from 32,000,000 tons 
to 47,500,000 tons. The average speed, including stops, has been 
increased from 15.6 to 19.9 m.p.h., and the number of ton-miles 
per annum from 43,000,000 to 67,000,000, while the total ex- 
penses per ton-mile, after allowing for the interest on the addi- 
tional capital for electrical equipment, have been reduced from 
o.344d. (0.688 cent) to o.292d. (0.586 cent). In the half year 
ending June 30, 1908, the number of passengers carried was 
more than twice as many as in the last half-year of steam work- 
ing (ending Dec. 31, 1902) and more than 2^2 times as many 
season tickets were issued; the seat-miles run per passenger 
showed a decrease of 30 per cent, and the passenger receipts 
per seat-mile an increase of 26.5 per cent, while the ratio of ex- 
penses to receipts decreased from 95.3 per cent to 69.8 per cent. 
The following financial statistics were also given: 

Electric. Steam. 

Pence. Cents. Pence. Cents. 

Locomotives and carriage departments 

per ton-mile 0.089 0.178 0.117 0.234 

Maintenance of track 0.0089 0.0198 0.0208 0.0416 

Costs of hydraulic lifts per lift-mile.. 30.1 60.2 85.2 170.4 

Total cost operation and maintenance . 0.152 0.134 0.238 0.476 
Total cost of operation including gen- 
eral expenses, but exclusive of in- 
terest on additional capita! for 

electrification 0.24 0.48 0.344 0.688 

The third paper relates to the equipment of certain branches 
of the Northeastern line which were put in service July 1, 
1904. The total length of electrified line, including sidings, is 
75 miles, and the average distance between the station stops 
is 1 J4 miles. A third rail, at 600 volts, and a fourth rail for the 
return are used. The paper says that the wear on track, al- 
though greater under electric traction on frogs and crossings, 
is only slightly increased on tangents. The capacity of the 
/ passenger station at Newcastle has been greatly increased as the 
time for dispatching and reloading the train has been reduced 
to 2 minutes. With steam trains four platforms and eight 
signal operations were required, but with the electric trains only 
two platforms and four signal operations are needed. The 
running time has also been reduced. The paper gives an esti- 
mate of the annual cost of renewals, with a table, and concludes 
by stating that it would have been impossible to carry by the 
old steam service the number of passengers that are now be- 
ing conveyed on the Tynemouth lines with the electric service. 

At the September, 1909, convention of the German Street & 
Interurban Railway Association, Arthur Busse, chief engineer 
of way and structures, Grosse Berliner Strassenbahn, presented 
some figures on the costs of the proposed corrugation study. 
He estimated the total cost at $6,250, of which $1,250 to $1,500 
will cover special steels ; a like amount will cover extra ex- 
penses at the foundries, and the balance will be required for 
the chemical and physical analyses to be made by Dr. Puppe, 
who has been selected by the railway and rolling mill interests. 
The railway using the test rails will buy them at the regular 
prices. The test expenses will be borne as follows : $1,250 from 
the German Street & Interurban Railway Association ; $1,500 
from the foundries and rolling mill interests ; $4,250 from 
several electric railways. The International Street & Inter- 
urban Railway Association will be asked to contribute $1,250. 


Two hearings were held before John E. Eustis, of the Public 
Service Commission of the First District of New York, on 
Dec. 24, 1909, to consider the subjects of the operation of side- 
door cars in the subway and the lighting of the stations and 
track. Frank Hedley, vice-president and general manager of 
the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, and Theodore L. 
Waugh, of counsel, represented the Interborough Rapid Tran- 
sit Company. E. G. Connette, chief of the transportation bu- 
reau of the commission, and several engineers of the commis- 
sion were called as witnesses for the commission. G. H. 
Backus represented the commission as counsel at the hearing 
on the operation of the side-door cars, and H. H. Whitman rep- 
resented the commission as counsel at the hearing on lighting. 

The hearing on the side-door trains and cars was held first. 
Mr. Connette, who was called as the first witness, said that 15 
trains, each composed of eight side-door cars, were being oper- 
ated by the company, and that 27 side-door trail cars were used 
to complete the equipment of the other express trains. The 
side doors of the trail cars of the mixed trains were not oper- 
ated, however. Approximately half of the side-door trains 
were withdrawn from service during the middle of the day so 
as to start them on their runs together to handle the evening 
rush. Mr. Connette thought it unnecessary to withdraw the 
trains from service for more than an hour or two, and was of 
the opinion that the side-door trains should be alternated with 
others. He had found the average saving in time of stops at 
stations to be 12 seconds with the side-door trains. 

Mr. Hedley said that fewer trains could be run past a given 
point during the half-hour rush when the side-door trains had 
been alternated with the others. The company was opposed to 
operating the side doors in the trains composed of side-door 
trail cars and end-door motor cars because it would increase 
the accident hazard. The expense of installing on the mixed 
trains the automatic signal system in use on the trains with all 
side doors would not be justified. The company had expected 
long before now to have the full complement of side-door cars 
in operation, but it had been unable to secure the equipment from' 
the builders. Beginning about Feb. 1, 1910, the company ex- 
pected to receive side-door motor cars at the rate of two a 
day, and by April 15 all the nondescript trail cars would be ab- 
sorbed. The company should not be required to operate the 
side doors on the elevated portion of the line in the outlying 
sections where traffic is light. The hearing was then closed. 

At the hearing on the lighting of the stations and track an 
expert witness was introduced who testified to the illumination 
of the Brooklyn Bridge station. Two members of the en- 
gineering staff of the commission testified that the roadway 
was lighted sufficiently well to make it possible to walk the 
track without danger, but that inspections could not well be 
made with the present lights. 

Mr. Hedley suggested that a commission of three disinter- 
ested laymen be secured to consider the station lighting from 
the standpoint of the public and make recommendations in re- 
gard to specific stations which they deemed to be insufficiently 
lighted. Lamps of 10 cp each are spaced about 30 ft. apart 
along the track, and are so shaded with reflectors as to prevent 
the light from affecting the vision of the trainmen. The sub- 
ject of lighting the roadway had been very carefully considered 
by Mr. Hedley and W. Barclay Parsons, engineer to the Rapid 
Transit Commission, and the present system was adopted as 
best fitted to the requirements. Any increase in the lighting 
would make it more difficult for motormen to distinguish sig- 
nals and tail lights, and would thus decrease the efficiency of 
these safeguards. A bank or banks of lamps could be easily 
installed for making repairs and for inspections. 

' Mr. Connette agreed with Mr. Hedley about the lighting of 
the roadway, and said that nothing should be done that would' 
in any way tend to decrease the efficiency of the signals and' 
tail lights. 




The J. G. Brill Company has announced that it will repeat 
this year the offer of prizes for essays on car design. These 
prizes are offered to the senior students of the colleges, univer- 
sities and technical schools of the United States, who will be 
graduated in 1910, and the subject selected this year is "The 
Design of an Electric Railway Car for City Service." The 
following is taken from the announcement of the company : 

"The authors of the three theses which in the estimation 
of a jury shall be considered most meritorious pf those sub- 
mitted shall receive respectively in order of merit for their 
work: (1) The sum of $250 and the John A. Brill gold medal; 
(2) the sum of $150; (3) the sum of $100. 

"Each thesis will be judged: (1) On its technical merit; 
(2) on the manner in which the subject is presented. 

"A jury of three, consisting of a member of the American 
Street & Interurban Railway Association, the editor of the 
Electric Railway Journal and the vice-president of The J. G. 
Brill Company, will decide the relative merits of the theses. 

"Three copies of each thesis must be submitted in order to be 
considered. Each copy shall be typewritten or printed on stand- 
ard size, 8y 2 in. x 11-in. sheets. All accompanying tracings, 
black and white prints or blue prints shall be of corresponding 
size or of such shape as to be conveniently folded to that size. 

"A thesis to be eligible for any one of the prizes need not be 
prepared especially for this contest. It may be the same thesis 
which is submitted in connection with senior graduating work; 
but it shall be the work of a duly accredited student of a college, 
university or technical school and shall conform to the require- 
ments of the competition. 

"All theses to be considered must reach the office of The J. G. 
Brill Company on or before July 15, 1910; shall be sent by 
registered mail flat (unrolled and not folded) and packed in 
such a manner as to insure their delivery in good condition. 
They shall be addressed to the Technical Department, The J. G. 
Brill Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 

"No thesis shall bear on the text pages or other parts sub- 
mitted to the jury any mark which might inform any member 
of the jury as to the name and address of the contestant. But 
each thesis shall be accompanied by a sealed envelope contain- 
ing the name and address of the contestant and a certificate or 
statement from the authorities of the college, university or 
school at which he is a student to indicate that he is properly 
qualified as a regular student to enter the contest. The en- 
velopes will be numbered consecutively in the order of the re- 
ceipt of the theses, a corresponding number being attached to 
each thesis and the envelopes preserved for reference until after 
the jury has made its decision. 

"The announcement of awards will be made at the time of the 
annual convention of the American Street & Interurban Railway 
Association in October. A copy of the announcement will be 
sent to the author of each thesis submitted. 

"A copy of each thesis, after the completion of inspection by 
the jury and the announcement of awards, shall become the 
property of The J. G. Brill Company, and a copy shall also be- 
come the property of the American Street & Interurban Railway 

"Additional copies of this circular or any further information 
which may be necessary regarding the conditions of the contest 
or manner of awards may be had from Technical Department, 
The J. G. Brill Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 

"Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 15, 1909. 

"The Brill thesis contest was inaugurated in 1908 and the 
award of prizes was made in 1909 to the following: First 
prize, Charles T. Ripley, University of Illinois; second prize, 
Victor D. Dressncr, Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute; third prize, 
Robert T. Pollock, Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Mr. Ripley 
also won the John A. Brill medal given willi the first prize. 

"The contest is designed to interest the best class of students 
of the colleges of the United States in the attractive field for 
personal endeavor, scientific research and substantial reward 
which electric railway work offers. 

"In addition to the intrinsic value of the prizes and the intro- 
duction which the winners of the prizes secure through the 
publication of their names in the technical journals of the 
country, the names of the winners are announced before the 
annual convention of the American Street & Interurban Rail- 
way Association and a copy of each of the winning theses be- 
coms the property of the association, and is kept on file by the 
secretary. , 

"Contestants are at liberty to consult with their professors, 
electric railway officials and others, regarding the various phases 
of car construction and the factors which affect car design, and 
are invited to visit any of the Brill plants to study manufactur- 
ing methods. The actual preparation of the thesis, it is ex- 
pected, will be the work of the contestant, and as far as possible 
the thesis should represent the ideas of the contestant." 


The program for the 1910 convention of the International 
Street & Interurban Railway Association has just been made 
public. This meeting will be held in Brussels on Sept. 7 to 
10, inclusive, and this date will coincide with the twenty-fifth 
anniversary of the establishment of the association. A list of 
the topics to be considered and the committees which have 
been asked to report on them follow : 

(1) Legislation on interurban and local railways in the prin- 
cipal countries of Europe. Committee — C. de Burlet, general 
manager of the Societe Nationale des Chemins de fer Vicinaux. 

(2) The proper system of city extension to obtain the best 
tramway transportation facilities. Committee — Mr. Wattmann, 
manager of the municipal tramways of Cologne and an asso- 
ciate member from France to be appointed later. 

(3) Gas, oil and other internal combustion engines. Com- 
mittee — Charles Thonet, general manager of the Societe d'En- 
terprise Generale de Travaux, Liege. 

(4) Construction and maintenance of overhead lines. Com- 
mittee — Mr. Otto, chief engineer of the Grosse Berliner Stras- 

(5) Recent improvements in rolling stock. Committee chair- 
men — Messrs. Spiingler, manager of the Vienna Municipal 
Tramways on car bodies; Delmez, chief engineer of the Ant- 
werp Tramways, on car construction and platforms ; Julius, 
manager of the Haarlem Electric Tramways, on equipment. 
The other members of the committee are Messrs. Boulle, man- 
ager of the Compagnie Generale Franchise de Tramways, Paris; 
d'Hoop, manager of the engineering department of the Brus- 
sels Tramway Company; Giersch, chief engineer of the Ham- 
burg Tramways Company, Hamburg; Lineff, consulting engi- 
neer to the Moscow Corporation Tramways ; Passelecq and 
Peiser, chief engineers of the Grosse Berliner Strassenbahn, 
Berlin ; Resal, general manager of the Compagnie Franchise 
des Tramways Electriques et Omnibus of Bordeaux ; Rochat, 
general manager of the Geneva Electric Tramways ; Schmidt- 
Eckert, manager of the Vienna Municipal Tramways ; Stahl, 
manager of the Municipal Tramways of Diisscldorf; t'Serste- 
vens, secretary of the International Street & Interurban Rail- 
way Association. 

(6) Wattmeters and oilier current recorders for use on cars. 
Committee — Messrs. Ronton, general manager of the Com- 
pagnie des Tramways de l'Est Parisien, and Battes, manager 
of the Frankfort-a-Main Municipal Tramways. 

(7) Construction and maintenance of city track construction. 
Committee — Charles Rochat, general manager of the Geneva 
Electric Tramways, and A. Bussc, chief engineer of the Grosse 
Berliner Strassenbahn. 

(8) Kail corrugation. Chairman — A. Bussc, chief engineer 
of the Grosse Berliner Strassenbahn. The other members of 
the committee are Messrs. Boulvin, general manager of the 
Compagnie Generale de Railways et d'Electricite, Brussels; 
Professor Carus-Wilson, consulting engineer, London; Culin, 
chief engineer of the Hamburg Tramways; d'Hoop, manager 

4 6 


[Vol. XXXV. No. i. 

of the engineering department of "Les Tramways Bruxellois," 
Brussels; Dubs, manager of the Marseilles Tramways; Fischer, 
manager of Phonix Rolling Mills, Ruhrort ; Mariage, chief en- 
gineer of the Compagnie Generale des Omnibus, Paris; Noir- 
falise, general manager of the Liege Tramways ; Petersen, 
manager of the Dortmund Municipal Tramways, and t'Serste- 
vens, secretary of the International Street & Interurban Rail- 
way Association. 

(9) Ties. Committee — E. A. Ziffer, president of the Buko- 
wina Railway, Vienna. 

(10) Standard classification of accounts. Mr. Geron, man- 
ager of the Compagnie Generale des Chemins de fer second- 
aries, Brussels. 


At a joint meeting of the electrical section of the Western 
Society of Engineers and the Chicago section of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers held on Dec. 22, R. H. Rice, 
assistant engineer, division of electrical transmission and distri- 
bution of the Board of Supervising Engineers, Chicago Traction 
read a paper on "Low-Tension Feeder Systems for Street Rail- 
ways." The paper was followed by interesting discussion, dur- 
ing which H. M. Wheeler, assistant chief engineer, Chicago 
Railways Company, presented curves and methods useful in 
studying the interrelation of headway, speed and time and dis- 
tance spacing of cars. 

Mr. Rice first called attention to the extent of the surface 
transportation facilities in Chicago. The Chicago surface rail- 
way companies operate 687 miles of track, the cars on which 
are fed with current from 15 distributing centers with a total 
rated capacity of 95,000 kw. Only two of these distributing 
centers are steam power plants. The calculation of the feeders 
for supplying current to the large railway systems was based 
on the operation of 2264 cars. The substations are fed with 
9000-volt a.c. purchased from a central generating station, and 
at the present time direct current is distributed to the cars at a 
pressure a little below 600 volts. When the rolling stock has 
been rehabilitated and the old motors replaced by those of 
later design 6co volts will be carried on the distributing net- 
work. The trolley wires are all sectionalized and each section 
is fed through one or more independent cables from a generat- 
ing or substation. Trunk tie lines between the substations are 
not used, but certain sections of the trolley wires are fed from 
two stations and the total capacity of these double-fed sections 
is sufficient to answer the needs for tying together two stations. 
In case of a breakdown one station can thus distribute current 
through the trolley sections jointly fed, and this current in turn 
be distributed from the busbars of the station which is in- 

Mr. Rice described very completely the methods followed in 
calculating the design of the overhead construction and dealt 
in particular with the system used in determining the proper 
location for substations and the size of feeders. The length 
of trolley sections is determined by operating conditions. The 
step in the work of designing the distribution system was to 
obtain a unit figure for the power consumption of a standard 
type car. Fifteen tests extending over three days' time were 
made for this purpose. The cars were equipped with meters and 
careful logs were kept. Typical trolley sections were chosen 
and arrangements were made to keep a careful count of the 
number of cars on the section and to measure the power fed to 
the section from the substation. As the maximum peak of the 
day in Chicago occurs in the afternoon the investigations de- 
scribed above were carried on from 12 m. to 8 p. in. Prelim- 
inary to the work of laying out the feeder system a careful 
study was made of the safe carrying capacity of paper, rubber- 
covered and weatherproof insulated cables. 

To determine on what basis to design the feeders curves 
were plotted showing the railway load throughout the day. It 
was interesting to note that for one substation on the Chicago 

Railways Company the maximum swing is 15,600 kw. A two- 
hour average value was chosen as a basis for the maximum load 
to be fed out of a substation. Considering that a potential of 
600 volts is carried on the d.c. busbars, a capacity of 40 kw 
per car was used to determine the required substation capacity. 
An average drop of 50 volts was allowable in the d.c. distribu- 
tion system. Mr. Rice presented in this connection the values 
in current carrying capacity as allowed for the standard sizes 
of feeder cables protected with paper, rubber and weatherproof 

In the work preliminary to laying out the distribution system 
;i map of the railway is first drawn and the location of the cars 
during the afternoon rush hour is shown. With a demand of 
75 amp from each car the concentrated load on each trolley sec- 
tion was ,next indicated on another map of the district to be 
served. With the concentrated loads thus exhibited the center 
of load was obtained in a way similar to the solution of a 
problem in moments. The number of amperes on each sec- 
tion and its relation to the center of load for the district deter- 
mine the location of the substation and the capacity of the 
generating apparatus in that station. After the substation loca- 
tions have been so chosen then a feeder-route diagram is made 
showing the location of the trolley feeders on the streets, their 
size and loads. 

The city ordinances under which both the Chicago Rail- 
ways Company and the Chicago City Railway Company are 
being rehabilitated specify a certain territory within which all 
feeders shall be carried underground. Mr. Rice exhibited 
drawings showing the typical feeder connections and stated that 
the underground work was built with a view to future increase 
in load. He showed labor-saving methods and curves used 
in calculating the drop and in locating load centers on trolley 
and feeder sections. 

In discussing the paper of the evening, E. N. Lake, division 
engineer of electrical transmission and distribution, Board of 
Supervising Engineers, Chicago Traction, called attention to the 
lack of literature on the subject of feeder calculations for large 
street railway systems. It was interesting to note that based on 
the 1,000,000 circ. mil cable, which was taken as standard, an 
assumed load of 800 amp and an allowable drop of 50 volts, 
6000 ft. was found to be the limiting economical distance for 
feeding. In other words, under these conditions the ideal street 
railway system would have its substations so located that the 
average length of cable would not exceed 6000 ft. Two of the 
largest street railway systems in Chicago now have an average 
length of d.c. feeder of 6700 ft. 


The Railroad Commission of Indiana has appointed a com- 
mittee of interurban managers, consisting of C. D. Emmons, 
general manager, Ft. Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Com- 
pany ; F. M. Durbin, general manager, Evansville & Southern 
Indiana Traction Company; Guy K. Jeffries, superintendent, 
Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company, and H. A. Nicholl, 
general manager, Indiana Union Traction Company, to recom- 
mend any changes or improvements deemed necessary in the 
code of interurban rules approved last year by the commission 
for use within the State of Indiana. This committee now has 
the matter under consideration and will present a report to the 
commission very soon. 


Last week two or three of the daily newspapers in New 
York published an account of an alleged consolidation of a 
number of publishers of technical periodicals, among them 
The McGraw Publishing Company. The statement was com- 
pletely without foundation. The McGraw Publishing Com- 
pany has no present plans or intention of consolidating its 
business with any other single publisher or with a number of 
other publishers. 

January i, 1910.] 




An official statement announces that an agreement has been 
entered into whereby about 95 per cent of the shares of the 
Chicago City Railway Company, all of the shares of the Calu- 
met & South Chicago Railway Company, all of the shares of 
the Southern Street Railway Company, and all of the shares 
of the Hammond, Whiting & East Chicago Railway Company 
have been taken over by Chicago interests. This marks the 
passing of the Chicago City Railway Company out of the hands 
of the Morgan interests. These shares, together with certain 
bonds heretofore placed upon the properties, will be deposited 
with trustees, who will issue securities based upon the stock 
and bonds deposited. 

The doings and policies of the trustees will, by the terms of 
the trust agreement, be governed by a board of directors, the 
personnel of which is as follows : James B. Forgan, president 
First National Bank ; John J. Mitchell, president Illinois Trust 
& Savings Bank; Samuel Insull, president Commonwealth Edi- 
son Company; John A. Spoor, president Union Stock Yards & 
Transit Company ; Edward Morris, president Morris & Com- 
pany, packers ; Thomas E. Mitten, president Chicago City 
Railway Company; Emil K. Boisot, vice-president First Trust 
& Savings Bank; Ira M. Cobe, president Assets Realization 
Company. An additional director probably will be chosen 

The separate corporate existence of the several properties 
will continue. T. E. Mitten will remain as president of the 
Chicago City Railway Company and will probably at an early 
date occupy the same position in the organization of all the 

By vesting the ownership of the shares heretofore men- 
tioned in trustees under the proposed agreement, complete 
unity of management and operation of all the surface lines 
in the South Division of the city is accomplished. Whenever 
a feasible plan shall be worked out for a consolidation of all 
the surface lines operated in Chicago, then as to the South 
Division it can be dealt with from a practical standpoint, as 
there is one ownership instead of several, thus greatly lessen- 
ing the difficulty of harmonizing a number of interests. 

While no definite arrangements as yet have been entered into 
with other transportation companies, yet the joinder in inter- 
est of the South Division lines may fairly be considered as 
an important step in the direction of ultimate complete con- 
solidation. The name of the new company will be "The Chi- 
cago City & Connecting Railways." 

The proportionate amount of stocks and bonds included in 
this consolidation is as follows: 

Stock. Bonds. Total. 

Chicago City Railway (quoted at 191) $18,000,000 $20,000,000 $38,000,000 

Southern Street Railway 800,000 775,000 1,575,000 

Calumet & South Chicago St. Rail- 
way 5,000,000 5,650,000 10,650,000 

Hammond, Whiting & East Chicago 

Electric Railway 510,000 510,000 

Grand total $24,310,000 $26,425,000 $50,735,000 

The following figures present the mileages (single track) 
of the four surface railway systems and the estimated number 
of passengers carried in the past year: 

Miles Passengers 
track. carried. 

Chicago City Railway 252.29 292,220,866 

Southern Street Railway Company 18.28 4,004,760 

Calumet & South Chicago Railway Company.... 114.00 19,513,000 
Hammond, Whiting & East Chicago Electric Rail- 
way 25-94 2,500,000 

Totals 4'<>.5i 318,238,626 

It is stated that all of the shares indicated in tin- tabula- 
tion above, as well as the bonds of the companies concerned, 
will be deposited with trustees, who will thereupon issue the 
stocks of the Chicago City & Connecting Railways. The 
trustees have not as yet been chosen. It was expected at the 
time of the announcement to have the actual control of the 
properties involved pass preferably by Jan. 1. 

In Chicago this consolidation is looked upon as a slip to- 
ward the long-discussed unification of all surface and elevated 

railways and electric lighting properties. A Chicago morning 
paper sums up the probabilities of unification as follows: 

"It is not doubted that the friendly influence which Mr 
Morgan has in the Chicago Railways Company will be oper- 
ated harmoniously with any plan which may be evolved to 
put the Chicago Railways lines into the general combination. 
In the Railways company Henry A. Blair is one of the most 
important factors. The control of the Chicago Railways 
Company's certificates, or, rather, the capital stock against 
which the certificates are issued, is vested in a board of trus- 
tees. It will therefore be easy for these trustees to co-oper- 
ate in the formation of a large general company. This is a 
matter, however, which it is thought will require careful han- 

"An important issue in the general scheme is the settlement 
of differences between the Chicago Railways Company and 
the Chicago Consolidated Traction Company and the legal 
absorption of the latter by the Railways Company. In the 
Consolidated company Charles G. Dawes has taken a leading 
part in straightening out its affairs, and he is one of the trus- 
tees of the Chicago Railways Company's capital stock. Bar- 
ring, therefore, the personal equation, the stock holdings of all 
the corporations, omitting the elevateds, are in such shape 
as to facilitate a general consolidation." 


The instant reversibility of the "Entz" booster has rapidly 
brought it to the front in England, as appears from the fact 
that the Chloride Electrical Storage Company, Ltd., of Pendle- 
bury, near Manchester, has installed a considerable number of 
plants for handling fluctuating loads in both electric railway 
and isolated plants. The results are said to show considerable 
economies in coal consumption and in the amount of running 
plant necessary to handle the load. At the power plant of the 
Greenock Corporation the booster plant effected a saving of 20 
per cent in the amount of coal consumed, equal to 2000 tons a 
year. This amount, after deducting interest, sinking fund and 
upkeep, is sufficient to pay for the cost of the plant in four 
years. At the Maidstone Corporation power house, where the 
booster plant is handling a railway load, the percentage of coal 
saved was even higher, and, as in other stations where this 
booster has been installed, one steam unit now deals with a 
load which formerly required two units. A similar saving in 
running plant has been effected at the Halifax Corporation 
plant, where a 750-kw unit and one boiler have been shut down, 
while the load on the generating plant can be kept constant 
within such close limits that no alteration to the boiler dampers 
is required from one week end to another. Boosters of this 
type have also been supplied to the municipal electrical plants 
in Llandudno, Falkirk and Blackburn. 

At the Motherwell Steel Works of David Colville & Sons, 
where there are about 4000 hp of motors, a booster battery 
plant has been installed capable of giving 1190 amp for one 
hour. This has brought about a considerable economy in 
steam consumption and a reduction at top load of 50 per cent 
in the amount of running plant required. One set is now free 
to act as a standby, while the battery acts as a further standby, 
besides being available as a source of supply for week-end re 
pairs and lighting. The Hanshin Electric Railway, Japan, has 
installed two plants capable of dealing with 2000 amp peaks, 
while the Nankai Electric Railway, Japan, has also put down 
a plant. The Cape Town Corporation has recently set to work 
a battery and "Entz" booster to handle all the crane load at 
the docks, which arc supplied from the lighting bus bars. All 
the peaks in this case are taken on the battery, and no fluctua- 
tion is apparent in the lighting pressure, because the booster 
maintains the feeder load at a definite fixed value. The Shang- 
hai Municipal Council is now installing a booster for its street 
railway tramways, and the River Plate F.lectricity Company is 
putting one in for dealing with both its tramway and lighting 
loads at I.a Plata, South America. 

4 8 


[Vol. XXXV. No. i. 


The Massachusetts Chemical Company, Walpole, Mass., is 
now manufacturing a new grade of insulating tape, known as 
"Walpole" tape. It is made on a strong fabric woven especially 
for the purpose in %-in. width. The fabric is thoroughly im- 
pregnated with a special compound having unusual qualities 
of insulation, adhesiveness and resistance to atmospheric ac- 
tion. This compound is rolled into the fabric under a pressure 
of many tons, filling every port, crowding between the fibers 
and providing an impervious coating on each side of the tape. 
The friction is noticeably smooth and the composition of the 
compound is such that its adhesiveness does not vary under 
extremes of temperature, but is ample for all requirements 
without interfering with easy handling. The compound con- 
tains nothing that will corrode copper or in any way affect 
materials with which it may come in contact. The round tin 
box in which Walpole tape is always packed in lengths of 80 
ft. is distinctive. The box preserves any unused portion of the 
roll, and is an inducement to economy in the use of the tape. 


Albert B. Herrick, New York, has redesigned his inspection 
test set to have a self-contained portable instrument for rapidly 
and accurately determining the condition of the electrical 
equipment of electric cars. Owing to the success which Mr. 
Herrick has had with this set in his own work of reporting 
on the electrical conditions of street and interurban railways, 
he has arranged to have the Leeds & Northrup Company, 
Philadelphia, make it for general sale: 

One of the most useful tests of which the set is capable is 
the quick and thorough inspection of the equipment of a car 
at periodic intervals. This is known as the inspector's test, 
and is accomplished by measuring for each controller point the 
entire resistance of the circuits through the car. If these 
values correspond to a standard value, the car is passed as 
in good condition electrically. If the values so obtained do 
not correspond to standard values the car is taken out of 
service for a detail test to discover the exact locality of the 
trouble. In one instance where this inspection was applied, the 
cars were tested on a line with three-minute headway when 
they came to the end of their run, 
without interfering with the sched- 

The set is arranged for seven 
tests, and connections for each test 
are made in the instrument simply 
by inserting a plug. An interlock- 
ing arrangement prevents the dam- 
aging of the instrument due to im- 
proper connections. The first test 
is the inspector's test already de- 
scribed above. The second is the 
detail test, whereby the resistance 
of any portion of the equipment 
may be determined separately, thus 
discovering the place where the trouble indicated by the first 
test originated. 

In addition, the set may be arranged to measure resistance 
through a range of 1.5 ohms, or 150 ohms, thus allowing high 
or low resistance measurements. A setting is provided for the 
detection of grounds, and also one for the measurement of 
insulation resistance. The final test, known as the inductive 
balance test, enables the operator to detect a motor armature 
which is out of center, and also to detect reversed fields. An- 
other very important feature of the set is the interlocking slide, 
which eliminates the possibility of the operator connecting the 
set up improperly for any test, and therefore serves as a safe- 
guard against the burning out of the set. 

The set is portable, and can be carried from place to place 
in the car house (or wherever else it may be employed) by 

Inspection Test Set 

two men. Convenient handles for this purpose are provided 
on the sides of the case. The testing current is 2 amp, the 
current being taken from the trolley circuit through lamp banks. 
The sockets for this purpose are shown in the illustration. 


The Norman C. Hayner Company, Rochester, N. Y., is now 
placing before electric railway companies an odorless disin- 
fectant, termed "Killitol." It is composed of a combination of 
chlorides in solution with oxygen, which kills all germ life. 
This disinfectant is stated to be equally effective in all kinds 
of car and station cleaning. Among the electric railways al 
ready using "Killitol" are the Indiana Union Traction Com- 
pany, the Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Com- 
pany and the Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Company. 


The Electric Railway Journal of Nov. 6, 1909, contained 
a description of the gasoline-electric car which the General 
Electric Company has recently furnished to the Third Ave- 
nue Railroad. As noted in that article, the car was placed 
in service on the 125th Street crosstown line, which has a 2*4- 
minute headway, instead of being installed at once on one of 
the horse railways. This was done to try out the car under 
more severe accelerating conditions than will obtain in the 
service for which the car was specified. The railway company 
reports that thus far the gasoline-electric vehicle has given 
entire satisfaction, although it has been necessary to take it 
off the line for a few days because of the breaking of a crank- 
shaft. An investigation of this failure showed that it was due 
to a blowhole. It was necessary to discontinue the service for 
the time being because the company had not yet received its 
supply of spare parts before the accident occurred. Aside 
from this, no parts have required replacement or maintenance 
since the service was begun. 

The following running costs and other data on the gasoline- 
electric car, covering the week from Dec. 1 to Dec. 7, inclusive, 
are typical of the results now being secured : The car seats 
only 28 passengers, but its gross revenue is practically the same 
as the income on the other cars of the line, which seat 46 
passengers. During the week reported it carried 3345 fare 
passengers and 890 transfer passengers. The revenue mileage 
was 540, while the daily runs varied from 63 miles to 90 miles. 
The number of gross car-miles operated was 554, for which 
number there were required 222 gal. of gasoline and 575 
gal. of cylinder oil. The gasoline cost 4.83 cents and the 
cylinder oil 0.48 cent per revenue car-mile. The platform ex- 
penses were the same as for regular electric cars, and amounted 
to 7.7 cents per revenue car-mile. The miscellaneous expenses 
were 0.707 cent per revenue car-mile. The total expenses per 
revenue car-mile were 13.717 cents, and the earnings on the 
same basis were 30.97 cents. The total expenses per gross car- 
mile were 13.368 cents; total revenue per car-mile, 30.19 cents. 

Henry F. Marx, librarian of the Easton (Pa.) Public Li- 
brary, has suggested a traveling public library installed in a 
trolley car as a means of bringing the benefits of the public 
libraries in large cities to the laboring classes who live a long 
distance from the permanent distributing stations. He believes 
that with a small outlay a trolley car could be purchased and 
equipped with several thousand books and run in on sidings 
near large department stores or mills during the noon hour, 
thereby permitting working people to secure books suited to 
their tastes. Pennsylvania, with its 3644 miles of trolley lines, 
could easily afford to institute a traveling trolley car circu- 
lating library. To sustain such a library an hour and a half 
a day would cost, Mr. Marx estimates, $557 a year, including 
mileage of 66 miles a week, light, heat, wages and repairs. 

January i, 1910.] 




{From Our Regular Correspondent) 

The experimental gyroscopic mono-rail carriage invented 
by Louis Brennan, Gillingham, Kent, was described and 
illustrated in the Electric Railway Journal of June 1, 1907. 
page 163. In November Mr. Brennan gave his first public 
demonstration with a full-sized gyroscope car mounted on 
two bogies of two wheels each. The car ran with the 
greatest ease on tangents and curves. The demonstration 
was attended by officials of the War Office and India Of- 
fice. It is understood that Mr. Brennan has received sub- 
sidies for the cost of the experiments from the India Office 
and from an Indian official. 

The London, Brighton & South Coast Railway has 
opened its electrified suburban line between Victoria and 
London Bridge, via Peckham Rye. Many references to 
this installation have been made in this letter, and the 
equipment has been described in the Electric Railway Jour- 
nal. The electrified line is really a loop between Victoria 
Station, in the west end of London, and London Bridge 
Station, immediately south of the city portion of London. 
The distance is less than 9 miles and it took 36 minutes to 
make the run with steam as motive power. The electric 
trains cover the distance in 24 minutes, at an average speed, 
including stops, of 22 m.h.p. It is a single-phase alternating 
overhead installation, and while the Heysham system is the 
only other of the kind in England the Brighton Railway 
was the first to decide upon using single-phase in England; 
but the many delays encountered by the London, Brighton 
& South Coast Railway enabled the Midland Railway to 
place its line in operation first. Current purchased from 
the London Electric Supply Corporation is delivered at 
Queen's Road by a duplicate system of mains, the potential 
on the overhead trolley being 6,000 volts. The cars .are of 
the side-door type, similar to the old railway carriages 
common in England, but with a corridor, and are much 
more quickly emptied and filled than the carriages of the 
tube railways in London. The seating capacity of each 
train is 218, and the cars are divided into first and third 
class. At Victoria Station there are seven lines equipped 
with overhead construction, which give access to five plat- 
forms, and at London Bridge Station five platforms simi- 
larly equipped. A 15-minute service is maintained' at pres- 
ent, but a more frequent service will probably be adopted 
in an effort to recover traffic lost to the tramways. The 
new line will be called the South London Electric Elevated 
Railway. Credit for the change of motive power from 
steam to electricity is due William Forbes, general man- 
ager of the line. The details of the work have been in 
the hands of Philip Dawson, electrical adviser to the com- 

The County Council and railways committee of the Isle 
of Wight is considering the electrification of the railways 
in the island. There is also under consideration an alter- 
native proposal for constructing new light railways or 
electric tramways. It is somewhat doubtful, however, if 
much will come of this in the immediate future, as the 
Isle of Wight is to a large extent a pleasure resort, and 
it is difficult to see how the electrification of the existing 
railways would improve matters much. 

The British Electrical Federation, which is the new name 
of the British Electric Traction Company, controlling 
a large number of the tramways in Great Britain, has de- 
vised a plan to increase earnings by adopting a farthing 
(one-half cent) fare. As is well known, tramway earnings 
have been decreasing steadily and dividends on the com- 
mon shares have not been paid for some time. In ad- 
dition, in many cases very little has been set aside for 
depreciation. The minimum fare will remain at one penny, 
but the fare thereafter will be, roughly, an additional far- 
thing for each quarter of a mile. Instead of the routes be- 
ing divided into distances recognized very often by public 
houses or road crossings, all routes will be measured and 
marked by posts, so that each passenger will secure the 
full distance value for his fare. It is understood that ar- 
rangements have been made with the mint by which about 
2,225,000 farthings will be delivered to the Federation be- 
fore the change is made. Passengers who objeel I" far 
things in change will receive farthing discount tickets ^ood 

for future rides. By the adoption of farthing fares it is 
hoped to do away with the complaints when passengers 
ride a short distance over the arbitrary zone and are com- 
pelled to pay a half-penny more. Under the new plan each 
passenger will be charged for the distance he travels. 

The Glasgow tramways have long suffered from the con- 
gestion of traffic on Jamaica Street Bridge, the most impor- 
tant structure crossing the Clyde, and a sub-committee of 
the Glasgow Town Council has recommended the erec- 
tion of a wing at the west side of the bridge to carry 
one line of traffic southward. The estimated cost of this 
work is £8,000. Application has been made to the tram- 
ways committee to defray this cost, on the ground that 
the expense is due to tramway development. Two other 
schemes have also been proposed. One provides for a 
bracket annex on either side of the bridge for the exclusive 
use of pedestrians, thus setting free the existing 80 ft. for 
vehicular traffic. The other provides for a subway under 
the approach to the bridge, by which vehicles on Broom- 
ielaw and Great Clyde Street could pass east and west with- 
out interrupting traffic crossing the bridge. In connection 
with the Glasgow tramways, James McFarlane, late con- 
vener of the tramways committee, in a paper read before 
the Glasgow Royal Philosophical Institution, stated that 
the time would very soon come in Glasgow when a uni- 
versal penny fare could be given within the municipal 
boundary. This would mean a loss at the present time 
of about £25,000 a year. The number of passengers car- 
ried inside the city was six times the number carried out- 
side. At present 88 per cent of the traffic represented id. 
fares, and under 8 per cent i^d. fares. A large saving 
would be effected in the checking and other clerical work, 
however, and the staff of inspectors could be reduced. 

The London County Council is to seek Parliamentary 
powers during the next session for extensive new lines 
and the making of new streets, widening others and inci- 
dental work connected with a tramway along the Edgware 
Road, which will extend from the Marble Arch to Crikle- 
wood, by way of Maida Vale and Finchley Road. This 
route is now served by motor omnibuses which charge 3d., 
whereas the County Council says the fare between the 
Marble Arch and Criklewood on its lines would be only 
2d., and that the line it proposes would relieve the hous- 
ing problem in the vicinity of Oxford Street. When the 
bill was successfully opposed three years ago Paddington 
Borough Council pointed out that Edgware Road was not 
wide enough for tramways; that the advent of tramways 
would depreciate the value of property and that the scheme 
provided only a dead end at the Marble Arch, with no 
through communication. Other routes are also to be cov- 
ered, such as from Chalk Farm to Child's Hill, which would 
connect with the Marble Arch route and give it greater 
value. Perhaps the most important of the schemes at 
present receiving the attention of the Council is for the 
through-running of cars between the Council's tramways 
from Aldgate to Bow and certain of the tramways of West 
Ham and East Ham Corporations and Leyton Urban Dis- 
trict Council. Should the proposed agreement be effected, 
it would enable passengers to travel, without changing, from 
Aldgate to Epping Forest, via Bow Bridge, Stratford 
Broadway, Leytonstone and Whipps Cross. It is proposed 
that each authority shall (1) take all the fares on its own 
cars, (2) defray its own operating expenses, (3) supply 
electricity free in its own area, and (4) run cars according 
to the length of track in its own area. The reconstructed 
electric tramway between the Archway Tavern, Highgate 
and Euston Road, via Camden Town, has been opened. It 
runs along the important main thoroughfares of Junction 
Road, Fortress Road and Kentish Town Road, and forms 
an important link with the London County Council's tram- 
ways From Highgate to the city on one side and from 
Finsbury Park to Tottenham Court Road on the other side. 
By changing at Camden Town passengers can travel to 
King's Cross and flolborn. 

At a meeting of Saltcoats Town Council a letter was 
read from the promoters of the Ardrossan & Saltcoats 
Tramways Order, stating that they had secured the co- 
operation of George Balfour, who was applying for light- 
ing orders in the district, and he expected as soon as these 
orders were obtained that the construction of the tram- 
ways would be proceeded with. A. C S 



[Vol. XXXV. No. i. 

News of Electric Railways 

Chicago City Railway Rehabilitation Progress 

Announcement that the Chicago City Railway Company 
has practically finished the rehabilitation of its property as 
required by the ordinance of Feb. n, 1907, has just been 
made. The work is stated to have been 97 per cent com- 
pleted on Dec. r, 1909. A recapitulation of the rehabilita- 
tion work of the Chicago City Railway Company, with 
comparative ordinance requirements, is shown in the fol- 
lowing table: 


1. To remove from the streets all (34.71 miles) cable track and to 

substitute therefor electric track 100 

2. To rebuild at least 60 miles (single) of electric track 100 

3. To construct and equip necessary system of power distribution 

and substations, as approved by board of supervising engi- 
neers, Chicago traction: 

(a) Renewal of trolley wire 98 

(b) Underground conduit 99 

(c) Underground feeders 98 

(d) Return feeders 95 

(e) Substations 99 

4. To rebuild and re-equip its carhouses so as to enable it to 

properly clean and maintain its cars; four new carhouses 
required, capacity 105 1 double-truck cars 100 

5. To increase its rolling stock to at least 800 modern double- 

truck cars 100 

Average completion of work required during three years' period 

of "immediate rehabilitation" 98 

Period of "immediate rehabilitation" expires three years after 

acceptance of ordinance, or on April 15, 1910; percentage 

of time expired at Dec. 1, 1909 87.5 

Original valuation as per ordinance $21,000,000.00 

Additional property. Tune, 1906, to Feb. r, 1907 1,816,853.19 

Rehabilitation expenditure to Nov. 1, 1909, as per certifi- 
cates of board of supervising engineers 15,166,234.51 

Total purchase price to city $37,983,087.70 

In amplification of the above schedule of rehabilitation 
it is stated that: 

"1. The company has electrified all its old cable track 
and has reconstructed more than 60 miles of electric track. 

"2. The company has laid 520,000 sq. yd. of paving, 
mostly granite block. 

"3. The installation of underground feeders represents 
the taking down of an approximately equal mileage of over- 
head feeders in the 'underground district,' and as the under- 
ground cable is usually a larger cable, it represents an in- 
crease in the capacity of the power distribution system. 
The result is seen in the superior lighting of cars and their 
increased speed during 'rush hours.' New return feeders 
also are an important factor in power distribution. 

"4. A storage battery at the Plymouth Court substation 
has sufficient capacity to handle the entire downtown load 
for a period of 15 to 20 minutes, thus providing against 
accident to the generating system and a tieup in the down- 
town traffic. A storage battery at Seventy-eighth Street 
and Vincennes Road can be similarly employed, although 
the principal function of both batteries is to regulate the 
load during rush hours. The company now purchases all 
its electrical energy from the Commonwealth Edison Com- 

"5. For the proper housing, cleaning and maintenance 
of its passenger cars, the company has built four new car 
houses with a total capacity of 1076 double-truck cars. 
These buildings are equipped with the most modern facili- 
ties for the cleaning, repairing and inspection of cars. In 
construction they are fireproof and so arranged that a car 
may enter at one end after a day's service and be pulled out 
of the other cleaned and inspected ready for the next day's 
work. In addition to offices, these- car houses are provided 
with clubrooms and toilet rooms for the exclusive use of 
trainmen. The company has taken special pains to provide 
for the comfort of its men, and the four car houses now in 
service are models of a most modern type. 

"6. Practically all the company's double-truck cars have 
been converted for the 'pay-as-you-enter' service. Simul- 
taneously with necessary alterations for 'this purpose, the 
older cars were completely overhauled and fitted with such 
improvements as the folding step and sliding vestibule 
doors, which are operated by the motormen. 

"The premiums paid by the Chicago City Railway Com- 
pany on fire insurance are, by the provisions of its ordinance, 
charged as an operating expense. The insurance now car- 
ried protects the company against loo per cent loss on 

$10,235,000 worth of property at a premium of 48 cents per 
$100, this low rate being attributable in the main to fireproof 
construction of buildings and improved inspection of the 
company's property. In July, 1905, the company paid in 
premiums $51,060 on $2,300,000 of property insured, whereas 
in November, 1909, only $49,128 was paid on nearly five 
times that amount. The significance of the present low rate 
may be best shown by the following comparison with the 
premium rates for insurance upon the company's property 
for four years: 

Insurable Insurance 
Year. property. carried. Premium. 

July, 1905 $5,300,000 $2,300,000 $51,060 

January, 1906 6,441,869 6,441,869 64,418 

January, 1907 7,442,500 7,442,500 60,864 

October, 1907 9,660,000 9,660,000 65,688 

June, 1908 9,775,000 9,755,000 58,650 

April, 1909 10,300,000 10,300,000 51,500 

November, 1909 10.235,000 10,235,000 49,128 

Transit Affairs in New York 

Proceedings have been instituted in the Supreme Court by 
Attorney-General O'Malley of New York against the Forty- 
second Street, Manhattanville .& St. Nicholas Avenue Rail- 
way, Bleecker Street Railway, Fulton Street Railway, 
Twenty-third Street Railway, and Metropolitan Street Rail- 
way to forfeit the franchises covering certain routes on the 
ground that the companies no longer operate railways there 
in good faith; that the companies have not used these fran- 
chises as parts of any regularly operated routes for several 
years; that for long intervals they have abandoned the oper- 
ation of cars, and at other times have operated but one 
horse-car or two a day; and that the cars of the companies 
have not been operated in accordance with public conven- 
ience, as required by the terms of the franchise. Mr. 
O'Malley acted upon a communication received from the 
Public Service Commission of the First District. 

Judge Lacombe, of the United States Circuit Court, has 
authorized F. W. Whitridge, receiver of the Third Avenue 
Railroad, to issue $1,500,000 in certificates at 6 per cent in- 
terest and directed him to pay $1,000,000 to the city for back 
taxes and to compromise the remainder of the amount due. 
The city alleges the arrears to be $2,871,399. 

Cleveland Traction Situation 

At the meeting of the City Council of Cleveland on the 
evening of Dec. 20, 1909, a franchise was granted the Cleve- 
land Railway to operate on Superior Avenue, St. Clair 
Avenue and all the other routes on which it is claimed 
grants expire in January, 191 1. The fare is to be 3 cents and 
the grants are good until June 1, 1910. This grant was 
made in order to force the company to accept the rate of 
fare named, as all the lines have been operated at a 5-cent 
fare. The city legal department admits that the system 
operated under the orders of the Federal Court may con- 
tinue to charge the original fare until the new grant be- 
comes operative through a referendum vote. The company 
has not taken any action on this grant and probably will 
not do so. It is subject to a referendum vote, the same as 
the other grant. 

Considerable discussion has taken place over the plan 
decided upon to make good the guarantee given to purchas- 
ers of stock of the Forest City Railway who obtained their 
holdings through the municipal stock exchange. Accord- 
ing to the belief of Judge Tayler, the stock of the Cleve- 
land Railway, held in the regular way, will be worth par 
and 1/12 per cent when the new grant becomes operative, 
while the guaranteed stock will have a value equal to par 
and 7K per cent. 

The signing of the grant made to the Cleveland Railway 
under Judge Tayler's plan by vice-Mayor Lapp, noted in the 
Electric Railway Journal of Dec. 25, 1909, page 1274, has 
resulted in considerable comment. Mayor Johnson has not 
intimated what stand he will take in the referendum cam- 
paign. Petitions prepared at the City Hall are being circu- 
lated and it was said on Dec. 23, 1909, that a sufficient number 
of names had been secured to make a referendum vote cer- 

January i, 1910.] 



tain. It is the thought that haste was made in securing 
signatures so that the present administration could fix the 
date of the vote. Judge Tayler desires that the vote be 
taken in February, but the Mayor favors a later date. 

The Low Fare Railway and the Municipal Traction Com- 
pany have consented in writing to accept the Tayler ordin- 
ance. Late in the week ending Dec. 25, 1909, the Forest 
City Railway had not filed an acceptance, but it was said 
the company would accept the grant as soon as Fred C. 
Alber, secretary, returns to the city. 

At a deposition hearing on the subway matter held a few 
days ago, attorneys for the petitioners in the injunction 
case against the Cleveland Underground Rapid Transit 
Company attempted to show that the vote in the City 
Council gave to the company a grant that was arranged in 
caucuses between the Mayor and the City Council. 

Judge Vickery of the Common Pleas Court has refused to 
dissolve the temporary restraining order against the publi- 
cation of the franchise ordinance recently granted the Cleve- 
land Underground Rapid Transit Company. He held that 
the delay would make it possible to consider the question at 
length. . 

Association Meetings 

Wisconsin Electric & Interurban Railway Association. — 
Milwaukee, Wis., Jan. 19 and 20. 

Central Electric Traffic Association. — Columbus, Ohio, 
Jan. 26. 

Central Electric Railway Association.— Columbus, Ohio, 
Jan. 27. 

Street Railway Association of the State of New York. — 
Rochester, N. Y., March 1 and 2. 

Central Electric Accounting Conference. — Fort Wayne, 
Ind., March 12. 

Change in Motive Power of Lima-Defiance Division of 
Ohio Electric Railway. — The electrification of the Columbus 
& Lake Michigan Railroad, purchased by the Ohio Electric 
Railway two years ago, has been completed and a regular 
schedule established. The company will continue to operate 
freight trains over the line by steam. 

Pennsylvania Railroad Commission. — It is expected that 
at the next meeting of the Pennsylvania State Railroad 
Commission a new secretary will be announced, inasmuch 
as H. S. Calvert's resignation took effect on Dec. 31, 1909. 
Marshal J. P. Dohony is now attending to the duties of 
the secretary. The annual report of the commission is 
being prepared for submission to the Governor in January. 
A complaint has been received by the commission about 
the condition of the roadbed of an unnamed electric railway 
near North East. Citizens of Wilkinsburg have complained 
about the service and equipment of the line which the 
Pittsburgh Railways operates between Wilkinsburg and 
Pittsburgh. Emil Swenson is expected to report on street 
railway service in Pittsburgh at the next meeting of the 

Boston Elevated Railway Expansion Discussed. — At a 

meeting of the Chamber of Commerce of Boston, held at 
the American House on Dec. 21, 1909, William A. Bancroft, 
president of the Boston Elevated Railway, favored a 'pro- 
posed bill to allow the company to purchase a controlling 
interest in suburban electric railways for the purpose of 
forming a centralized operating organization of high effi- 
ciency. Mr. Bancroft said that the charter of the Boston 
Elevated Railway restricts it to a 5-cent fare, and that this 
militates against expansion into the suburban field. He 
urged the removal of this restriction, and enumerated the 
benefits secured by Henry M. Whitney in combining the 
surface railways of Boston many years ago. Since Mr. 
Whitney's time, 250 miles of track have been built, and the 
investment increased from $17,000,000 to $70,000,000, with 
$34,000,000 required for improvements practically agreed to 
by the company. Among the advantages of consolidation 
were improved service, increased operating economy, in- 
creased pay and pensions to employees. The company must 
secure traffic to help pay the charges "ii the extensive sub- 
way and tunnel system of lioslon. Frederic 1".. Snow, of 
Gaston, Snow & Salton Stall, counsel for the company, ex- 
plained the bill which the company desires to have 
passed, and showed how the Railroad Commission would 
supervise all issues of securities. 

Financial and Corporate 

New York Stock and Money Markets 

December 23, 1909. 

For the few days previous to the holidays the Wall Street 
market was extremely dull, with prices inclined to sag. At 
the opening yesterday there occurred a 10-minute flurry in 
Rock Island common, and to-day the market was much 
more active and prices generally advanced. The copper 
stocks were especially strong. Traction shares have been 
steady and fairly active during the week. 

The money market has been a trifle more irregular and 
rates have been somewhat higher. Rates to-day were: 
Call, 5 to S?4 per cent; 90 days, 4V2 to 4^/4 per cent. 
Other Markets 

It has been a rather dull week for traction shares in the 
Philadelphia market, although every day has witnessed a 
few transactions in Rapid Transit and Union Traction. 
Prices have changed only fractionally during the week. 

In the Boston market there continues to be considerable 
trading in the issues of Massachusetts Electric. The com- 
mon stock has been particularly active, but neither this nor 
the preferred has advanced in price. There has been light 
trading in Boston Suburban and Boston Elevated. 

In Chicago there has been quite liberal trading in Series 1 
and 2 of the Chicago Railways Company. Series 1 has 
been particularly active and the price has advanced to 109. 
Series 2. at the same time, has declined about 2 points. 

There have been few traction stocks in the Baltimore 
trading. The bonds of the United Railways Company, how- 
ever continue to be active at prices that are unchanged. 

At the weekly auction of securities in New York the only 
tractions sold were $2,000 South Shore Traction Company 
5 per cent bonds, at 9654. 

Quotations of various traction securities as compared with 
last week follow: 

American Railways Company a4754 a47'A 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (common) '57 *57 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (preferred) *o2 '92 

Boston Elevated Railway ai3i'4 13254 

Boston & Suburban Electric Companies ai6 15 

Boston & Suburban Electric Companies (preferred) 75 '75 

Boston & Worcester Flectric Companies (common) ai2 ai2 

Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (preferred).... aig an& 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company 80% 7954 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company, ist pref., conv. 4s.... 86J4 86 >fi 

Capital Traction Company, Washington 8133 *I33!4 

Chicago City Railway 3190 "190 

Chicago & Oak Park Flevated Railroad (common) *2 *2 

Chicago & Oak Park Elevated Railroad (preferred) *io *io 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 1 aiio aiio 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 2 a 34 aj3 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 3 ai6 ais 

Chcago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 4s *io *io 

Cleveland Railways '84 '84 

Consolidated Traction of New Tersey 37654 a77 54 

Consolidated Traction of New jersey, 5 per cent bonds... aio6 *io6 

Detroit United Railway '63 '65 , 

General Electric Company 16054 '5954 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (common) aios 10254 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (preferred) '87 87 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company (common) 2454 24K 

Interborougli-Metropol'tan Company (preferred) 61 54 62 

Interborough-Metropolitan Coinpany (4}4s) 83)^ 83M 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (common) 334 833 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (preferred) '79 *79 

Manhattan Railwsy 139 '140 

Massachusetts Flectric Companies (common) a\6]/ 2 ai6!4 

Massachusetts Flectric Companies (preferred) 87654 a79 

Metropolitan West Side, Cnicago (common) 31954 319 

Metropolitan West Side, Chicago (preferred) 358 357 

Metropolitan Street Railway "20 *23 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light (preferred) *iio *iio 

North American Company 85 *8s 

Northwestern Elevated Railroad (common) ai8 ai8 

Northwestern Elevated Railroad (preferred) a68 a68 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburg (common) 350I4 350)4 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburg (preferred) a45'4 a45 14 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company 327?! 827 

Philadelphia Tiaclion Company ago 389 

Public Service Corporation, 5 per cent col. notes * iop% " 1005*6 

Public Service Corporation, ctfs aioo54 * 101 54 

Seattle Flectric Company (common) aii.554 aii5}4 

Seattle Electric Company (preferred) 104 104 

South Side Elevated Railroad (Chicago) 355 356 

Third Avenue Railroad, New York i65^ t6J4 

Toledo Railways & Light Company 956 *gH 

Twin City Rapid Transit, Minneapolis (common) 114 116 

Union Tiaclion Company, Philadelphia 35254 a52 

United Rys. & Electric Company, Baltimore 31454 a 14 54 

United Rys. Inv. Co. (common) " 4-V\ 4-54 

United Rys. Inv. Co. (preferred) *73« 7' 7 Aj 

Washington Ry. & Flectric Company (common) 42 *4.l!^ 

Washington Ry. Si Electric Company (preferred) 391 54 *0i54 

West End Sheet Railway, lioslon (common) a04 39554 

West End Street Railway, Boston (preferred) ,1106 " 106 

Wrstinghouse Electric & Mfg. Coinpany 8i!4 8254 

Westinghousc Elcc. & Mfg. Company '1st pref.) "135 130 

a Asked. " Last Sale. 

5 2 


[Vol. XXXV. No. i. 

Brunswick Terminal & Railway Securities Company, Bruns- 
wick, Ga. — The New York Stock Exchange has authorized 
the substitution of $5,000,000 stock of the Brunswick Ter- 
minal & Railway Securities Company for a similar amount 
of stock of the Brunswick Dock & City Improvement Com- 
pany, the former name of the company, with authority to list 
$2,000,000 of additional stock to acquire the capital stock of 
the Mutual Light & Water Company and the bonds of the 
Suburban Railway. 

Boone (la.) Electric Company. — An announcement re- 
garding the Iowa Light & Traction Company, over the 
signatures of H. S. Osborne, Andrew Stevenson and J. H. 
McBride, contains the following: "An agreement has been 
reached between John Reynolds, trustee, and Messrs. 
Hughes, McBride and Stevenson to cancel the option con- 
tract entered into between them on July 7, 1909, for the sale 
and transfer of the Boone Electric Street Railway & Light 
Company, the Boone Suburban Railway Company and the 
Central Heating plant. It would not serve any useful pur- 
pose to enter into a detailed statement of all the causes 
that have contributed to defeat the plans which were entered 
into in good faith by both parties." 

Camden & Trenton Railway, Camden, N. J. — Bondholders 
of the Camden & Trenton Railway, the Trenton & New 
Brunswick Railway, and the New Jersey Short Line Rail- 
way for which the New York-Philadelphia Company is the 
holding company, held a meeting in Burlington, N. J., on 
Dec. 24, 1909, and formed plans for a reorganization of all 
the companies. The interests at this meeting distrusted the 
plan of reorganization proposed by a bondholders' commit- 
tee of the Camden & Trenton Railway. 

Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad, Brooklyn, N. Y. — The 

hearing on the application of the Coney Island & Brooklyn 
Railroad to the Public Service Commission of the First 
District of New York for permission to issue $462,000 of 
bonds to pay for removing its tracks from the side to the 
center of Coney Island Avenue will be continued before 
Commissioner Bassett on Jan. 3, 1910. 

Du Bois Electric & Traction Company, Du Bois, Pa. — 

Geo. B. Atlee, of Geo. B. Atlee & Company, Philadelphia, 
Pa., has been elected a director of the Du Bois Electric & 
Traction Company. 

Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Company, Louisville, 

Ky. — The Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Company has 
filed in favor of the Colonial Trust Company, Pittsburgh, 
Pa., as trustee, a mortgage to secure an issue of $600,000 of 
bonds of which at least $400,000 will be issued in lieu and in 
substitution for $400,000 of 6 per cent notes made in 1907 
and now being called in. The remainder of the new bonds 
will be issued from time to time for other purchases. 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company, Kansas City, 
Mo. — The Kansas City Railway & Light Company has called 
for redemption $49,000 of first mortgage 5 per cent bonds of 
the Corrigan Consolidated Street Railway, dated 1886. They 
were paid on Jan. 1. 1910, at no and interest at the office of 
The Central Trust Company, New York, N. Y., trustee. 

Mahoning & Shenango Railway & Light .Company, 
Youngstown, Ohio. — Lee, Higginson & Company, Boston, 
Mass., New York, N. Y., and Chicago. Ill, and Blair & 
Company, New York, N. Y., offer for subscription at 97 and 
interest, yielding approximately 5-^ per cent, the unsold 
portion of $3,800,000 of first consolidated refunding mort- 
gage 5 per cent bonds of the Mahoning & Shenango Rail- 
way & Light Company dated Nov. 1, 1905, and due Jan. 1, 
1916, but redeemable at 105 and interest on any interest 

Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railway, Chicago, 111. — 

Following the meeting of the directors of the Metropolitan 
West Side Elevated Railway, held on Dec. 21, 1909, a state- 
ment was authorized to the effect that "it is the opinion of 
the directors that the financial condition and the earnings 
of the company will warrant the resumption of dividends 
of the preferred stock in the next calendar year at the rate 
of 3 per cent in four quarterly payments, beginning March 
1." The last disbursement of the preferred stock of the 
company was three-quarters of 1 per cent and was made on 
Dec. 30, 1907. 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company, Milwau- 
kee, Wis. — The annual meeting of the stockholders of the 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company will be held* 
in Milwaukee on Feb. 17, 1910. 

New York, Westchester & Boston Railway, New York,. 
N. Y. — The Public Service Commission of the Second Dis- 
trict of New York has approved the proposed form of agree- 
ment of the consolidation of the New York, Westchester 
& Boston Railway and the New York & Port Chester Rail- 
road, and the corporations are authorized to enter into and" 
execute the agreement of consolidation. 

Public Service Corporation of New Jersey, Newark, N. J. 

— The Public Service Corporation of New Jersey on Dec. 28, 

1909, declared a quarterly dividend of 1% per cent on the 
stock, payable on Dec. 31, 1909, to stock of record on Dec. 
28, 1909. The directors of the company at a meeting on 
Dec. 28, 1909, created the positions of third and fourth vice- 
presidents of the company. Randal Morgan, Philadelphia, 
Pa., was chosen third vice-president, and Anthony R. 
Kuser, Newark, N. J., fourth vice-president. Both Mr. 
Morgan and Mr. Kuser were formerly vice-presidents and 
have been members of the executive committee of the direc- 
tors since the organization of the Public Service Corpora- 
tion in 1903. The same positions were created in the Public 
Service Gas Company and the Public Service Railway and 1 
Mr. Morgan and Mr. Kuser were elected to fill them. 

Toledo, Ann Arbor & Detroit Electric Railroad, Toledo^ 
Ohio. — James A. Wallace, Des Moines, la., announced in To- 
ledo recently that a syndicate of Chicago men and their associ- 
ates had purchased the property of the Toledo, Ann Arbor 
& Detroit Electric Railway, from Andrew E. Lee, ex-Gov- 
ernor of South Dakota, and that arrangements had been 
made to complete the road. According to Mr. Wallace it 
is proposed to issue $200,000 of cumulative preferred stock 
for subscription in Toledo and along the line, the syndicate 
to furnish the $600,000, estimated as needed to complete the 
road, through a bond issue. The property is said to repre- 
sent an expenditure of about $400,000. 

Toledo & Indiana Railway, Toledo, Ohio. — The property 
of the Toledo & Indiana Railway will again be offered for 
sale by C. F. M. Niles at auction at Toledo on Jan. 18, 1910. 
The upset price has been fixed at two-thirds of the appraised 
value of the property, or about $614,000. The setting aside 
of the sale of this property held on Nov. 27, 1909, was noted 
in the Electric Railway Journal of Dec. 18, 1909, page 1247. 

Twin City Rapid Transit Company, Minneapolis, Minn. — 
The Twin City Rapid Transit Company has called for re- 
demption $21,000 bonds issued in 1880 by the Minneapolis 
Street Railway, which will be redeemed at 105 and interest 
on May 1, 1910, by the Farmers' Loan & Trust Company, 
New York, N. Y. 

United Service Company, New York, N. Y. — The United 
Service Company has been incorporated under the laws of 
New York with an authorized capital of $100,000 of which 
$35,000 is paid in cash for the purpose of dealing in supplies 
of all kinds, especially equipment and supplies necessary for 
the operation of steam and electric railways, electric light 
companies, gas companies and water companies. It will do 
the purchasing for the subsidiary companies of the Susque- 
hanna Railway, Light & Power Company, and on Jan. 1, 

1910, took over the business of the Railway Equipment Com- 
pany, which heretofore has done a similar business; and 
all contracts now existing with the Railways Equipment 
Company will be assigned to the United Service Company. 
The office of the United Service Company is at 40 Wall 
Street, New York, N. Y., and the officers are: S. J. Dill, 
president; Henry Morgan, vice-president; A. V. Wainwright, 
secretary; W. D. Martin, treasurer; F. G. Robinson, pur- 
chasing agent. The directors are: S. J. Dill, Henry Morgan, 
A. V. Wainwright, W. D. Martin, and George Bullock. All 
the stock of the United Service Company is owned by the 
Susquehanna Railway, Light & Power Company. 

Whatcom County Railway & Light Company, Bellingham, 
Wash. — Stone & Webster, Boston, Mass., offer, subject to 
previous sale, $100,000 of 6 per cent cumulative pre- 
ferred stock of the Whatcom County Railway & 
Light Company at 95 to yield more than 6.30 per cent. A 
statement of the company for the year ended Oct. 31, 1909, 
shows gross earnings of $401,186; net earnings of $I75>546, 
and a surplus of $36,078, after deducting interest, taxes and 
dividends at 6 per cent on $650,000 of 6 per cent preferred 

January i, 1910.] 



Traffic and Transportation 

Decision in Massachusetts Regarding Transportation of 
Intoxicated Persons 

A brief extract was published in the Electric Railway 
Journal of Dec. 25, 1909, from the finding of the Railroad 
Commission of Massachusetts relative to the transportation 
of intoxicated persons on the street railways of the State 
in connection with a complaint originating in Worcester. 
The complete finding of the commission follows: 

"This complaint is brought under the provisions of the 
acts of 1906, chapter 463, part r, section 9, which provides 
that if the board is of opinion that a change 'in the mode of 
operating a railroad or a railway and conducting its business 
is reasonable and expedient in order to promote the security, 
convenience and accommodation of the public, it shall in 
writing inform the corporation or company of the improve- 
ments and changes which it recommends .should be made.' 

"The principal allegation of the complaint is of the pres- 
ence of intoxicated persons, whose conduct is in many in- 
stances such as to cause a nuisance and a disturbance of the 
peace upon the cars of the Worcester Consolidated Street 
Railway. The statutes of the Commonwealth make adequate 
provision for the peace of its citizens, and declare drunk- 
enness a misdemeanor. A statutory function of city and 
town authorities is, through the medium of their police 
officers, to preserve the peace of their several commun- 
ities and the law contemplates that this shall be done with- 
out direction by the Railroad Commission. 

"Special provisions of statute with respect to railroad and 
street railway police are found in acts of 1906, chapter 463, 
part 1, sections 49 and 55, inclusive, and define with particu- 
larity the method of appointment, the term of office and 
powers and duties of such officials. It is clear, from an 
examination of these statutes, that adequate provision has 
been made for the protection of passengers of common 
carriers, and that it was the intent of the general court to 
afford police protection, in addition to that furnished by the 
municipal authorities, for such common carriers. 

"It remains, therefore, for the commission to determine 
whether the Worcester Consolidated Railway is sufficiently 
availing itself of these provisions of statute. Conditions 
similar to those in Worcester have been brought to the at- 
tention of the commission in Fall River. Both of these 
cities are no-license cities, and it appears that certain resi- 
dents of each, for the purpose of obtaining liquor, ride 
upon street railways to adjacent towns where such liquor 
is sold. In some instances these persons become intoxi- 
cated and return in that condition in the electric cars. This 
state of affairs creates conditions which at times outrage all 
sense of delicacy or decency. 

"In the cities the police are of sufficient number to pre- 
serve order and make arrests when occasion requires, but on 
long interurban rides a territory is covered where local 
officers are frequently beyond call of the employees of the 
companies. While local officers should be relied upon in 
town centers to co-operate with the employees of the com- 
pany to prevent intoxicated persons from boarding the car, 
the management of the company ought at all times to afford 
protection to passengers. This does not appear to have been 
accomplished, and we therefore direct the attention of street 
railways to the provisions of the statute providing for street 
railway police, and recommend that seasonable and efficient 
measures be taken to secure to their patrons the protection 
to which they are entitled by law. 

"We fully realize that complaints against intoxicated per- 
sons upon railroads and street railways are not new and, 
doubtless, as long as persons become intoxicated, conditions 
such as now complained of must to some degree exist. But 
we are clearly of opinion that these conditions can be 
minimized, and that managers of companies can, with cordial 
co-operation of public authority, secure this result. Wher 
ever conditions lead to the presence of intoxicated persons 
upon cars, an active and energetic enforcement of the law 
will tend, in our opinion, to substantial improvement, and we 
are convinced that the traveling public can be freed in a 
large measure from the annoyance caused by their presence. 

"Certain suggestions have been made to us with respect 
to partitions in cars, and extra cars at certain hours in the 

evening, as a means of segregating persons under the in- 
fluence of liquor. We doubt the practicability of these 
suggestions, and if found feasible we should be extremely 
reluctant to make such recommendations. Street railways 
are engaged in the business of carrying passengers in such 
a manner as to promote their security, convenience and ac- 
commodation, and it is their plain duty to put into effect 
every known instrumentality of law in order to render such 
service to the public. The operation of partition cars or 
extras is but an invitation to a class the street railway is 
not intended to serve. Such persons should be, not upon the 
railway, but in the custody of the law." 

Snow Storm Interferes with Traffic in East 

The storm which visited New York, New England, New 
Jersey and Pennsylvania on Dec. 25 and 26, 1909, interfered 
seriously with'the schedules and service of the electric rail- 
ways. In Boston many of the surface lines of the Boston 
Elevated Railway were tied up for the first time in more 
than 12 years. The lines which suffered most were those on 
the north side of the city leading into the Sullivan Square 
station. Throughout Boston proper, the car service was, on 
the whole, well maintained, and the principal routes on the 
south and west to the suburban districts of South Boston, 
Dorchester, Roxbury, Brookline, Newton and Cambridge 
were kept reasonably free from blockades. About 3000 men 
were employed in removing snow from the tracks and 
streets, and the company's snow plough brigade performed 
effective service beginning on Dec. 25, when the fall reached 
a depth of 1 in. The company was somewhat handicapped 
by a shortage of men for its shovel service, on account of the 
recent holiday. Fifteen crews of linemen were at work on 
the overhead system repairing breaks, and by 7:25 p. m., 
Dec. 26, the lines were in normal condition. On the elevated 
division not a trip was lost by a train and the delays were 
less in number and extent than on a busy day in the holiday 
season. An extra force was maintained at switches and 
signals for the removal of snow and ice, and the normal 
schedule was maintained with only trifling variations in the 

The reports from New York State, New Jersey and Penn- 
sylvania indicate that where schedules were maintained at 
all it was only with the greatest difficulty. The wind was 
very high during the entire period of the storm and in the 
open country the snow piled up in drifts which could only 
be removed by shovels. In New York City the subway 
naturally was used, even for short rides, with the result 
that considerable difficulty was encountered in handling the 
traffic, the lines all operating on a holiday schedule. Early 
in the morning of Dec. 26 there were five blocks on the ele- 
vated in New York, the longest 20 minutes. Very few sur- 
face cars were running around 2 a. m. The Metropolitan 
Street Railway had 48 sweepers and 20 scrapers going before 
daylight, and the only block after 9 a. m. came from a 
clogged switch in Vanderbilt Avenue, which stalled the up- 
town Madison Avenue line, the Forty-second Street cross- 
town line and the Park Avenue uptown line for 45 minutes. 
The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company early abandoned op- 
eration on several of its unimportant suburban lines, concen- 
trating its attention and equipment on such city trunk lines 
as Fulton Street, Gates Avenue, Nostrand Avenue, Putnam 
Avenue, etc. Service within the city proper was entirely 
abandoned on the Park Avenue, Graham Avenue and Grand 
Street lines. An elevated train operating on the surface 
between Ulmer Park and Coney Island became stalled, and 
many of the passengers passed the night in the cars rather 
than brave the storm to reach their destination by another 

Basis of Inquiry Into Increase in Fare by Puget Sound 
Electric Railway 

Complaint having been made to the Railroad Commission 
of Washington about the increase on Oct. 17, 1900, in the 
regular rates on the Puget Sound Electric Railway, Tacoma. 
Wash., to practically cents per mile with an increase in the 
through rate between Seattle and Tacoma from $t to $1.25 
and changes in the commutation rates, as published in the 
Electric Railway Journal of Nov. 6, iqoq, page tooo, the 



[Vol. XXXV. No. i. 

commission has decided to hold a series of public hearings 
beginning Jan. 3, 1910, to determine whether the company 
is justified in exacting the increase from patrons. The com- 
mission has issued a statement in which it says: 

"Immediately upon the company advancing the rates, an- 
ticipating that complaint would be made, necessitating a 
hearing, we had our engineer enter upon an investigation of 
the accounting and engineering records of the defendant 
company, with a view to ascertaining: 

"First. — The amount of money actually expended in the 
construction of the road and the particular item for which 
the moneys were paid, ascertaining the unit quantities of 
labor performed, material moved and furnished, with unit 
prices paid, so that we would be enabled at that time to 
check up and ascertain fully, not only the amount of money 
which the record shows has been expended, but whether 
the same had been properly, economically and in good faith 

"Second. — To ascertain these several units, so that, by ap- 
plying prevailing unit prices, we would be able to ascertain 
the cost of reproducing the property in its present condition. 

"Third. — To ascertain the depreciation that has accrued 
to the bridges, structures, improvements and equipments, 
so as to ascertain the present value of the road. 

"Fourth. — To ascertain from the accounting records the 
gross receipts, operating expenses and an analysis of their 
operating expenses for the purpose of ascertaining whether 
the same had been reasonable and normal, with a view of 
introducing in evidence this testimony so as to give a com- 
plete financial and operating history of the road down to 

Hearing on Service in Fairhaven, Mass. — A petition has 
been addressed to the Railroad Commission of Massa- 
chusetts by the selectmen of Fairhaven, requesting a hear- 
ing in reference to the frequency of service and the type of 
cars in use in Fairhaven by the Union Street Railway, New 
Bedford, Mass. 

California Company Modifies Transfers to Curtail 
Abuses. — The San Diego (Cal.) Electric Railway has re- 
cently modified its transfer system so as to curtail abuses 
in looping and disregard of the time limit. Transfers are 
now punched for the month, day, issuing line, line issued 
to, and time to the nearest 15 minutes. 

Scope of Illinois Traction Benefit Association Increased. — 
It has been decided by the employees of the Illinois Trac- 
tion System, most of whom belong to the system's hospital 
association, to add a death benefit to the accident insur- 
ance which was arranged when the association was organ- 
ized. A sliding scale of assessments has been agreed upon, 
ranging from 25 cents to $4. according to the salary of the 
employee. It is estimated that this will provide an average 
death benefit of $1,000 for each employee. 

Date of Hearing Before Railway Commissioners of 
Canada on Brakes. — The hearing before the Board of Rail- 
way Commissioners of Canada to consider the subject of 
equipping electric cars with automatic air brakes as well 
as hand brakes which was to have been held on Dec. 7, 
1909, and the postponement of which was noted in the 
Electric Railway Journal of Dec. 18, 1909, will be held at 
Ottawa, Feb. 4, 1910, Col. H. H. McLean, K. C, counsel for 
the Canadian Street Railway Association, having requested 
that the companies be given more time in which to prepare 
their case. 

Non-Compliance with Order of Commission Results in 
Suit. — The Public Service Commission of the Second Dis- 
trict of New York has instructed its counsel to begin an 
action against the Black River Traction Company, Water- 
town, N. Y., to recover the penalty prescribed by law for 
failure and neglect by the company to observe and obey an 
order of the commission requiring it to install derailers at 
all steam railroad crossings upon its road extending along 
High Street, Watertown. The commission has also in- 
structed counsel to commence a mandamus proceeding by 
reason of the violation of the order of the commission. 

Decision in Indiana Regarding Construction of a Second 
Track. — The Supreme Court of Indiana has decided that 
neither the State nor the city can surrender the police 
power to guard the lives, health and safety of citizens in a 
decision which applies to steam railroads and electric rail- 

ways. The Grand Trunk Railroad attempted to build a 
second track in Division Street, South Bend, but the city 
authorities stopped the work. The railroad then asked for 
i>n injunction to restrain the city from interfering with its 
plans. The Supreme Court held that a single track having 
been built and operated for 30 years without any attempt 
tc lay a double track in accordance with the terms of the 
original grant, the City Council has power to repeal the 
privilege of laying another track in the street. 

Increase in Wages in New Jersey. — The directors of the 
Public Service Railway at a meeting on Dec. 28, 1909, de- 
cided to increase the wages of motorme: and conductors in 
accordance with the following scale, etiective on Jan. 1. 
1910: First year, 21 cents an hour; second year, 22 cents an 
hour; third year, 23 cents an hour; tenth year men, 24 cents 
an hour. In 191 1 the first year men are to ; jeive a further 
increase to 22 cents an hour; second year len, 23 cents an 
hour; third year men, 24 cents an hour; ten h year men, 24^ 
cents an hour. In 1912 the first year men re to receive 23 
cents an hour; second year men, 24 cents an hour, and third 
year men and upward, 25 cents an hour. T!'.e present scale 
of wages is 20 cents for first year men, 21 cents for from 
second to fifth year, 22 cents for from fifth to tenth year, 
and 23 cents for 10-year men and over. 

Prizes for Accident Essays in Philadelphia. — Motormen 
and conductors in the employ of the Philadelphia (Pa.) 
Rapid Transit Company have been asked to write essays 
on subjects dealt with in the bulletins of the bureau for the 
prevention of accidents of the company. H< .<etofore the 
company gave cash prizes for suggestions, but it is an- 
nounced that awards amounting to $200 would now be given 
for the best papers on that subject. The essays are limited 
to 400 words, and must be submitted between Jan. 1, 1910, 
and Feb. 1, 1910. The men are advised that the papers 
will be judged upon the thoughts, ideas and suggestions. 
For the best of these essays the company offers 20 $5 prizes, 
25 prizes of $2 and 50 awards at $1 each. The plan, now 
suspended, of giving an unlimited number of $2 prizes for 
suggestions from motormen and conductors, has brought 
the company scores of useful ideas, and stimulated the 
interest and observation of the men. 

Change of Rates on New York Line. — Effective on Jan. 
15, 1910, the Western New York & Pennsylvania Traction 
Company, Olean, N. Y,. will make several changes in its 
passenger rates. The round-trip fare in either direction 
between Olean and Allegany will be reduced from 20 cents 
to 15 cents; 46-trip monthly scholar's ticket fares between 
any two local points within the State of New York where 
the regular one-way fare is 10 cents or more will be 
made one-half the regular one-way fare; ticket books 
containing 52 coupons each good for passage in either 
direction between Portville and Olean, will be sold for 
$3- 2 S per book, but will be good only during the month in 
which they are issued and on cars leaving Portville or 
Olean between 6 a. m. and 7:30 a. m., and 5 p. m. and 7 
p. m.; ticket books containing no coupons of a face value 
of 5 cents each between all local points within the State 
of New York will be sold for $5 per book. 

Bill to Require Interchange of Transfers in Washington. 
— The bill introduced at the last session of Congress to re- 
quire the free interchange of transfers between the Capital 
Traction Company and the Washington Railway & Electric 
Company has been referred to the District committees. 
In transmitting the bill the District Commissioners said: 
"The Commissioners have in the past given their approval 
to this proposition and have met all objections of the rail- 
ways as to matters of finance and administrative difficulty 
with the statement of their belief that the financial burden 
which would be imposed by the passage of such a bill would 
not be a heavy one and the administrative difficulty would 
be easily surmountable. The proposition of the interchange 
of transfers between the competing railways is one involv- 
ing distinct and very great convenience to the railway 
traveling public. The incidental financial loss to the rail- 
ways would be very slight, and should be required of them 
in view of the fact that the franchises of these companies 
are valuable, practically perpetual and certainly not more 
than moderately taxed. The Commissioners recommend 
favorable action on this bill with the addition of a penalty 

January r, 1910.] 



Personal Mention 

Mr. W. H. Seip has been appointed superintendent of the 
west division of the Denver (Col.) City Tramway, to suc- 
ceed Mr. W. M. Casey. 

Mr. W. M. Casey, superintendent of the west division of 
Denver (Col.), City Tramway, has been appointed train- 
master of the company, in charge of the division superin- 
tendents, dispatchers and trainmen. 

Mr. F. W. Laurence has resigned as general superintend- 
ent of the Chattanooga Railway & Light Company, Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn., to become engineer of the Electrical Securities 
Corporation, New York, N. Y., to succeed Mr. F. L. Dame. 

Mr. B. J. Arnold, chairman of the Board of Supervising- 
Engineers, Chicago Traction, and consulting engineer of 
the Public Service Commission of the First District of New 
York, was married on Dec. 22, 1909, to Mrs. Margaret 
Latimer Fonda, New York. 

Mr. F. L. Stockberger, whose resignation as purchasing 
agent for the receiver of the Municipal Traction Company, 
Cleveland, Ohio, was noted in the Electric Railway Journal 
af Dec. 25, 1909, has become connected with the Champion 
! Range Company, Cleveland, Ohio. 

r. F. E. Reidhead has retired as manager of the Pa- 
cah (Ky.) Traction Company to return to the home 
jffice of the Stone & Webster Management Association, 
Boston, Mass. He is succeeded as manager of the Paducah 
Traction Company by Mr. H. B. Sewall. 

Mr. George R. Williams, trainmaster of the Eastern 
Pennsylvania Railways, Pottsville, Pa., has been appointed 
division superintendent of the company with offices in Lans- 
ford, to succeed Mr. J. C. Bell, who has been appointed 
superintendent of railways of the company. 

Mr. Robert E. Ligon, who for a year and a half has been 
managing receiver of the Anderson (S. C.) Traction Com- 
pany, retired from the company on Dec. 15, 1909, on which 
date the receivership was terminated. Mr. Ligon will de- 
vote himself to his manufacturing interests. 

Mr. J. C. Bell, division superintendent of the Eastern 
Pennsylvania Railways, Pottsville, Pa., has been appointed 
superintendent of railways of the company, with offices in 
Palo Alto, in charge of the transportation and roadway de- 
partments, to succeed Mr. Clinton E. Palmer, whose resig- 
nation to become general superintendent of the Chicago, 
Lake Shore & South Bend Railway, Michigan City., Ind., 
was noted in the Electric Railway Journal of Dec. 25, 1909. 

Mr. Henry Branson has been appointed to succeed Mr. 
Fred H. Lincoln as assistant general manager of the Phila- 
delphia (Pa.) Rapid Transit Company, with the title of 
superintendent of rolling stock and equipment. For the last 
four years Mr. Branson has been in charge of the shops of 
the company at Fifth and Sixth Streets, Philadelphia. He 
was a car-house foreman of the company for six years. His 
total service with the company covers a period of 16 years. 

Mr. Charles B. Wells, assistant superintendent of the 
Denver (Col.) City Tramway, has been appointed super- 
intendent of transportation of the company to succeed S. W. 
Cantril, deceased. Mr. Wells has been a resident of Den- 
ver for 22 years. He entered the employ of the Denver 
City Tramway as stenographer and clerk under Mr. C. K. 
Durbin. Subsequently he was appointed chief clerk. Later 
he was advanced to the position of assistant superintend- 
ent of the company. 

Mr. L. E. Holderman has resigned the position of assist- 
ant general manager of the Terre Haute division, Terre 
Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company, and has 
been appointed general manager of the Central States Tie 
& Gravel Company of Terre Haute. Previous to his service 
of two and a half years witli the Terre Haute railway and 
lighting property Mr. Holderman was employed in various 
capacities on the properly of the Eastern Wisconsin Rail- 
way & Light Company at Fond du Lac, Wis. At different 
times his duties included the superintendency >>f track, over 
head and the light and power departments. 

Mr. Arthur W. Dean, State engineer of New Hampshire 
^ince 1904, and formerly engineer of the New Hampshire 
Traction Company, which company is the predecessor of 

the New Hampshire Electric Railways, Haverhill, Mass., 
has been appointed secretary of the Massachusetts High- 
way Commission, succeeding Mr. Austin B. Fletcher, re- 
signed. Mr. Dean was born in Taunton, Mass., and was 
graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
in 1892. He was city engineer of Nashua, and was con- 
nected with the New Hampshire Traction Company from 
1902 to 1904, assisting in the construction of 130 miles of 
electric railway. 

Mr. J. H. Hamilton has resigned as superintendent of the 
Templeton Street Railway, East Templeton, Mass. Mr. 
Hamilton entered railway work as a car inspector with the 
Taunton (Mass.) Street Railway in 1899. When the Old 
Colony Street Railway was formed in 1901, Mr. Hamilton 
was transferred to Brockton as foreman of the operating 
car house and of air brakes. He resigned from the Old 
Colony Street Railway to become master mechanic of the 
Claremont Railway & Lighting Company, Claremont, N. H., 
in the employ of which company he continued from June 1, 
1903, until May 1, 1904. when he accepted the position of 
superintendent of the Templeton Street Railway. 

Mr. J. M. Goodwin, whose appointment as superintendent 
of the Sherbrooke (Que.) Street Railway to succeed Mr. 
P. J. Slattery, resigned, as announced in the Electric Rail- 
way Journal of Dec. 4, 1909, was graduated from the Bliss 
Electrical School, Washington, D. C, in the summer of 
1906. For the first six months after being graduated he was 
connected with the Western Electric Company as an ap- 
prentice in the company's factory in New York. From 
Dec. 1, 1906, until May 1, 1909, he was connected with the 
Canadian Westinghouse Company, Hamilton, Ont., pursuing 
the company's engineering apprenticeship course. For the 
last six months Mr. Goodwin has been engaged in the elec- 
trical contracting business in Chicago in his own interest. 

Mr. H. B. Sewall has assumed the duties of manager of 
the Paducah (Ky.) Traction Company and the Paducah 
Light & Power Company as the successor to Mr. F. E. Reid- 
head, who has returned to the home office of the Stone & 
Webster Management Association, Boston, Mass. Mr. 
Sewall was previously connected with the Minneapolis Gen- 
eral Electric Company, the employ of which he entered in 
June, 1906. Since October, 1908, he has acted as local 
treasurer of the company in Minneapolis. Previous to be- 
coming connected with the Minneapolis General Electric 
Company, Mr. Sewall was with the Dallas (Tex.) Electric 
Corporation. He also acted for three years as assistant 
treasurer of the Lowell (Mass.) Electric Light Corporation. 

Mr. A. C. Kennedy, whose appointment as purchasing 
agent for the receivers of the Municipal Traction Company, 
Cleveland, Ohio, was announced in the Electric Railway 
Journal of Dec. 25, 1909, was born in Cleveland in 1880, and 
was educated in the public schools and at the city high 
school in Cleveland. Mr. Kennedy began his electric rail- 
way career in the office of Mr. Charles W. Wason, purchas- 
ing agent of the Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern Railway, 
in 1898, and entered the office of purchasing agent of the 
Cleveland Electric Railway with Mr. Wason in 1899. Mr. 
George A. Stanley subsequently became purchasing agent 
of the company, and Mr. Kennedy remained with the com- 
pany as chief clerk to Mr. Stanley until the Municipal 
Traction Company took over the property. 

Mr. E. F. Schneider, secretary of the Cleveland, South- 
western & Columbus Railway. Cleveland, Ohio, has been 
appointed general manager of the company to succeed Mr. 
C. N. Wilcoxon, who resigned in August, 1909, to become 
general manager of the Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend 
Railway, Michigan City, Ind. Mr. Schneider has been in- 
terested in interurban electric railways since 18114, when the 
Cleveland & Rerea Railway was constructed, lie has been 
conned ed with the Cleveland. Southwestern & Columbus 
Railway for |[ years and has been secretary of the com 
pany for the last 10 years. In addition, he has acted as 
purchasing agent and head of the claim depart ment (if the 
company. Mr. Schneider began his business career as com- 
mercial representative for a drug house in Cleveland. 


C. E. Somers, master mechanic of the Fairmont & Clarks- 
burg Traction Company, Fairmont, W. Va., met with an 
accident recently in performing his duties fur the company 
which resulted in his death on Dec. 22, 1909. 



[Vol. XXXV. No. i. 

Construction News 

Construction News Notes are classified under each head- 
ing alphabetically by States. 

An asterisk (*) indicates a project not previously 

*Idaho Falls (Idaho) Electric Railroad. — Incorporated to 
build a 34-mile electric railway in the vicinity of Idaho Falls. 
E. Beugler, New York, N. Y., is closing the final details for 
the right-of-way and franchises. Capital stock, $1,000,000. 
Officers: J. L. Miller, Idaho Falls, president; A. V. Scott, 
Idaho Falls, secretary. Among those interested are H. S. 
Sewell, New York, N. Y.; F. S. Cleveland and Ray K. 
Kramer, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Kokomo Western Traction Company, Kokomo, Ind. — In- 
corporated in Indiana to build an electric railway between 
Kokomo and Young America. Headquarters, Kokomo. 
Capital stock, $10,000. Directors: C. C. McFann, Anderson 
Johnson, George W. Charles, M. R. Doyson, all of Kokomo, 
and O. C. Gard, Young America. [E. R. J., Aug. 21, '09.] 

♦Toledo, Napoleon & Lima Railway, Toledo, Ohio. — In- 
corporated in Ohio for the purpose of constructing an elec- 
tric railway from Toledo to Lima, passing through Lucas, 
Henry, Defiance, Putnam and Allen Counties. Capital stock, 
$100,000. Headquarters, Toledo. Incorporators: M. M. 
D.ailey, V/. D. Bishoff, M. E. Donaldson, N. W. Gillette and 
T. E. Gillette. 

Union Traction & Terminal Company, Marshfield, Ore. — 

Incorporated in Oregon to build an electric railway in North 
Bend and Marshfield, also connecting the two cities. Prin- 
cipal office, Marshfield. Capital stock, $100,000. Incorpora- 
tors: J. M. Blake, G. W. Kaufman and R. O. Graves. [E. R. 
J., Dec. 18, '09.] 

Grays Harbor Interurban Company, Hoquiam, Wash. — 
Incorporated for the purpose of building an electric railway 
from Hoquiam to Tacoma, via Olympia. Capital stock, 
$500,000. Incorporators: R. F. Lytle, A. L. Paine and E. O. 
McGlauflin, all of Hoquiam; W. H. Abel and Eldredge 
Wheeler, Montesano; A. M. Abel and P. S. Locke, Aberdeen. 
[E. R. J.. Dec. 25, '09.] 

Los Angeles, Cal. — The Los Angeles Railway has pur- 
chased for $100 a franchise from the City Council for new 
lines on Alpine Street, from Main Street to Buena Vista 
Street, and on Ann Street from Main Street to San Fer- 
nando Street. 

Oakland, Cal. — Application has been made to the City 
Council by the Peninsular Railroad for a franchise for a 
street railway starting at Fourteenth Street and Franklin 
Street, to the Sixteenth Street depot, forming a loop at the 
depot to Eighteenth Street, back on Eighteenth Street to 
Brush Street, up Brush to Twenty-first Street and thence 
back to Fourteenth Street and Franklin Street. 

Ontario, Cal. — The City Council has sold to W. G. Kerhoff, 
representing the Pacific Electric Railway, a franchise for an 
electric railway to enter the northern part of Ontario. 

*San Bernardino, Cal. — W. W. Poole has petitioned the 
Board of Supervisors for a franchise for an electric railway 
from the Riverside-San Bernardino County line toward 

Athens, Ga. — The City Council has granted a franchise to 
the Athens Electric Railway, covering the extension of a 
number of lines in Athens. Under the terms of the fran- 
chise, the company is required to pay over to the city a 
percentage of the gross receipts, this percentage increasing 
by periods of ten and twenty years. 

Maple Park, 111. — The Town Council has granted a fran- 
chise to the Chicago, Aurora & De Kalb Railroad for an 
electric railway through Maple Park. The company pro- 
poses to build an electric railway from Aurora to DeKalb. 
J. H. Bliss, Sugar Grove, is interested. [E. R. J., July 3, 

Springfield, 111. — The Sangamon County Board of Super- 
visors has granted a franchise to the Springfield & Jackson- 
ville Interurban Railway to construct an interurban rail- 
way along the public highway between Springfield and the 

western boundary of the county. The company plans to 
build an electric railway from Springfield to Jacksonville, 
via Berlin, a distance of 33 miles. John Melick, Springfield, 
chief engineer. [E. R. J., May 29, '09.] 

*Brandon, Man. — E. J. Gifford and H. J. Skynner have ap- 
plied to the City Council for a franchise to build a street 
railway and power plant in Brandon. 

Clovis, New Mex. — The City Council has granted to E. J. 
Howard, J. D. Hammett and A. R. Hammett, Moberly, Mo., 
capitalists, a franchise for a street railway in Clovis. [E. 
R. J., July 17, '09.] 

New York, N. Y. — The Board of Estimate and Apportion- 
ment has granted a franchise to the South Shore Traction 
Company to cross the Queensboro Bridge to the Manhattan 
terminus, and in Queens continuing by various streets to 

Zanesville, Ohio. — The County Commissioners have grant- 
ed a 25-year franchise to the Zanesville & Meigs Valley 
Traction for an electric railway through Morgan County. 
The company proposes to build a line from Zanesville to 
Beverly, via McConnellsville. H. D. Blodgett, Zanesville, 
general manager. [E. R. J., Sept. 4, '09.] 

*Brantford, Ont.— T. R. Varding, Buffalo, N. Y., has ap- 
plied to the Municipal Council for a franchise for an electric 
railway within the township. 

*Grants Pass, Ore. — The City Council has granted to J. R. 
Allen a 50-year franchise for an electric railway in Grants 
Pass. The franchise stipulates that the company begin work 
within a year and pave and repair such streets as may be 
used within the track and 18 in. abutting thereon. 

Sayre, Pa. — The Waverly, Sayre & Athens Traction Com- 
pany, Waverly, N. Y., has applied to the Borough Council 
for an extension of its franchise to lay tracks on Desmond 
Street and Chemung Street. 

Montreal, Que. — The Montreal Street Railway has been 
given a franchise to construct and operate street railways 
upon certain streets in St. Louis, adjoining Montreal. The 
by-law granting the franchise was adopted at a meeting of 
the Council on Dec. 21. 

Houston, Tex. — The County Commissioners of Harris 
County have approved a contract granting the Galveston- 
Houston Electric Railway the privilege of crossing all roads 
in the county. [E. R. J., April 24, '09.] 

Centralia, Wash. — The Twin City Light & Traction Com- 
pany, Chehalis, which proposes to build an electric railway 
between Centralia and Chehalis, has applied to the City 
Council for a six-months' extension of its franchise in which 
to complete its railway. [E. R. J., Oct. 30, '09.] 


Birmingham & Edgewood Electric Railway, Birmingham, 
Ala. — This company advises that it expects to complete its 
4-mile line between Birmingham and Edgewood during 
1910. [E. R. J., Nov. 6, '09.] 

British Columbia Electric Railway, Ltd., Vancouver, B. C. 
— This company will build 2 miles of new track within the 
city limits during 1910. W. H. Hazlitt, purchasing agent. 

United Railroads, San Francisco, Cal. — This company ad- 
vises that it plans to add 7 miles of new track to its lines 
in 1910. Thomas Finigan, purchasing agent. 

Washington, Spa Springs & Gretta Railroad, Washing- 
ton, D. C. — This company has begun grading on the Bladens- 
burg Road for its electric railway which is to extend a dis- 
tance of about 7 miles from Branchville, Md., to the inter- 
section of Fifteenth Street and H Street, Northeast, in 
Washington, where its passengers will be able to take the 
H Street line into the heart of the city. The Washington 
terminus will be in front of the present Washington ter- 
minus of the Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Electric 
Railway. The Cranford Paving Company, Washington, has 
been awarded a subcontract for the construction of the first 
section of the line. [E. R. J., Dec. 4, '09.] 

*Marion, 111. — It is stated John Murphy, Eldorado, 111., 
is promoting a company to build an electric railway from 
Marion to Mount Vernon, Ind., thus connecting the lines 
between Evansville and St. Louis. 

Murphysboro Electric Railway, Light, Heat & Power 
Company, Murphysboro, 111. — During 1910 this company will 

January i, 1910.] 



build 7 miles of new track between Murphysboro and Car- 
bondale. A. B. Newton, general manager. 
Kokomo Western Traction Company, Kokomo, Ind. — 

A petition has been filed by this company with the Howard 
County Commissioners asking that a special election be 
called in Center Township for the purpose of voting a sub- 
sidy of $35,000 in aid of the proposed electric railway to 
connect Kokomo and Young America, 20 miles. This action 
was taken by Kokomo business men who desire that the line 
shall be built. The company has just been incorporated 
with a capital stock of $10,000. C. C. McFann, president. 
[E. R. J., Aug. 21, '09.] 

Ottumwa, la. — T. D. Foster, president of the Ottumwa 
Interurban Construction Company, Ottumwa, writes that 
matters have not advanced beyond the preliminary stage in 
the building of the proposed electric railway between Ot- 
tumwa and Oskaloosa. The promoters are working on the 
right of way, and no definite route has as yet been decided 
upon. [E. R. J., Dec. 4, '09.] 

♦Central Kansas Interurban Railway, Abilene, Kan. — 
This company has been organized in Abilene to build a rail- 
way from Newton through Canton, Spring Valley, Roxbury 
and Gypsum to the south side of the river, with a branch to 
Abilene and one to Salina. Gasoline motor cars will be 
operated over the road. C. B. Kirkland, Salina, treasurer. 
Among those interested are J. C. Nicholson, Newton, and 
J. E. Brewer, Abilene. 

Connecticut Valley Street Railway, Greenfield, Mass. — 
This company has petitioned the Legislature for authority 
to locate a street railway in the Mount Sugar Loaf reserva- 
tion in South Deerfield. It is stated that the company plans 
to construct an electric railway to the summit of Mount 
Sugar Loaf. 

*Chapala Hydro Electric & Irrigation Company, Guada- 
lajara, Mex. — This company is preparing plans for the con- 
struction of an electric railway from Guadalajara to Lake 
Chapala, a distance of 23 miles. The maximum grade will 
not exceed 2 per cent. According to present plans, the 
company will have its terminals at San Pedro, Guadalajara, 
where connection will be made with the street railway of 
that city. E. Pinson, general manager. L. Matty has charge 
of the preliminary work. 

Twin City General Electric Company, Ironwood, Mich. — 
During 1910 this company expects to complete a 6-mile ex- 
tension between Ironwood and Bessemer. F. H. Pearce, 
purchasing agent. 

Twin City & Lake Superior Railway, Minneapolis, Minn. 
— It is stated that this company will soon issue $2,500,000 in 
bonds for the completion of its proposed 130-mile electric 
railway which is to extend from Minneapolis to Duluth and 
Superior. About 60 miles of the route have been graded. 
L. N. Loomis, Minneapolis, president. 

Albany, N. Y. — The United Traction Company has been 
granted an extension of one year, until Jan. 1, 1911, to com- 
plete the construction of its street railway across Arbor 
Hill from Clinton Avenue and Ten Broeck Street. 

Hornell-Bath Interurban Railway, Hornell, N. Y.— The 
Public Service Commission of the Second District has 
granted a certificate of public convenience and necessity to 
this company, which proposes to build an electric street 
railway between Hornell and Bath, passing through How- 
ard, Fremont and Avoca, a distance of 24 miles. [E. R. J., 
Dec. 4, '09.] 

Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New York, N. Y. — 

This company has contracted with the American Bridge 
Company for 500 tons of structural steel for elevated and 
station work. 

Cincinnati (Ohio) Traction Company. — This company 
will add 2 miles of new track to its line during 1910. C. 
Burckmyer, purchasing agent. 

*Salem, Ohio. — Press reports state that Peter McCave, 
Greenford, is interested in a proposition to build an electric 
railway from Salem to Youngstown by way of New Albany, 
Greenford, Calla, Canfield and Lanterman's Falls. It is the 
intention to build a branch from near Gettysburg south to 
Washingtonville, Leetonia, Franklin Square and Shelton's 
Grove to Lisbon. The project also includes a belt line for 

Zanesville & Meigs Valley Traction Company, Zanesville, 
Ohio. — This company announces that it will place the con- 
tract for the construction of its projected railway from 
Zanesville to Beverly on May 1, 1910, and work will be 
commenced on the new line within 15 days thereafter. The 
preliminary survey has been completed. In addition to the 
route as at first proposed, the company will build an 8-mile 
branch to McConnelsville. The main line will begin at 
Eighth and Marietta Streets in Zanesville and run direct to 
Beverly, a distance of 41 miles. The principal towns on the 
run are: Duncan Falls, Museville, Rowland, Cloud, Union- 
ville and Mill Grove. The maximum grade is but i l / 2 per 
cent, while the maximum curve is 7 deg. The company pro- 
poses to build a 24-mile extension from Beverly to Parkers- 
burg, but this has not yet been surveyed and will be a mat- 
ter for later consideration. H. D. Blodgett, general man- 
ager. [E. R. J., Sept. 4, '09.] 

Lawton & Fort Sill Electric Railway, Lawton, Okla. — It 
is stated that this company has decided to issue bonds to 
the amount of $150,000 in order to meet the expenditures, 
both in the construction of the proposed electric railway 
through Lawton and connecting Lawton with Fort Sill and 
Medicine Park. [E. R. J., Dec. 11, '09.] 

Oklahoma, Kansas & Missouri Interurban Railway, 
Miami, Okla. — This company contemplates the construction 
of 105 miles of new line during 1910 to extend from Joplin 
to Bartlesville. The railway will also touch Hattenville, 
Miami, Spring City, Peoria, Grapaw, Blue Jacket and 
Welsch. Franklin M. Smith, president. [E. R. J., April 
17, '09-] 

London & Lake Erie Railway & Transportation Com- 
pany, London, Ont. — It is announced that this company, 
which is the successor to the Southwestern Traction Com- 
pany, will expend $150,000 for improvements to the system, 
the nature of which has not been disclosed. [E. R. J., 
Nov. 13, '09.] 

*Arnprior & Pontiac Electric Railway, Ottawa, Ont. — 

This company has been organized for the purpose of build- 
ing an electric railway from Campbells Bay, Que., via Chats 
Falls and Graham's Bay, near Ottawa, Ont., to High Falls, 
75 miles. Arthur H. Brice, Ottawa, chief engineer. 

Port Arthur & Fort William Electric Railway, Port Ar- 
thur, Ont. — An extension 4 miles in length will be built 
during 1910 by this company. N. C. Pilcher, purchasing 

♦Waterloo, Ont. — J. S. Clarke recently submitted a pro- 
posal to the County Council of Waterloo for the building of 
an electric railway from Port Dover to Brantford, passing 
through Ayr and Roseville to Berlin and Waterloo, with 
branches to other municipalities in the county. 

*Johnstown & Greensburg Electric Railway, Latrobe, Pa. 

— This company, which proposes to build a 45-mile electric 
railway between Johnstown and Greensburg, announces that 
it has secured nearly all the rights of way over the section 
of the route between Greensburg and Derry and more than 
half obtained between Derry and Johnstown. It is stated 
that the Fetterman Engineering Company, Johnstown, will 
begin work shortly on the location of the route through 
Sang Hollow, from Morrellville to Seward. The promoters 
of the new line are said to be identified with the Indiana 
County Railways. It is to be a high-speed line, and is to 
carry both passengers and freight. The line will serve a 
population of about 131,000. The grades will not exceed 4 
per cent and the curvatures 5 deg. Officers: Warner Utts, 
Derry, president; W. E. Hildebrand, Seward, vice-president; 
R. G. Lohr, Latrobe, secretary: H. H. Smith, Latrobe, 

Slippery Rock & Grove City Railway, Slippery Rock, Pa. 

— This company announces that it will receive bids on Jan. 
10 for the construction of its proposed 9-mile street railway 
between Slippery Rock and Grove City. Gasoline motor 
cars will be operated. [E. R. J., Dec. 4, '00 ] 

Chambersburg, Greencastle & Waynesboro Electric Rail- 
way, Waynesboro, Pa. — The directors of this company have 
decided to issue bonds to the amount of $400,000, and among 
the improvements projected is an extension of about 4 
miles from Pen-Mar via Highficld to Blue Ridge Summit, 
and possibly to Monterey Springs. 



[Vol. XXXV. No. i. 

Nashville & Adairville Railway, Nashville, Tenn. — S. C. 

Robb, Nashville, one of the incorporators of this company, 
has announced that if the people along the line of the pro- 
posed railway would subscribe stock to the amount of $100,- 
ooo the line would be immediately located and contracts for 
its construction awarded. It will be standard gage, with 
70-lb. steel rails, the ultimate purpose being to convert it 
into a steam road and extend it from Adairville, by way of 
Morgantown, to Leitchfield, thus by a connection with the 
Illinois Central Railroad making a second line from Nash- 
ville to Louisville. The line from Nashville to Adairville 
will be by way of Goodlettsville, White House, Cross Plains 
and Orlinda. [E. R. J., Dec. 8, '09.] 

City & Elm Grove Railroad, Wheeling, W. Va.— This 
company expects to build V/ 2 miles of new track, using 7-in. 
70-lb. and A. S. C. E. 85-lb. T-rails. Contracts for this work 
will be placed during the next four weeks. J. W. Smith, 
general manager. 

Seattle-Everett Interurban Railway, Seattle, Wash. — 
During ioto about 4 miles of new track will be constructed 
by this company between Seattle and Everett. George 
Newell, purchasing agent. 


Nelson (B. C.) Electric Tramway. — This company will 
erect a new car house at Nelson to be 28 ft. x 80 ft. in size. 
Alex. Carrie, architect. 

Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, Cal. — Plans are 
being prepared by this company for the construction of a 
reinforced concrete station in Long Beach to cost $135,000. 

Augusta-Aiken Railway & Electric Company, Augusta, 
Ga. — This company has purchased a site, 175 ft. x 90 ft., on 
which to erect freight and passenger terminals. The build- 
ing will be two stories high and will be 165 ft. x 90 ft. The 
structure will be built of brick and will cost $20,000. 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company, 
Terre Haute, Ind. — This company is considering plans for 
the construction cf a terminal station to cost $250,000 on 
the corner of Eighth Street and Cherry Street, Terre Haute. 

Corsicana (Tex.) Traction Company. — This company is 
building a reinforced concrete car house in Corsicana. J. W. 
Carpenter, president. 

Port Arthur (Tex.) Traction Company. — This company 
will begin work at once on a new car house to be located 
at Houston Avenue and Seventh Street, Port Arthur. The 
building will be built of brick, with a concrete roof, and 
will be 80 ft. x 120 ft. in size. It will have a storage capacity 
of 12 cars and will contain a repair shop, the general offices 
of the company, together with a room for its employees, 
which will be fitted with all conveniences. The contract 
has been let. 


Nelson (B. C.) Electric Tramway. — This company will 
erect a new substation in Nelson. 

Denver City Tramway, Denver, Col. — This company has 
begun work on the extension to its Platte Street power 
plant. The addition will be 140 ft. x no ft. in size. When 
completed the whole building will be 429 ft. x 100 ft. The 
boiler room will contain six 750-hp boilers. 

Cedar Rapids & Marion City Railway, Cedar Rapids, la. — 
This company has recently placed a contract with the 
Allis-Chalmers Company for a 22-46-48 cross-compound 
engine and 800-kw railway generator, also with the Erie 
City Iron Works for a 500-hp water-tube boiler. 

People's Railway, Dayton, Ohio. — It is stated that this 
company is considering plans for the erection of a power 
plant in Dayton, 250 ft. x 180 ft., to cost $125,000. 

Winchester & Washington Railway, Winchester, Va. — 
This company is said to have engaged P. O. Keilholtz, Balti- 
more, Md., to prepare plans and specifications and superin- 
tend the construction of a steam power plant at Millville as 
auxiliary to its water power plant. The company pro- 
poses to install a 1500-kw plant, 2200 volts, three phase, 60 
cycles, for electric light and power purposes; also for dis- 
tribution through Jefferson and Berkeley Counties, West 
Virginia, and through Clarke and Frederick Counties of Vir- 
ginia. It is stated that contracts will be awarded on Jan. 
15. The new plant is estimated to cost $100,000. 

Manufactures & Supplies 


Capital Beach & Milford Railroad, Lincoln, Neb., will 

buy 10 double-truck summer cars for park service. 

Montreal (Que.) Street Railway will have 25 all-steel cars 
built by the Ottawa Car Company delivered at once. 

Belton & Temple Traction Company, Temple, Tex., will 

place an order for one semi-convertible passenger car dur- 
ing 1910. 

Morgantown & Dunkard Valley Railroad, Morgantown, 
W. Va., contemplates ordering four passenger and two 
freight cars during 1910. 

Connecticut Valley Street Railway, Greenfield, Mass., will 
order in 1910 one double-truck flat car, 40 ft. long, with 
vestibuled ends, to be equipped with four motors. 

Kansas City-Western Railway, Leavenworth, Kan., will 
buy two large interurban cars early in 1910 to seat 60 people. 
The cars are to be equipped with G.E. multiple type in con- 
trol and G.E. -73 motors. 

New York & Long Island Traction Company, Hemp- 
stead, N. Y., has bought 10 sets quadruple motor equipment 
from Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 
and 10 sets of trucks from The J. G. Brill Company. 

Wabash & Northern Indiana Traction Company, War- 
saw, Ind., mentioned in the Electric Railway Journal of 
Nov. 20, 1909, as having ordered seven cars from Jewett 
Car Company, has drawn the following specifications for 
these combination passenger, smoking and baggage cars: 

Seating capacity 60 Car trimmings bronze 

Weight 30,000 lb. Curtain fix .... Curtain S. Co. 

Wheel base 6 ft. 6 in. Curtain material ... Pantasote 

Length of body ... .47 ft. 7 in. Fenders Pilot 

Length over vesti- Gongs 12 in. 

bule 52 ft. 5 in. Heaters Peter Smith 

Length over all ... .53 ft. 9 in. Headlights G.E. Form B 

Width inside 8 ft. 6 in. Roofs steam type 

Width over all 9 ft. 3 in. Sanders Nichols-Lintern 

Height inside 8 ft. 2 in. Seats Hale & Kilburn 

Height sill to trolley Step treads Am. Safety 

base 10 ft. Trolley retrievers, 

Height rail to sills. . 3 ft. 4 in. Knutson No. 2 

Body wood Trucks Am. Loco. MCB 

Underframe . . wood and steel Varnish Hildreth 

Air brakes West. Vestibule .rear only 

Brakes Peacock Fire extinguisher ... Eastman 


Hale & Kilburn Manufacturing Company, Philadelphia, 
Pa., will move its New York office from 33 Union Square 
to 39 Union Square on Feb. 1, 1910. 

G. E. Watts, Atlanta, Ga., well known among electric rail- 
way men throughout the South, has been appointed southern 
representative of the R. D. Nuttall Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Elliott Brothers, Lewisham, London, S. E., England., 
have issued a pamphlet describing the Wimpenis accelero- 
meter and grade measurer. This instrument measures ac- 
celeration, retardation as in braking, retardation due to 
frictional resistance when coasting, braking efficiency, trac- 
tive effort at different speeds, grades, etc. 

Central States Tie & Gravel Company, Terre Haute, Ind., 
has been incorporated to engage in business of furnishing 
ties and gravel for railway track construction. The officers 
are: President, F. C. Meredith; treasurer, W. H. Harris; 
secretary and manager. L. E. Holderman. The active con- 
duct of the business will be in the hands of Mr. Holderman, 
who has had a wide experience in electric railway work. 

Jewett Car Company, Newark, Ohio, advises that the fire 
which occurred at its plant on Dec. 27, 1909, did not prove 
as serious as first reported in the newspapers. One mill and 
a lumber shed were destroyed but the company's manufac- 
turing work has not been delayed in the least. In fact, the 
capacity of the shops will be doubled in a few weeks when 
the company receives some new motor-driven machines. 

A. Origet & Company, 27-29 West Twenty-third Street, 
New York, N. Y., desire export prices on the following 
classes of steel rails delivered F. O. B. Havre or Boulogne, 

January i, 1910.] 



France: T-rails weighing 12, 15, 18, 20 kg per meter (24, 
30, 36, 40 lb. per yd.) ; grooved or girder rails weighing 38, 
40, 45 "kg per meter (76, 80, 90 lb. per yd.). The bids should 
include prices for all metal appurtenances such as spikes, 
bolts and fish-plates. 

Frederic H. Keyes, Boston, Mass., formerly general man- 
ager of the Robb-Mumford Boiler Company, has associated 
himself with Messrs. Timothy W. Sprague, Henry Docker 
Jackson, and others, to carry on a general consulting engi- 
neering business under the name of Timothy W. Sprague, 
Frederic H. Keys, Henry D. Jackson & Associates, 88 
Broad Street, Boston, Mass. The new firm proposes to 
make complete reports, investigations, and furnish designs 
and supervision for power plants for lighting, railway or in- 
dustrial purposes; also mining reports, investigations and 
power plants. 

Willans & Robinson, Rugby, Eng., have been awarded 
the contract for the turbines for the extension of the Syd- 
ney (N. S. W.) Tramway, and Dick, Kerr & Company have 
been awarded the contract for the alternators. Two units 
of 4000 kw each, running at 750 r.p.m., are to be installed. 
The prices originally submitted included a 400-kw unit in 
addition to the two 4000-kw units. They follow: British 
Thomson-Houston turbines, $161,770; British Westinghouse 
turbines, $170,035; Oerlikon turbines, $179,435; Willans & 
Robinson turbines, $203,450; Escher-Wyss turbines, $210,- 
875; Willans & Robinson turbines, Dick, Kerr alternators, 
accepted at $222,735. 

Eppinger & Russell Company, New York, N, Y., in ad- 
dition to its creosoting works now in operation at Long 
Island City, N. Y., has completed its new plant in Jackson- 
ville, Fla. The new works are said to be the largest creosot- 
ing plant on the Atlantic Coast and are fully equipped with 
the most modern and best appliances and machinery, thus 
enabling work to be done at a minimum cost. In addition 
the plant is so located that rail or vessel shipments can be 
made to all points, and material can be obtained at the low- 
est figures. The company is prepared to accept orders for 
creosote paving blocks, piling, lumber and ties. Its experi- 
ence in creosoting covers a period of 32 years. 

P. O. Keilholtz, who has been consulting engineer for the 
railway and lighting properties of Baltimore, Md., for more 
than 20 years, has opened an office as consulting engi- 
neer in the Continental Building of that city. Mr. Keilholtz 
has been closely identified with most of the important 
electrical work planned and constructed in Baltimore during 
the last 20 years. He is a graduate of the Engineering 
Corps of the United States Naval Academy, and after re- 
signing from the navy he took a post-graduate course at the 
John Hopkins University. Besides having an intimate 
knowledge of the construction of steam and hydraulic 
apparatus, he is eminently qualified to take the products of 
different manufacturers and combine them into a complete 
and efficient operating plant. Mr. Keilholtz has just been 
commissioned to prepare the plans and supervise the con- 
struction of a $100,000 power plant at Milville, Va., for the 
Winchester & Washington City Railway. 

Ohio Brass Company, Mansfield, Ohio, has appointed the 
Holabird-Rcynolds Company, San Francisco; Holabird- 
Reynolds Electric Company, Los Angeles, and Holabird 
Electric Company, Seattle, exclusive sales agents for its 
O-B Hi-Tension porcelain insulators in the States of Cali- 
fornia, Oregon and Washington. Pierson, Roeding & Com- 
pany, with offices at San Francisco, Los Angeles and Seattle, 
will continue to be the Ohio Brass Company's exclusive 
sales agents for overhead material, rail bonds, car equip- 
ment specialties and catenary material, including such 
special porcelain insulators as are used in catenary con- 
struction. The Hendrie & Bolthoff Manufacturing & Supply 
Company, Denver, Col, has been appointed as special 
sales agents for the mining trade in Colorado, Wyoming, 
Utah, Arizona and New Mexico, as well as from certain 
railway properties located in the mining districts of this 
territory. The business of railway and mining companies 
located at Salt Lake City, Denver, Cheyenne, Colorado 
Springs, Pueblo and Tclluride, will be, as heretofore, 
handled by its regular salesman, F. V. Cook, who will also 
give special attention to the sale of Hi-Tension insulators, 
in all five of the States mentioned. J. C. Barr, 84 State 
Street, Boston, Mass., has been appointed Boston sales agent 

for the Ohio Brass Company and will solicit business in all 
of the New England States with the exception of Connecti- 
cut. R. G. Campbell, of the New York office, will continue to 
visit the trade in Connecticut in addition to his other 

Railway Business Association, New York, N. Y., an- 
nounces the appointment by George A. Post, president of 
the association, of the following executive members, all of 
whom have accepted: E. L. Adreon, vice-president, Ameri- 
can Brake Company, St. Louis, Mo.; W. E. Clow, president, 
James B. Clow & Son, Chicago, 111.; J. S. Coffin, presi- 
dent, Franklin Railway Supply Company, New York City; 
Oliver Crosby, president, American Hoist & Derrick Com- 
pany, St. Paul, Minn.; John F. Dickson, president, Dickson 
Car Wheel Company, Houston, Tex.; W. C. Dodd, presi- 
dent, National Lock Washer Company, Newark, N. J.; 
Henry Elliot, president, Elliot Frog & Switch Company, 
East St. Louis, 111.; Alba B. Johnson, vice-president and 
treasurer, Baldwin Locomotive Works, Philadelphia, Pa.; A. 
M. Kittredge, president, Barney & Smith Car Company, 
Dayton, Ohio; W. B. Leach, general manager and treasurer, 
Hunt-Spiller Manufacturing Corporation, Boston, Mass.; E. 
B. Leigh, president, Chicago Railway Equipment Company, 
Chicago, 111.; W. H. Miner, president, W. H. Miner Com- 
pany, Chicago, III.; Alfred A. Pope, president, National 
Malleable Castings Company, Cleveland, Ohio; Col. H. G. 
Prout, vice-president, Union Switch & Signal Company, 
Swissvale, Pa.; James Viles, treasurer, Buda Company, Chi- 
cago, 111.; W. H. "Whiteside, president, Allis-Chalmers Com- 
pany, Milwaukee, Wis.; W. P. Worth, treasurer, Worth 
Brothers Company, Coatesville, Pa.; J. H. Schwacke, man- 
ager and secretary, William Sellers & Company, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 


Wheel Truing Brake Shoe Company, Detroit, Mich., has 
issued a decorated folding postal, conveying the com- 
pliments of the season. There is, of course, a reminder of 
the efficiency of the company's brake shoes at all seasons of 
the year. 

Western Electric Company, New York, N. Y., has pub- 
lished a new issue of Bulletin No. 5131, which describes in 
detail type IL motors and generators. A new issue of 
Bulletin No. 5132 has been published, describing type ELC 
interpole motors. 

The J. G. Brill Company, Philadelphia, Pa., in Brill's 
Mag a zine for December, I909> prints the twelfth of the series 
of articles describing the conditions which govern the type 
of car for city service. Portland, Ore., is the city con- 
sidered. Other descriptions of special interest are one-man, 
pay-as-you-enter cars for Brunswick, Ga., and the tramway 
system of Shanghai, China. 

Joseph Dixon Crucible Company, Jersey City, N. J., has 
published the eleventh edition of "Graphite as a Lubricant." 
Every two or three years the company republishes "Graphite 
as a Lubricant." The present edition is more compact than 
its predecessor, despite the fact that large type with liberal 
margins obtains throughout the 64 pages of the book. A 
copy of "Graphite as a Lubricant" will be sent free on re- 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., has issued the Westinghouse diary for 1910. This 
well-arranged book has been published annually for six years. 
The edition for 1910 has been enlarged, however, and the 
scope of its contents increased. An alphabetical index to 
the contents is printed on the fifth and sixth pages. The 
cover is of brown, flexible leather and bears the Westing- 
house imprint. 

Goldschmidt-Thermit Company, New York, N. Y., in the 

contents of Reactions for the fourth quarter of 1909, has 
included the following articles: "Thermit Repairs Sanc- 
tioned by Rritish Corporation for the Survey and Registry 
of Shipping," "Tests of Thermit Welds," "Australian-Ther- 
mit Company, Ltd.," "Pulley Repaired in Wilds of North 
Carolina," "Chromium: Its History and Application," "Weld- 
ing Special Work in Los Angeles." The text is accompanied 
by many excellent illustrations, one of which, a full page, 
shows a fly-wheel being hauled into position for welding a 
break in the rim. This issue of Reactions contains the 
index to Volume I I. 



Vol. XXXI. No. i 


Notice: These statistics will be carefully revised from month to month, upon information received from the companies direct, or from official sources. The table shouli 

be used in connection with our Financial Supplement, "American Street Railway Investments," which contains the annual operating reports to the ends of the various financu 
years Similai statistics in regard to roads not reporting are solicited by the editors. *Including Taxes. fDeficit. t Includes Ferry earnings up to Apr. I, 1909. 


AKRON, 0. 
Northern Ohio Tr. & 
Light Co. 

WASH. Whatcom 
Co. Ry. & Lt. Co. 

Binghamton St. Ry. 

Charleston Con.Ry., 
Oas & Elec. Co. 

Aurora, Elgin & 
Chicago Railroad. 

Chicago Railways. 

Cleveland, Paines- 
ville & Eastern R.R. 

Lake Shore El. Ry. 

Dallas Electric Cor- 

Detroit United Rail- 

Trac. Co. 

ILL. East St. Louis 
& Suburban Co. 

El Paso Elec. Co. 

Fairmont & Clarks- 
burg a Trac. Co. 

Ft. Wayne & Wa- 
bashiValley Tr. Co. 

TEX. Northern Tex. 
as Elec. Co. 


Central „Penn. Trac 

Houghton County 
Tr. Co. 

FLA. Jacksonville 
Elec. Co. 

lm., Nov. 

1 " 


1 " 
12 " 
12 " 



lm., Sept. '09 
1 08 

9 09 
9 08 





1 " 

9 " 
9 " 



1 " 



4 " 
4 " 





.1 " 
10 " 
10 " 






1 " 
1 1 " 
11 " 



1 '' 



11 " 
11 " 





1 " 
12 " 
12 " 



1 " 
11 " 
11 " 




1 " 
1 1 " 
1 1 " 

Nov. '09 




11 " 
11 " 




1 " 
12 " 
12 " 






1 " 
11 " 
11 " 



1 " 
10 " 
10 " 




1 " 
12 " 
12 " 




1 " 
12 " 
12 " 





1 " 
11 " 
11 " 




1 " 
12 " 
12 " 



1 75,743 








134 140 

lm., Oct. 

1 " 
12 " 
12 " 

570,7 1 1 






3 53,31 1 










370,71 5 




Less Op- 





894 *4, 182,788 














1 1,437 














1 10,758 




*1 57,919 






2,736,607 *1, 723, 399 
2,326,106 1,485,058 






























Milwaukee Elec.Ry. 
& Lt. Co. 

Milwaukee Lt. 
& Trac. Co. 


MINN. Twin City 
Rapid Transit Co. 

Montreal St. Ry. 

Nashville Railway 
& Light Co. 

Norfolk & Ports- 
mouth Trac. Co. 

Oklahoma City Ry, 

Paducah Traction & 
Light Co. 

Pensacola Electric 

PA. American Rys 

Brockton & Plym- 
outh St. Ry. Co. 

Portland Ry., Lt. & 
Pwr. Co. 

St. Joseph Ry., Lt. 
Heat & Pwr. Co. 

United Rys. Co. of 
St. Louis. 

CAL. United Rail 
roads of San Fran= 

Savannah Elec. Co. 

Seattle Elec. Co. 

SYDNEY, N. S. Cape 
Breton Elec. Co., 

lm., Nov. 

1 " 

lm., Nov-. 

1 " 
11 " 
11 " 

lm., Oct. 

1 " 
10 " 
10 " 

lm., Nov. '09 
1 08 
11 09 
11 08 


lm., Nov. 

1 " 

lm., Oct. 

1 " 

lm., Oct. 
.1 " 




1 " 

12 " 
12 " 

1 " 
12 " 
12 " 

Oct. '09 



lm., Nov. '09 
1 08 
5 09 
5 08 



Tampa Elec. Co. 

Toledo Rys. & Lt, 

lm., Oct. 

1 " , " 
10 " 

10 " 

lm., Nov. 
1 " 

11 " 

lm., Nov. 

1 " 
11 " 

lm., Nov. 
1 " 

11 " 

lm., Oct. 

1 " 
10 " 

lm., Oct. 
1 " 

12 " 
12 " 

lm., Oct. 

1 " 
12 " 
12 " 

lm., Oct. 

1 " " 
12 " 

lm., Oct. 

1 " 
12 " 
12 " 

lm,, Oct. 

1 " 














tl, 552,029 



























*6, 182,030 








Less Op- 


1,776,51 5 











In- I 


112,913 81,75 

101,056 79,63 

1,178,518 826,58 

1,095,286 681,23 



























1,75 , 



















Electric Railway Journal 


Street Railway^dournal and Electric Railway Review 

Vol. XXXV. 




No. 2 



McGraw Publishing Compan 

itest Stage of the Qeveland Controversy 

^itl the passage of the ordinance embodying the decisions of 
JudggjfTayler as arbitrator, preparatory to submission to the 

239 West Thirty-ninth Street, New Yob^ "„".■ 
James H. McGraw, President. 

t A*f w. » \t- tj j t a t? r j u- ti -j-^i-.'-^age- Until the referendum is taken the actual settlement of the 

.}. M. Wakeman, ist Vice-President. A. E. Clifford, 2d Vice-President*" ° 

(©oteyfii of the city, the Cleveland controversy reaches another 

Curtis E. Whittlesey, Secretary and Treasurer. 
Telephone Call: 4700 Bryant. Cable Address: Stryjourn, New York. 

Henry W. Blake, Editor. 
L. E. Gould, Western Editor. Rodney Hitt, Associate Editor. 

Frederic Nicholas, Associate Editor. 

Chicago Office 590 Old Colony Building 

Cleveland Office 1015 Schofield Building 

Philadelphia Office Real Estate Trust Building 

European Office Hastings House, Norfolk St., Strand, London, Eng. 


For 52 weekly issues, and daily convention issues published from time 
to time in New York City or elsewhere: United States, Cuba and Mexico, 
$3-oo per year; Canada, $4.50 per year; all other countries, $6.00 per 
year. Foreign subscriptions may be sent to our European office. 

Requests for changes of address should be made one week in advance, 
giving old as well as new address. Date on wrapper indicates the month 
at the end of which subscription expires. 


Changes of advertising copy should reach this office ten days in advance 
of date of issue. New advertisements will be accepted up to Tuesday 
noon of the week of issue. 

Copyright, 1910, by McGraw Publishing Company. 

Entered as second-class matter at the post office at New York, N. Y. 

Of this issue of the Electric Railway Journal 9000 copies 
are printed. 


The Latest Stage of the Cleveland Controversy 61 

Hieher Trolley Voltage 61 

Oxidized Aluminum for Motor Fields 62 

The Functions of the Purchasing Agent 62 

Arbitration Boards in London 63 

New Car House of the Capital Traction Company in Washington, D. C. 64 

Oxidized Aluminum Wires for Field Coils '. 67 

Fighting a Snow Storm in Brooklyn 68 

Power Consumption of Interurban Cars in Cleveland 69 

Static Discharge Set in Substation of Chicago City Railway 70 

Useful Chart for Making Headway Calculations 70 

New England Street Railway Club Discusses Publicity 71 

Operation of Pay-as- You-Enter Cars in Baltimore 72 

Educating the Public in Relation to Eleclric Railways 73 

Proposed Rerlin Exposition of American Arts and Industries 75 

Valuation of Public Service Corporations 76 

Calculation of Tie Lines between Street Railway Power Stations 78 

Heating and Ventilating Cars 80 

New Method of Gear Mounting 80 

Electric Glue Heater 81 

Clinch Trolley Wire Ears 81 

Automatic Overhead Switch 81 

Organization of the Ackley lirakc Company 82 

The Mid-Winter Convention 82 

Meeting of Committee on Transportation of U S. Mail 82 

News of the Week 83 

Financial and Corporate 85 

Traffic and Transportation 87 

Personal Mention 90 

Construction News 91 

Manufactures and Supplies q. ( 

negotiations between the city and the company remains in 
abeyance. The proceedings conducted in the presence of Judge 
Tayler have presaged some such terms of settlement as those 
that were actually announced so that the final details contain 
no surprising developments. In brief, the arrangement is based 
on a recent arbitrary valuation of the property, which did not 
differ materially in amount from that reported by Messrs. Goff 
and Johnson, and it allows a fixed dividend return of 6 per cent 
on the stock and prescribes a maximum and a minimum rate of 
fare. As it stands before the public for final acceptance or re- 
jection, the plan appears to be based on a determined effort to 
achieve a low rate of fare, to make the valuation such as will 
tend to that end and to inject an apparent spirit of fairness into 
the experiment by permitting a return of 6 per cent on the 
stock. If the ordinance is accepted by the people of Cleve- 
land there will be a peculiar demonstration of an arbitrary low 
rate of fare, a predetermined rate of dividend, and a service 
that must meet the requirements of the fare and dividend con- 
ditions prescribed by franchise. 

Higher Trolley Voltage 

When the poor load factor of the average railway is taken 
into consideration, power in the great majority of cases is 
being generated at very fair economy. In some stations there 
is, of course, great opportunity for improvement, but in many 
others little reduction in generating cost is to be expected un- 
less some radical change takes place in the art of power gen- 
eration. This same statement, however, cannot be made in 
regard to the current after it leaves the power station switch- 
board. It is here, in a large proportion of the cases, that there 
is great opportunity for effective savings. 

It would be a revelation in many cases to measure and valu- 
ate the kw-hours delivered to the cars, and then to com- 
pare these figures with those obtained at the generator. To 
the power station cost must be added not only the losses in 
transmission from the power station to the substations, but 
the cost of substation conversion and of low-tension d.c. dis- 
tribution. This in many cases more than doubles the cost at 
the switchboard. For instance, in a railway system operating 
300 miles of interurban track and serving a territory within a 
radius of 75 miles from the power station, the cost at the 
latter point is 4 mills, while at the d.c. feeder panels in the 
substation the cost is more than mills. It is not difficult to 
sec how this increase in cost occurs. The load factor of an 
interurban railway substation is nearly always poor, so that 
with substations of 300 kw capacity there may be a labor charge 



[Vol. XXXV. No. 2. 

of $80 a month to be set against an average output of less 
than 100 kw. 

The solution of this problem for the interurban road is not 
necessarily single-phase operation, but fewer substations to 
be made possible by using a higher trolley voltage. Single- 
phase railways have proved definitely that an overhead con- 
strultion can be built to handle economically and practically 
a high trolley potential. Whether the single-phase system or 
direct current should be adopted in any particular case de- 
pends upon a careful study of all the circumstances, including 
the distribution conditions at the terminals. Even a doubling 
of the trolley voltage would greatly reduce the number of 
substations on the average road, and would correspondingly 
increase the capacity of the substations and improve their load 

Oxidized Aluminum for Motor Fields 

The use of aluminum wire for transmission purposes is no 
longer a novelty, but until very lately no advantage had been taken 
of the great affinity which this conductor has for combining 
with oxygen to form an insulating film. In the United States 
the only practical application apparently has been confined to the 
construction of magnets and induction coils. During the past 
two years, however, several German railway companies have 
been testing the availability of oxidized aluminum as a sub- 
stitute for fiber-insulated copper in making field coils. Accord- 
ing to the report of Mr. Paulsmeier to the German Street & 
Interurban Railway Association as published in this number, the 
experiments along this line have been successful enough to make 
the permanent use of oxidized aluminum more than a possi- 
bility. In fact, the Hamburg company alone is now using over 
150 coils in regular service. 

This striking departure in railway motor construction brings 
up several interesting points. While the impulse to undertake 
these trials two or three years ago was given by the then high 
price of copper and the comparative cheapness of aluminum, 
experience with the new wire has shown that it has other ad- 
vantages than those of price. Thus the overload ability of a 
motor with the new coils is limited only by the commutator be- 
cause there is no cotton insulation to be charred from over- 
heating. A motor with oxidized bare aluminum and with in- 
sulating layers between the coils constituting a field, as de- 
scribed by Mr. Paulsmeier, should therefore have no difficulty 
in operating above the 75 deg. C. hour rating fixed by the 
A. I. E. E. rules for railway motors with cotton or similar in- 
sulation. Short-circuits appear to have been greatly reduced in 
the new motors for the very reason that they had no wire in- 
sulation which could become carbonized by heating. As a rail- 
way motor is a piece of apparatus most limited in its dimen- 
sions, it was essential also that the aluminum coils should not 
take up more space than copper coils having the same magnetic 
flux and internal resistance. The experiments made by the 
different railway companies showed that this object could be 
accomplished despite the larger mass of aluminum required, 
because no other covering than the oxide film was required be- 
tween adjoining turns of a coil. The most remarkable feature 
of the aluminum wire construction, however, is the great saving 
in weight. In the case of the 27-hp to 40-hp motors commonly 
used in German city railway service the saving amounts to 80 
lb. to 100 lb. per motor, as the new coils weigh only one-half as 
muc' as the old ones. In this country, where much larger 

motors are common, the proportionate reduction in weight per 
motor would be no lb. and 172 lb., respectively, for the GE-80 
and GE-64 types, and 124 lb. and 150 lb., respectively, for the 
Westinghouse 93 and 81 types. In any event it is certain 
that the aluminum field coil deserves serious consideration aside 
from the question of price, because it promises important im- 
provements in maintenance and weight without involving serious 
changes in the other parts of the motor. 

The Functions of the Purchasing Agent 

One of the difficult problems in the organization of a large 
electric railway is to define the powers which should be exerted 
by the purchasing agent and engineer respectively in buying 
supplies. The former, staggered perhaps by the sum total of 
the requisitions received by him from every department, is in- 
clined to buy in the cheapest market and to keep the stock on 
hand to a minimum ; the latter may be unduly impressed by the 
commanding importance of his own department and feel that 
he should have his requisitions filled promptly and on the basis 
of quality alone. 

Most purchasing agents have neither the time nor the training 
to decide on their own responsibility whether the higher price of 
an article is justified by its superior quality. The items which 
they can buy intelligently without instructions from the en- 
gineer include mainly such staples as wires and cables, but in 
these articles the prices of each grade are quite definitely fixed 
so that the choice resolves itself as to which of half a dozen 
reliable firms can make the best delivery. In other cases, the 
purchasing agent, through his superior knowledge of market 
conditions, can buy specified material from jobbers who sell at 
less than manufacturers' prices. On the whole, however, the 
great majority of the apparatus used by a railway cannot be 
bought on the basis of first cost alone without tempting bid- 
ders to a deterioration in quality proportionate to the cutting 
down of their prices. The engineer who orders a certain grade 
of line material because he has found it more reliable than any 
other is justified in rejecting inferior goods even if the pat- 
terns are the same, because he is the man who is held respon- 
sible for the maintenance of the line. Experience has taught 
him that the first cost of the equipment is a minor considera- 
tion when compared with the expense of repairing break-downs. 
It is unjust for the engineer, however, to expect that when 
large quantities of a given article are ordered for the first time 
the purchasing agent should put the requisition through without 
calling for competition. In such cases the latter should be fur- 
nished with specifications so rigidly drawn that the bidders 
will have to compete on the basis of both quality and price. 
Furthermore, if the railway company itself is not equipped to 
carry out tests on samples of the material submitted, arrange- 
ments should be made with some testing laboratory for that 
purpose. When the same items are called for on re-orders 
either for stock or emergency purposes, the requisition should 
be transmitted at once to the successful manufacturer without 
going again through the expensive and time-consuming process 
of calling for bids from everybody in the business. The street 
railway company's buyer should not be like the overzealous 
purchasing agent of a certain manufacturing company who asks 
for prices from every foundry in the city whenever a half 
dozen 6-in. wheels are wanted for the coal conveyor or who 
circularizes all the hardware dealers when a new wheelbarrow 
is needed for handling ashes in the boiler room. 

January 8, 1910.] 



Another point about which particular care should be -ex- 
ercised is- in buying unfinished parts. Where the finished part 
varies from the maker's standard, it may be worth while to do 
the finishing in the railway company's shops, but as a general 
rule it is not profitable. One purchasing agent, for example, 
insists on buying square-end bars for the track department and 
then has them pointed in his shops, although he had been ad- 
vised several times that the expense of doing this at home is 
about three times the difference in the manufacturer's price be- 
tween the square and the pointed bars. It is easy to lose a good 
deal of money through such wrong-ended economy and it 
would be well always to get an estimate from the shop super- 
intendent for finishing the journal box or other parts which can 
be bought in the rough at a lower first cost. 

In conclusion, it may be pointed out that the duty of the 
purchasing agent does not end with the placing of the requisi- 
tion. It is also his business to follow up the requisition to see 
that the articles are shipped on the dates promised and delivered 
to the proper department as soon as they arrive. There is no 
reason why the department which needs the material should be 
kept in ignorance of the progress made on its requisitions. 

Arbitration Boards in London 

Much interest has been aroused abroad in the new plan of 
the London County Council Tramways for dealing with disputes 
with employees over questions relating to wages, hours of labor 
and general conditions of labor, including matters of discipline 
or management. Reference was made in these columns recently 
to the employees' committee of the Hudson & Manhattan Rail- 
road which acts as a medium of intercourse between the men 
and the officers over them, through which suggestions for im- 
provement of the service as well as complaints are presented for 
consideration. The London plan of so-called conciliation boards 
is based on somewhat similar principles. It has been approved 
by the Board of Trade and ratified by an almost unanimous 
vote of the employees. 

Four sectional conciliation boards and one central board have 
been created. The sectional boards are made up of an even 
number of employees and representatives of the County Council 
elected for a term of three years. The central board is made 
up of an even number of representatives from each party on 
each of the sectional boards. Sectional board No. 1 is com- 
posed of representatives of the motornien and conductors, to- 
gether with the chief officer of tramways, who sits on each of 
the sectional boards, and the tramways traffic manager. Sec- 
tional board No. 2 is drawn from the shop men and depot in- 
spectors and repairmen, and the rolling stock superintendent rep- 
resents the Council on it. The power house, substation and line 
employees are represented on board No. 3, which also includes 
the tramways electrical engineer. The fourth sectional board 
is made up of representatives from the track and roadway de- 
partment and includes also the engineer of permanent way. 

Each sectional board considers only questions affecting em- 
ployees in the departments represented thereon. Before a sec- 
tional board can consider any proposal from the employees for 
a change in wages, hours of labor or other conditions an appli- 
cation for such change must be made to the chief officer of 
tramways and by him referred to the proper sectional board if 
he is not willing to grant the request voluntarily. When the 
Council proposes to make any change involving a reduction in 
wages or increase in hours a notice is 1o be posted for a rea- 

sonable time where it can be seen by all employees affected. If 
there is any objection to the change the employees may request 
that the matter be referred to the proper sectional board. 

The sectional boards are to meet not oftener than every two 
months. Their decisions are subject to appeal to the central 
board either by the Council or by the employees, or if any board 
is unable to agree, the question under consideration must be 
referred to the central board for a decision. Any decision by a 
sectional board from which there is no appeal to the central 
board is binding and no decision which has been accepted can 
be reopened within a year. This will prevent any unnecessary 
repetition in the work of the board, which otherwise might be 
kept busy considering the same complaints over and over again. 

The decisions of the central board likewise are open to an 
appeal to a single arbitrator either by the Council or the em- 
ployees, or if the central board fails to agree an arbitrator may 
be appointed by mutual consent of both sides. If an arbitrator 
cannot be selected by mutual agreement of the central board, the 
Board of Trade, representing the British Government, is author- 
ized to make the appointment. The arbitrator's decision is 
final and binding on both sides and the expense of the arbitra- 
tion proceedings is to be borne by the Council and the em- 
ployees in such proportion as the arbitrator may determine. 

The plan bears a close resemblance to the modern judiciary 
system of trial and appellate courts, including even the appor- 
tionment of the costs of bring the causes to trial. Just as the 
lower branches of the courts of law are divided into criminal, 
civil and probate divisions so the sectional boards are composed 
of representatives from the different departments, each familiar 
with the special conditions which prevail. Motormen and con- 
ductors do not pass upon the merits of questions affecting men 
in the track department or vice versa. The court of last 
appeal is the authorized representative of the Board of Trade, 
or, in other words, the British Government, and in Eng- 
land the respect for authority is profound. Of course the plan 
is designed especially for a municipal railway and its success 
depends on the integrity of both the employees and the Council 
in living up in good faith to the spirit of the agreement and 
submitting gracefully to adverse decisions when given. No 
power except that of public opinion can compel obedience to 
the provisions of such a voluntary arbitration agreement. 

The plan is particularly interesting for two reasons. One is the 
appeal provided to the general government, as represented by 
the Board of Trade. This is perhaps a logical result of the 
municipal control of public and semi-public utilities, now so 
general in Great Britain, and in this respect conditions differ 
from those in this country where the ideas of individual 
activity and responsibility are predominant. 

The other principal point in the proposed arrangement is that 
the provisions of the agreement expressly exclude from con- 
sideration in the manner described questions of discipline and 
management. But to prevent the very disagreements which 
brought the plan into existence, we believe this line must be 
sharply drawn and closely guarded against trespass. Matters of 
discipline and conditions of labor are often very closely allied, 
but all will agree that the management of a street railway, 
which is entrusted with the responsibility of its operation, must 
lie the sole judge of the acts of the employees. Discipline im- 
plies supreme authority and power to punish for cause. If this 
power is weakened by the possibility of reversal of judgment by 
some outside arbitrator, discipline would soon cease to" exist. 


[Vol. XXXV. No. 2. 


The Capital Traction Company, Washington, D. C, now has 
in use a new car house built last summer at Eighth and M 
Streets S. E., opposite the entrance to the Navy Yard. Three 
lines, including the Navy Yard-Georgetown line, terminate at 
this car house, and facilities have been provided for making 
light repairs and inspections, as well as trainmen's quarters, 
receivers' cages and superintendent's office. The building is 
unique in that it is designed to ultimately have two floors over 

Washington Car House — Transfer Table in New Section 

the entire area, the second floor to be used for storing cars out 
of service. It occupies an entire block, and is 251 ft. x 289 ft. 
10 in. in dimensions. Reinforced concrete construction on 
the Johnson system has been used throughout for the pit walls, 
columns, roof girders and slabs. The walls are of red clay 
brick outside and white sand lime brick inside. A wooden- 
frame, brick-walled car house, 97 ft. wide and containing nine 
storage tracks formerly occupied part of the block, and the 
walls of this old structure have been retained in the enlarged 
building, as they were high enough originally to accommodate 
two floors. The concrete pits, second floor and roof, however, 
are new, and were designed to be uniform with those in the 
new section of the house adjoining. 

The house is of the transfer table entrance type, which is 
well adapted to underground conduit operation because of the 
saving over the cost of complicated slotted special work. The 
streets surrounding the car house on three sides are narrow and 
a track entrance would have required the sacrifice of as much 
or more storage space within the building lines as the single 
transfer table pit. A loop running track around the entire block 
allows unrestricted movement of through cars, which turn at 
this point, and on three sides of the building a second loop 
track has been built inside of the running track. The two 
entrance tracks at each end of the building turn out from this 
inside loop track. The inside loop track serves to hold cars 
awaiting their turn to be run into the car house, and also re- 
moves all entrance track switches from the outside loop or 
running track. 

Two conduit entrance tracks run through the house just west 
of the partition wall. All the other tracks on the ground floor 
of both sections of the house have open pits below them with 
the exception of the tracks next to the partition wall on each 
side and the two tracks next to the old east wall, which have 
concrete flush floors, and are used for storage of trailer cars. 
Between the transfer table pit and the north wall of the house 
all the tracks are on a 2 per cent grade, descending toward the 
transfer table. Cars are run in on the transfer table, which 
is spotted opposite the desired track, and are then started from 
the table under their own power for a run up the 2 per cent 

grade. It is seldom necessary to attach the pit leads to the 
plows in order to run the cars even to the extreme end of the 
house. The light trailers are pushed off the table by hand. In 
getting cars out of the house they are allowed to drop down 
to the transfer table by gravity. Along the south wall of the 
house are two short pit repair tracks in the old house and nine 
pit tracks and two surface tracks in the new section. These 
short tracks are all on level grade. The total storage space 
in both sections is sufficient to accommodate 142 of the com- 
pany's new standard double-truck cars, 43 ft. long over all. 
The first floor of the old section will hold 34 cars, and the sec- 
ond floor 40 cars. The first floor of the new section will hold 
68 cars, and when the second floor is added at some future 
time 70 cars can be stored there. A larger number of the old 
single-truck motor and trail cars, of course, can be stored in 
the building, as long as they are kept in service. 

The second floor of the old section contains eight long 
surface storage tracks and seven short tracks, all on a level 
grade. It is served with a transfer table running in a pit, 
which will ultimately be extended across the present roof of 
the new section when a second floor is added. The transfer 
table is reached by an incline track along the east wall, ewter- 
ing the building from the street at the north end, and rising 
1 n a 6.4 per cent grade. The entrance track conduit is con- 
tinued for a distance of 32 ft. into the building, and terminates 
in a plow pit, beyond which the incline track has a flush rein- 
forced concrete floor between and outside of the rails. Motor 
cars will be run up the grade under their own power by mak- 
ing jumper connections, the same as when on the pit tracks. 
The incline is supported by reinforced concrete columns on 
the inside and by the outside wall, into which the ends of the 
cross-girders are gained. 


The repair bay, for making running repairs, is located in the 
south end of the old section adjoining the superintendent's 

Washington Car House — One Bay in New Section, Show- 
ing Aisle Sprinklers 

office and trainmen's quarters. It contains two tracks 40 ft. 
long and spaced 12 ft. center to center, which are supported in 
an open pit 5 ft. deep on reinforced concrete pillars 10 in. x 
12 in. at the top. The shop floor is level with the top of the 
rails. Adjoining the shop, but separated from it by fire walls,, 
is an oil room 13 ft. 6 in. x 21 ft. 6 in. Above the oil room, on 
a mezzanine floor, is a sand-drying and dry-sand storage room. 
On the second floor, immediately above the dry-sand storage 
room, is a wet-sand storage space, and on the roof above this is 
a 3S,ooo-gal. water tank connected to the sprinkler system. The 
dry sand is drawn by gravity through a spout leading down to 

jA&itJARY 8, I9IO.] 



the ground floor alongside the easterly entrance track. The 
sand boxes on outgoing cars can be filled from this spout with 
the minimum of labor. 


The offices are located on the ground floor in the southeast 
corner of the old section. The entrance is through a vestibule, 

opening off of which is the receiver's office. Beyond the vesti- 
bule is a large nun's room. The superintendent's office is in 
the corner of the building and has a projecting bow window, 
from which a view north on Eighth Street can be had. A well- 
appointed toilet room adjoins the superintendent's office. From 
the nun's room a stairway leads up to the second floor, and 



'ear inc '■ rei utrtft 

r tir g Ci ts 

Washington Car House — Plan of Second Floor of Old Section 

Washington Car House — First Floor Plan of Old and New Sections 



[Vol. XXXV. No. 2. 

another leads down to the base- 
ment under the offices, in which 
a heating furnace has been in- 


One transfer table serves both 
sections of the first floor of the 
house, and another serves the 
second floor. The first floor 
table runs in a pit 30 ft. wide 
and 2 ft. 10% in.' deep. It was 
built in the company's shops, and 
is a duplicate of the tables in- 
stalled in the Fourteenth Street 
car house of the Capital Trac- 
tion Company, which were I illus- 
trated and described hi the 
Street Railway Journal of 
Dec. 21, 1907, page 1164. The 
table runs on three pairs of rails 
laid to 4-ft. 8^-in. gage, and is 
driven by a GE-1000 motor, 
which is geared to a shaft cor- 
responding to a car axle. This 
shaft, in turn,, is geared to the 
three axles on the motor side 
of the table. A friction wheel 
on the driving shaft and a band 
tightened on the wheel with 
a lever and ratchet holding de- 
vice serve as a powerful and 
easily controlled brake. Current for 
operating the driving motor and for 
energizing the conduit conductors on the 
table is obtained through shoes sliding 
on a protected third-rail mounted along 
the walls of the pit. The transfer table 
on the second floor runs in a shallow pit, 
as no provision has to be made for 
conduit plows, which are removed be- 
fore ascending the incline. 


The present roof of the new section 
was designed to ultimately serve as the 
second floor of the building, and con- 
sists of reinforced cinder concrete slabs 
4 l / 2 in. thick, supported by concrete 
cross-girders. A monitor skylight, 18 
ft. 2 in. wide, has been built over the 
transfer table pit, and another, 22 ft. 9 
in. wide, over the entire length of the 
second longitudinal bay from the parti- 
tion wall dividing the old and the new 
sections. These skylights are only tem- 
porary, and the cross-girders have been 
built in below them, so that when the 
second story is added the skylights can 
be removed and floor slabs built in be- 
tween the girders. As the second floor 
will be on a level grade no slope could 
be given to the flat roof to drain off 
water. Drainage has been provided for, 
however, by a unique plan. The roof is 
divided into rectangular sections, each 
of which is drained toward the. center 
by banking up lean cinder concrete sur- 
faced with tar at the corners to a depth 
of 14 in. The water draining toward the 
center is drawn off through down spouts 
emptying into sewer connections below 
the pit floors. When the second story 

January 8, 1910.] 



is added the cinder concrete banking can be scraped off of the 
slabs, leaving a level floor. 


The car house has been completely equipped with automatic 
aisle sprinklers in the longitudinal bays and curtain sprinklers 
along the transfer table pits. The aisle sprinkler heads are 
attached at intervals of 7 ft. to pipe lines suspended from the 
ceiling girders at about the height of the tops of the car win- 
dows. One line of sprinklers extends down the center of each 
bay, but no heads are installed in the aisles between tracks 
from which the concrete roof columns rise. Three curtain 
sprinkler heads protect the end of each bay at the transfer table 
pit. The sprinkler system which was installed by the Inter- 
national Sprinkler Company, Philadelphia, Pa., is supplied with 
water from a 35,000-gal. tank on the roof over the oil and 
sand storage. As an additional precaution against the spread 
of a fire in the new section, an 8-in. hollow tile fire wall has 
been put in between the fourth and fifth bays. 


Liberal window space has been provided in all the outside 
walls of the building, and the temporary skylights in the roof 
of the new section provide additional daylight. The addition 
of a second floor at a later time, however, will cut off the 
daylight from the inside bays and require the use of lamps 
both day and night. Incandescent lamps of 16 cp are used for 
general illumination, but enclosed arc lamps are also hung 
from the ceiling over the transfer table pits. The lighting 
circuits are arranged on the three-wire system and throughout 

7" r FfaU - 80 Lb 




t 11 J 




' PLate 

1 t 

Washington Car House — Details of Pit Columns in Shop 


the building are run in iron conduit. For lighting the aisles 
the conduit is tied underneath the sprinkler pipes and the lamps 
are mounted in condulet sockets spaced about 25 ft. apart. 
This arrangement is the same as that used in the Fourteenth 
Street car house of the company, where it has proved very 
satisfactory from the standpoint of both illumination and 
maintenance. The pit lamps are also mounted in condulet 
sockets and are set in recesses spaced 50 ft. apart and staggered 
on opposite walls of the pits. 

The buildings were designed and erected under the supervi- 
sion of J. H. Hanna, chief engineer, Capital Traction Com- 
pany, to whom this paper is indebted for the drawings and 
information from which this description was prepared. 

— : >ff** 


In th« article entitled "The Sign of the Times," by Thomas N. 
McCarter, president, Public Service Corporation of New Jer 
sey, published last week, a typographical error occurred on 
page 16. The author is quoted as saying: But I do not have 
enduring faith in the ultimate common-sense of the American 
people," etc. Actually the sentence should have read: "Did I 
not have enduring faith in the ultimate common sense of the 
American people, and in the resultant attitude of their law- 
making representatives, I would unhesitatingly recommend 
allowing one's money to remain in a savings bank-, drawing 4 
per cent interest, rather than in an inveslmenl of the eharactci 
of which f have spoken." 


An interesting paper was presented at the September, 1909, 
meeting of the Vereins Deutscher Strassenbahn-und-Kleinbahn- 
Verwaltungen (German Street & Interurban Railway Associa- 
tion) by Mr. Paulsmeier, a Hamburg engineer, on experiments 
recently made in Germany with oxidized aluminum wire for 
railway motor field coils. The author pointed out that hitherto 
the electrical uses of aluminum had been limited because its 
conductivity is only 59 per cent that of copper. Hence the 
aluminum wire must have 1.7 times the cross-section of copper 
wire for the same resistance and length. This would make it 
impracticable to use aluminum in apparatus where space is a 
factor if it were essential to employ some form of fiber in- 
sulation as with copper coils. It has been found possible, how- 
ever, to take advantage of the property of aluminum to take an 
oxide film known as alumina. The resistance of this oxide film 
is sufficient to prevent short circuits between parallel adjoining 
wires in the same winding, where the differences of potential 
do not exceed 0.5 volt. Some other form of insulation is re- 
quired, however, between successive windings owing to their 
greater difference of potential. When oxidized coils are made 
in this way they can be used to replace fiber-insulated copper 
coils of like strength within the old dimensions. It is also 
possible to save space and secure a better distribution of me- 
chanical strains by using square wire instead of the round 
copper wires customary in small railway motors. A successful 
aluminum-wound motor means lighter weight, lower first cost 
and absence of short-circuits as caused by the charring of cotton 
insulation. The decrease in maintenance cost applies particularly 
in the case of railway motors because their insulation is most 
likely to be disintegrated by shock. 

At the time of Mr. Paulsmeier's report 11 railways were using 
aluminum field coils and others were preparing to experiment 
with them. Some of the pioneers used round wire and others 
employed square wire. Some had fiber insulation on the wires 
throughout while others used plain oxidized wires with layers 
of paper, asbestos, fiber or linen between successive coils. 
Several made no change in the internal resistance and the num- 
ber of turns while others sought only to have the internal re- 
sistance as before. Eight companies stated that the aluminum 
coils developed no defects whatever. In one case a company in- 
stalled on March 17, 1907, four bare-wire field coils of which 
two proved defective. Here one failure was due to a short- 
circuit between two coils separated by linen and the other to a 
similar occurrence between adjoining turns. The other two 
coils have never given any trouble. A second company reported 
that there were superficial short-circuits, but only when the 
fields were first placed in operation, and a third Stated that there 
had been short-circuits between adjoining windings. 

The Hamburg street railway system began to try aluminum 
field coils in June, 1908. The coils were furnished by two com 
panies and were installed in their respective motors without 
preliminary tests. It was soon discovered that the motors 
fitted out by one company had greatly decreased in their tractive 
effort and hence the coils were removed. The other company's 
coils, however, did not cause any important change in the 
motor performances although their internal resistance exceeded 
that of the replaced copper. After 10 months' service an ex- 
amination disclosed the fact that the second company had sup 
plied fiber-insulated aluminum. The insulation was badly car- 
bonized, but as there was no evidence of short-circuits, the coils 
were continued in service. Apparently both manufacturers had 
used fiber over the oxide film merely as a precaution. 

In 1909 the Hamburg railway purchased a number of square 
wire coils for use in GK-800 motors. Two of them had short- 
circuits, but investigation showed that the trouble arose from 
the distortion and shiftily of the coils in the formers. This 
was easily remedied and after successfully using too of such 
coils in 30 motors the Hamburg company ordered 52 coils more 
To determine whether these oxidized wire windings undergo 
any changes in operation, each coil was given a number before 



[Vol: XXXV. No. 2. 

installation and carefully tested, especially as to resistance. 
When these tests were repeated several months later the coils 
showed no deterioration and in fact some of them had im- 
proved, presumably because they had not been thoroughly dried 
out at the time of installation. 

The advantages asserted for the aluminum wire, whether bare 
or fibre insulated, are particularly those of lower first cost and 
reduced weight. As for the item of cost, the real difference be- 
tween aluminum and copper is not considerable if due allowance 
be made for the high scrap value of the latter metal. With 
regard to weight, however, it has been iound that even in the 
moderate-sized street railway motors used abroad it is possible 
to save 80 lb. to 100 lb. per motor, as the coils weigh only about 

pressures corresponding to service conditions. The only ob- 
jection to the present apparatus is its inability to test the coils 
unless they are first removed from the motor case. The com- 
pany, however, is now perfecting a means of testing the coils 

in the case. 


On Dec. 25 and 26 New York was visited by an unusually 
severe snowstorm. The first flakes appeared about noon on 
Dec. 25, but the snowfall did not begin in earnest until 5 p. m. 
According to the officials of the weather bureau, the total pre- 
cipitation was 10.1 in., but unfortunately the snow was accom- 

Bucking a Drift on the West End Route to Coney Island View Along West End Line After Opening for Service 

one-half as much as those of copper. Mr. Paulsmeier believes 
that the troubles incidental to the introduction of any new 
method had been overcome. He states that even if the life of 
the aluminum coil did not exceed that of copper it would pay to 
use the former. 

The presence of short-circuits in aluminum coils is indicated 
in service by decreased tractive effort, fuse blow-outs and 
poorer operation of the short-circuiting brakes. Most com- 
panies try out their coils through current, voltage and resistance 
measurements. The Hamburg company has devised a simple 
apparatus to test the comparative magnetic strength of 

panied by a gale from the northwest which reached a maximum 
of 58 m.p.h. at midnight on Dec 25 and remained at about 45 
m.p.h. on Dec. 26. One of the worst sufferers from the storm 
was the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company, which has a con- 
siderable part of its mileage in the thinly settled territory be- 
tween Brooklyn and the beaches. The unexpectedness of the 
storm and the fact that it occurred on Christmas day when 
many men were on holiday leave made it exceptionally difficult 
to keep the lines open even in the settled portions of the city. 
As soon as the storm gave the first indications of severity, the 
transportation department sent out hurry calls for the plow and 

Following in the Wake of the Locomotive Plow 

new and defective coils. The principal element is an iron core 
which is excited by the coil under test. The magnetized core 
attracts an armature attached to a spring scale. Thus the 
pointer on the scale will show the effect of connecting into the 
railway circuit a coil carrying a load of, say, 40 amp. It has 
been found unnecessary to test the field coils under mechanical 

Electric Freight Locomotive Fitted for Snow Fighting 

sweeper crews and the mechanical department bent every effort 
to get hold of the men assigned to care for the snow-fighting 
machinery. There were available from a total of 17 surface dis- 
tributing depots 40 sweepers and 26 plows. The latter apparatus 
included two rotary plows and four pneumatic plows. 

The actual snow-fighting operations were -directed by the 
management, including the superintendents of the elevated and 

January 8, 1910.] 


surface lines while the superintendent of the mechanical depart- 
ment was on hand to furnish at least one mechanic for each ma- 
chine and to direct emergency repairs. Provision had been 
made also for an emergency repair gang at the Fifty-second 
Street surface shops so that crews reporting breakages could 
have spare parts supplied and forwarded without delay. In 
fact, only one plow was permanently disabled and this occurred 
because of a broken steel side-sill. The wrecking cars were also 
kept busy as quite a few passenger cars were derailed through 
being lifted bodily by the masses of snow packed between the 
rails. Naturally, these accidents seriously delayed the progress 
of the snow-fighting machinery. The worst blockades occurred 
in the open country where the wind piled the snow on the tracks 
in immense drifts. It was impossible to restore full service on 
some of these outlying roads until Dec. 29. 

The conditions which were encountered between Brooklyn 
and Coney Island by the trains of the elevated division may be 
conceived from the accompanying illustrations. In past winters 
even heavy snowstorms were successfully fought simply by 
running trains of empty motor cars up and down the line with 
out using any plows or sweepers. In this case, however, the 
heavy cross-wind piled up the snow so fast on the open sec- 
tions that the cars were helpless until the wind had greatly 
diminished in velocity. Very effective work was rendered by 
the company's electric freight locomotive No. 4 which had been 
fitted with a nose composed of two wings of No. 6 steel plate 
4 ft. high and 9 ft. 1 in. long. These wings were long enough 
to extend over the exposed current rail on either side but 
could not come into direct contact with the latter owing to the 
interposition of wooden blocks set in angle irons. The locomo- 
tive weighs 7 tons and is equipped with four 150-hp motors. 

The foremen of the different snow-fighting gangs had full 
authority to provide their men with all necessary food and drink 
from the most accessible restaurants without charge. The men 
were paid from the time they were called for duty until they 
were relieved. As an example of the difficulties encountered on 
Dec. 25, it may be mentioned that four girl telephone operators 
at the company's main switchboard remained at their posts for 
18 to 20 hours before members of the relieving staff could reach 


Through the courtesy of F. W. Coen, vice-president and 
general manager of the Lake Shore Electric Railway, addi- 
tional information is available in regard to the method of 
conducting the tests in Cleveland to determine the power con- 
sumption of interurban and city cars within the city limits, 
the results of which were published on page 1020 of the issue 
of this paper for Nov. 13. The test of the power consump- 
tion of the city cars, shown in Table II, was made over the 
entire routes used by the interurban cars while on the city 
tracks, and the results as given in the table were an average 
of 2.8516 kw-hours per car-mile and 126.6454 watt-hours per 
ton-mile. The test of the power consumption of the inter- 
urban cars, shown in Table I, was for a portion of this mile- 
age only, or that within the city limits, and the results were 
2.8982 kw-hours per car-mile and 91.5207 watt" per ton-mile. 
A second test was then made to determine the consumption 
of the interurban cars over I he routes for which the city 
cars had been tested, and the results were about 3 per cent 
lower than those for the tests of the city cars; that is, they 
showed for the interurban ears 2.7854 kw-hours per car mile 
and 88.2')Q3 watt-hours per ton-mile. 

Preliminary surveys have been made for a projected elec 
trie railway between St. Petersburg. Russia, and Imatra. 

A proposal has been made to convert to electric operation 
all of the railways on the Isle of Wight The plan has met 
with the approval of the municipal authorities on the island 


At several of the substations of the Chicago City Railway, in 
which loco-kw and 2030-kw rotary converters are used, a unique 
form of trouble with static electricity has been experienced and 
corrected during the past two years. The static discharges 
caused severe arcing from the a.c. collector rings and the d.c. 
bus rings to the boltheads and other grounded parts of the 
rotary-converter frames. In some instances the sparks from 
these discharges broke down the insulation on the bus rings 
and jumped an air space of 1^4 in. to ground. As a remedy 
S - so. 000 Ohms /fes 

"naaa (VW — 1 


300 Amp 
End Fuse 

DP 35 Amp. 
4 Srtap switch 


Lamp Socket - 
for MiiiL-ammeter 

Diagram of Connections of Static Discharge Set 

electrolytic arresters were installed for each machine, and so 
far they have apparently stopped the disturbances. 

When the trouble first appeared it was thought that the high 
voltage might be due to surges on the a.c. cable lines which 
feed the substations. Attention was given first to the condi- 
tions at the Sixty-third Street and Wentworth Avenue sub- 
station where there are three 2000-kw and three 1000-kw Gen- 
eral Electric rotary converters. Current is received through 
five three-conductor, lead-covered underground cables having 
an average length of about 7 miles. Tests were made with 
spark gaps and with voltmeters to see whether or not the flash- 
ing might be due to line disturbances, but no unduly high poten- 
tials were thus found, so the engineers in charge of the investi- 
gation concluded that the flashings about the rotary commuta- 
tors were due to static disturbances. A condition in opposition 
to this view was that the outgoing lines distributing the current 
taken from the rotary commutators were fully protected with 
lightning arresters inside the station. On the d.c. switchboard 

Static Discharge Set of Chicago City Railway 

at the Sixty-third Street substation there an- nearly 40 feedet 
sections and each outgoing trolley 'feeder is protected with a 
GE M.I), lightning arrester, and the station busbars are simi 
larly protected. The spark gap point's are set less than % in 
apart. At first thought, therefore, it seemed reasonable that if 
the revolving parts of the rotary converters were heavily 
charged with sialic electricity the large number of lightning 
arresters on the outgoing feeders should serve to carry the. 
static charge to ground. As they did not do so, though known 
to be in good condition, the following conclusion was reached : 



[Vol. XXXV. No. 2. 

The surface of the armalure of a 2000-kw rotary is enormous 
compared with the surface of the positive connection between 
the d.c. bus rings and the switchboard buses, and the feeders to 
which the lightning arresters are connected. Hence, the accumu- 
lated static charge on the machine is throttled in its passage 
to the switchboard by the small area of this positive connection 
and finds a more direct path to ground by puncturing the tape 
insulation on the bus rings and jumping across nearly 2 in. of 
air space to the grounded frame of the rotary. 

This explanation of conditions seemed sound to the investi- 
gating engineers and they next looked for some means which 
would serve to offer a continuous discharge path for the ac- 
cumulation of static charge from the positive bus ring direct 
to ground. Representatives of the General Electric Company 
suggested the use of aluminum-cell, electrolytic lightning ar- 
resters, and the installation of one pair of these arresters for 
■ each rotary converter at the substation has been the means of 
preventing the recurrence of the static discharges between bus 
rings and grounded parts of the machine. Two 250-volt cells 
are connected in series between the bus ring and ground. Each 
cell has a balancing resistance of 20,000 ohms connected around 
it. The cells were first tried without this resistance, but it was 
found that the continuous discharge between the elements would 
unbalance the resistance of the cells so that one might have an 
apparent drop of, say, 220 volts 
and the other 330 volts, thus bring- 
ing about a heating of the cell with 
the higher drop. By the addition 
of the 20,000-ohm resistance in 
shunt with each cell the drop 
across the two cells is balanced, 
and with the cells at 250 volts no 
heating occurs due to the continu- 
ous passage of the dynamic cur- 
rent of less than 1/30 of an ampere. 
The condition of each cell is tested 
about once a month to see if the 
j current being discharged is normal. 
A lamp socket has been installed to 
provide an easy way for inserting 
a plug carrying ammeter terminals 
and obtaining a reading of the 
amount of current passing through 
the cells, to ground. A check is 
also kept on the temperature of 
the* cells, as this gives a good in- 
dication of their condition-.-. 

When . the first electrolytic* ar* 
resters were installed at the Sixty- 
third Street substation, special care 

was taken to make the connections as direct as possible 
and to use as large conductors as though a lightning ar- 
rester was being installed. These precautions have since 
been found unnecessary and now. the cells are con- 
nected with the bus rings by No. 6 wire enclosed in iron 

A 30-amp capacity non-arcing enclosed fuse forms a part of 
this circuit, and as this fuse is held in clip terminals it also 
serves as a switch for cutting the electrolytic cells out of cir- 
cuit. The fuse, resistance coils, the two cells, the lamp socket 
for the ammeter connection and a double-pole snap switch for 
cutting the socket in series with the cells are all mounted on a 
panel and shelf built of gray slate, 1^ in. thick, 13 in. high 
and 22 in. wide. One such static discharger set is installed in 
the machine pit under each rotary converter. In placing the 
sets care was taken to mount them at one side under the edge 
of the floor so that should any undue disturbances take place no 
damage would be done to the rotary converter. 

Until these static discharger sets were installed the trouble- 
some sparking occurred rather frequently at the Sixty-third 
. Street substation. It is now just a year since this substation 
was equipped with the sets here described and there has not been 
a single recurrence of the trouble. 


H. M. Wheeler, assistant chief engineer, Chicago Railways 
Company, has developed a chart which he has found useful in 
studying schedules and determining feeder capacities. The 
chart is a valuable aid in any railway engineering or trans- 
portation office. For example, if the schedule speed on a line 
is known and any one of the following quantities— headway in 
seconds, headway in feet* cars per mile — is given, all the others 
of these quantities may be obtained quickly by reference to 
chart. This chart also is useful in showing the absurdity of 
some assumed schedule conditions. 

The accompanying reproduction of the chart as used in the 
engineering office of the Chicago Railways Company shows the 
principal curves and some auxiliary lines used for demonstra- 
tion. In the use of the chart the variable quantities are head- 
way in seconds, headway in feet, or distance the cars are 
apart, and the number of cars per mile. The chart is 
drawn with rectangular co-ordinates and the abscissas rep- 
resent either headway in seconds or cars per mile. The or- 
dinates represent feet. The derivation of the curves and their 
practical use follow : 


The hyperbola is first located on the co-ordinate paper. This 

(U 1150 

BO 25 20 35 40 45 50 55 
ScaLe: Headway crt seconds 
Cars per mile 

Chart for Making Headway Calculations 

hyperbola is known as the cars-per-mile curve and by definition 
the product of the abscissa and ordinate for any point on such 
a curve equals a constant. The equation for this curve is 
XY = 5280, where X = cars per mile and Y = distance apart 
in feet. The method of plotting is to assume, say, X = 10 cars 

per mile ; then, Y = ■ = 528 ft. = the distance between cars. 


By erecting perpendiculars at X = 10 and Y — 528, one point 
(P) of the curve is located. Similarly if 30 cars per mile are 


operated Y = = 176, and plotting as before, PP is found 


as another point on the equilateral hyperbola, or cars-per-mile 
curve. In practice the curve is constructed graphically by laying 
off multiples and submultiples, after the point P has first been 

With this curve and knowing either the distance between cars 
in feet or the number of cars per mile, the other quantity is 
easily found by projection. If, for example, it is known that 
there are five cars on a certain mile of track, the distance be- 
tween those cars is found on the chart by erecting a perpen- 
dicular from the point 5 on the horizontal scale to the point of 

January 8. 1910.] 


intersection with the hyperbola, PPP, and extending a horizontal 
to intersect the vertical scale where the distance between cars is 
shown to be 1056 ft. 

With the cars-per-mile curve plotted, the next step is to estab- 
lish on the chart other lines, the location of which will include 
the element of time (headway in seconds) for the horizontal 
scale, and the element of distance (feet) for the vertical scale. 
These additional lines will then show graphically the headway 
between cars at known speeds per hour. The same scale is em- 
ployed, so that the headway between cars, reckoned either in 
time (seconds) or in distance (feet), may be used jointly with 
the. curve showing the relation between the number of cars per 
mile and the distance between these cars. In establishing the 
cars-per-mile curve the horizontal scale is divided to indicate 
cars per mile. In establishing the headway lines the same sub- 
division of the horizontal scale is used to indicate time (headway 
in seconds). To reduce miles per hour to feet per minute we 

have M = 88 M = ft. per minute when M = m.p.h. As- 


sume that it is desired to establish the headway line for cars 
traveling at 10 m.p.h. Then the distance apart of these cars 
on a one-minute headway is 88 X 10 = 880 ft. Thus, for 10 
m.p.h., 880 ft. is the distance headway corresponding to the 
time headway of 60 seconds. Erecting perpendiculars from 
the 60 second mark (A) on the horizontal scale and from the 
880-ft. point (B) on the vertical scale, the intersection is found 
at K. By derivation then, K is one point on a 10-m.p.h. head- 
way line. Next draw the line OKL and assume that this is the 
10-m.p.h. headway line and that if perpendiculars are let fall to 
the base line from any point on OKL, the length of these per- 
pendiculars, according to the scale of co-ordinates used, will in- 
dicate the relation between the headway in feet and the headway 
in seconds for cars traveling at 10 m.p.h. It is apparent that so 
long as the speed of the cars is constant, changes in the headway 
in seconds bring about changes in the headway in distance. 

To prove that the line OKL truly represents the relations be- 
tween headway in seconds and headway in feet, take any other 
headway in seconds, such as OZ, laid out on the same horizontal 
scale. Next, draw the line ZN. Now the triangles OAK and 
OZN are similar; whence OA:OZ = AK :ZN. Thus, with the 
fixed miles per hour line (OKL), it is seen that the headways in 
seconds or in feet represented by perpendiculars dropped from 
any point on this line are proportionate to the headways rep- 
resented by the perpendiculars dropped from any other point on 
the line ; and as the ratio between the headways represented by 
the lengths of- the perpendiculars is constant, 10 m.p.h., this is 
the 10-m.p.h. line. 

Lines to represent other headways are laid off with the 
dividers by using multiples and submultiples on any vertical. 
In practice they are laid off at the extreme right of the diagram 
so that the error may be kept at a minimum. 


The practical use of this chart will next be considered. Sup- 
pose a schedule of 10 m.p.h. is to be established and knowing the 
headway to be 40 seconds it is desired to learn the number of 
cars per mile and the distances that these cars are apart. The 
unknown quantities are found by reference to the chart in the 
following manner: A perpendicular is erected from the point 
40 to intersect the 10-m.p.h. line at M. A horizontal is pro- 
jected from M to the vertical axis AT. Reading the vertical 
scale it is found that the distance between cars will lie 587 ft. 
Next, from the point Q where the line MN intersects the hyper- 
bola, a perpendicular is dropped to intersect the horizontal scale 
and it is found that approximately nine cars will be operated 
in a one-mile section. 

The load on a trolley section may then be found by multiply 
ing by the length of the trolley section the number of cars per 
mile. This gives the total number of cars operating on the sec- 
tion. Then by multiplying by the load per car the total load on 
the feeder is found. 

This chart also is useful in quickly determining how close to 
each other cars may be operated and what the headway in 

seconds will be. The process of using the chart will be iht 
same for the latter problem, except that the headway in feet will 
be assumed rather than the headway in seconds 


Mr. Wheeler has devised another chart which is used for 
quickly reading cable drops. In general but two sizes of trolley 
feeder cable are used by the Chicago Railways Company. These 
are the 1.000,000 circ. mil and the 500,000 circ. mil sizes. A load 
of 75 amp per car is used in calculating drops. First the drop 
through each of the two sizes of feeder is found for the con- 
venient distance of 8000 ft. A chart is then laid out with rect- 
angular co-ordinates. The abscissas are feet, from zero to 8000. 
and the ordinates are drop in volts for the load of one car. The 
calculated drop in each size of cable is plotted on the 8ooo-ft 
ordinate and a line is drawn from each point so located to the 
origin. Since the drop is proportional to the distance the drop 
for any distance less than 8000 ft. may be obtained quickly with 
the dividers. 

In determining the drop between a cable tap and two sub- 
stations (A and B) feeding a trolley section over unlike dis- 
tances and through cables of different capacities the following 
method is used : The load is assumed to be concentrated at the 
point where the two feeders join the trolley. In practice the 
connecting cable from this point to either substation is made 
large enough to carry the entire load with one of the substa- 
tions out' of service. Assuming that substation A is inopera- 
tive, then V will represent the drop from substation B to the 
feeding point. Similarly with substation B cutoff v will repre- 
sent the drop from substation A; then if the two substations are 
operated in parallel the drop to the common feeding-in point 
V v 

will be . This formula, it is noted, is similar to and may be 

V + v 

proved in the same way as the formula for the combined resis- 
tances of two conductors in parallel. Where two lines of track 
intersect, the car headway resulting from the combination- of the 
headways on the two originating lines can be determined by the 
same method. In other words, if H equals the headway on one 
car line and /; equals, the headway on another line and these 

H h 

two lines merge, the resulting headwav will be . 


The December meeting of the New England Street Railway 
Club was held at the American House, Boston, on the evening 
of Dec. 30. The paper of the evening was on "Educating the 
Public in Relation to Electric Railways" by James H. McGraw. 
president of the McGraw Publishing Company. An abstract 
of the paper will be found elsewhere in this issue. As Mr. 
McGraw was prevented by illness from attending the meeting, 
the paper was presented by Henry W. Blake. 


Lee H. Parker, Stone & Webster, Boston, opened the discus- 
sion by inquiring what the results had been in the way of in- 
creased traffic upon the London Underground Railway, follow 
ing the advertising campaign described by the paper and illus- 
trated in the posters. 

George Sabin Brush, Boston Elevated Railway Company, said 
that he had recently heard from General Manager Albert II 
Stanley, who had written him, that an increase of [5 per cent 
tn 20 per cent in the tariff is attributed l<> the advertising con 
conducted by that company. 

M. V. Ayres, Boston & Worcester Street Railway Company, 
commented upon the completeness of the paper and its interest 
at this time. Ever since the panic the question of stimulating 
traffic had been of more than ordinary importance, Public- 
service corporation officials stand in a different relation to the 
public than the heads of departments in other lines of busi- 
ness It is most important thai the public be educated to 



[Vol. XXXV. No. 2. 

maintain a sentiment favorable to the companies. Human 
beings are largely creatures of habit, and in recent years the 
public in some cities have acquired an unfortunate habit of 
picking flaws in the transportation service. One can pick flaws 
in anything, for that matter, but this is not an attitude to en- 
courage. It is not uncommon for people away from home to 
boast about the high buildings, broad streets, parks, rivers, 
etc., in their city. If they have a good electric railway system 
they should be equally proud of it, and it is an excellent plan 
to educate them to know when they are getting good service. 
This means lower verdicts from juries in accident cases, bet- 
ter co-operation from the local police authorities and their 
subordinates, help from the newspapers, fewer adverse bills 
introduced into the Legislatures, and less obstruction of de- 
sired improvements from municipal authorities. Mr. Ayres 
closed with the recommendation that electric railway men 
give the newspaper representatives a cordial welcome and ac- 
quire their friendship. In this way much can be done to elimi- 
nate the "featuring" of accidents in staring headlines on the 
front page, while good points about the system are relegated 
to a remote corner of the paper and printed in small type, as 

A vote of thanks was then passed to Messrs. McGraw and 
Blake for the presentation of the paper, and the meeting ad- 


On Saturday, Jan. 1, the United Railways & Electric Com- 
pany, Baltimore, Md., successfully inaugurated service with the 
pay-as-you-enter cars described in the Jan. 1 issue of the 
Electric Railway Journal. The introduction of the cars was 
preceded by a brief but vigorous publicity campaign in the cars 
of the company and in the daily newspapers. 

The two large posters reproduced were prepared for dasher 
and inside use, respectively, and placed on all lines. The first 
poster gives directions for boarding the car, depositing the 
fare, entering the car and leaving by the front exit. There is 
also a rear exit, but the passengers are being educated to use 
it only in emergencies. The second poster announced the date 
•of opening of the service on the Pennsylvania Avenue line, and 



Get on by 
rear platform ~ {Jb * 

step markediN. <y£ 
Have exact fare in 

hand when board i ng 

and deposit in fare-box.^J^ 
Enter car as soon as fare v^t 

is paid and move forward. %J* 
Leave car by main exit — 

front platform. THE UNITED RAILWAYS & ELECTt 
Poster Displayed on Dashboards of Cars 

also gave boarding and alighting directions. Besides this, the 
company distributed a folder which contained a floor plan of 
the pay-as-you-enter cars, together with a half-tone illustra- 
tion of one of the cars and views showing the proper use of 
the rear and front platforms. The text of the folder was 
printed in English,, German, Jewish and Italian, since Balti- 
more has become quite as cosmopolitan as New York. To 
insure reliable translations, W. A. House, president of the com- 

pany had these polyglot folders printed in New York. Most 
of the English portion of this novel folder was arranged to 
explain the benefits and principles of the pay-as-you-enter cars 
in parallel columns, as follows: 


Board car only at rear plat- 
form by step marked "In." 

Have exact fare in hand and 
deposit in fare-box; have 
ticket or transfer (unfolded) 
and hand to conductor. 

Ask for transfer on paying 
fare. Persons desiring in- 
formation or money changed 
should step to extreme rear of 
platform, so as to allow other 
passengers with exact fare to 
pass into car. 

Passengers will leave car by 
front exit, getting off at step 
marked "Out." The small 
right-hand rear doorway is 
an emergency exit ; when nec- 
essary to use it, leave car 
through conductor's compart- 
ment and get off rear step 
marked "Out." 

As it is necessary to keep 
both platforms clear for en- 
trance and exit of passengers, 
smoking is not permitted. 
Packages are not to be left on 
rear platform. 

By the intelligent co-opera- 
tion of the public, the company 
will be able to raise the stan- 
dard of service on this line to 
the highest excellence yet at- 
tained in street railway opera- 
tion. . . 

United Railways & Electric Company 

The company also printed .a booklet containing special rules 
and instructions for the government of dispatchers, receivers 
and carmen in applying the pay-as-you-enter system of fare 
collecticn with cash boxes. In the sections addressed to the 
motormen and conductors, particular stress is laid on the pre- 

benefits of p-a-y-f. cars 

Conductors are not permit- 
ted to leave their compartment 
on rear platform ; as a conse- 
quence jostling of passengers 
by conductors when collecting 
fares is eliminated and the 
danger of premature starting 
of cars is overcome. 

Since passengers are not al- 
lowed to ride on rear platform, 
the crowding of the doorway 
by smokers — a particularly ob- 
jectionable feature to ladies — 
is corrected. 

By separating the avenue for 
boarding cars from those for 
leaving it, ingress and egress 
are orderly and without con- 
fusion, while the stopping 
time at corners is reduced by 
nearly one-half. 

Through restricting passen- 
gers to interior of car, the 
carrying capacity is reduced ; 
consequently the company will 
be required to operate more 
cars, thereby insuring a larger 
proportion of seats to the pa- 


Will be put 

in service on 




Passengers will please— 
Have exact fare in hand 

when boarding; car. 
Get on by rear platform step marked "IN." 
Leave by front doors. 

Car Poster on Pay-as-you-Enter Service. 

vention of accidents made possible by the better control of 
the platforms. This booklet was also illustrated with a plan 
and platform views of the cars. 

Engineers of the Chilean Government are making prelim- 
inary plans for the electrification of the first section of the 
Government Railways from Valparaiso to Santiago, 115 miles. 

January 8, 1910.J 





Public sentiment is a power. How to enlist that power in 
our cause is a subject that may well occupy our careful atten- 
tion this evening. 

President Shaw in his admirable address at the Denver Con- 
vention referred, among other things, to the magnitude of the 
electric railway industry as well as to the vast army of men 
who are directly affected by the prosperity or lack of pros- 
perity existing in the electric railway industry. The six States 
represented by this club possess 17 per cent of the aggregate 
number of cars and 13 per cent of the miles of track in the 
United States. If we also include, as Mr. Shaw did, those 
who are engaged in the manufacture of electric railway ap- 
paratus and the investors in any or all of these various under- 
takings, the number of men in New England who are inter- 
ested in the material development of the systems and in the 
proper direction of public opinion as regards their real con- 
ditions of operation, the percentage is undoubtedly vastly 
larger than in either of the two comparisons made above. 

Publicity appears, on analysis, to mean "all things to all 
men." There is a dictionary definition, but the strict meaning 
of the word is not so good for our purpose as a consideration 
of the subject from the practical commercial standpoint; that 
standpoint is the one which concerns us directly. My defini- 
tions will be, if you please, business definitions, based upon the 
results of application of the policy of publicity to the affairs of 
electric railways. It seems to me that from this point of view 
there are three definite lines of action, the adoption of any one 
of which may affect the revenues and therefore the prosperity 
of a street railway property. 

First: The publicity which aims simply to advertise the 
service; that is, to increase the business. 

Second: The publicity which aims to make the public 
familiar with operating problems and with certain aspects of 
■questions bearing on taxation, fares and transfers. 

Third: The complete publicity through commissions which 
prevails in some States, notably in Massachusetts, New York 
and Wisconsin. 

Of course, it is impossible to give publicity in any one of 
these distinctive forms without approaching the other forms at 
some points, but on the whole the three separate types of pub- 
licity stated indicate tolerably well the present practice of our 


The earliest form of publicity is the first, that which is de- 
signed to advertise the service. In the early days of electric 
propulsion the facilities available did nut justify extensive 
advertising, although almost any kind of a safe, dependable 
conveyance was something of a public convenience and neces- 
sity. Since that was a fact 20 or 25 years ago, it must be 
plain that companies of the present day, having infinitely more 
to give in service and equipment, have so much mure to promise 
patrons in return for the still small fare, and it becomes a 
business error to overlook the opportunity. 

Good advertising assures publicity. Whether a street rail 
way has anything to offer which it can advertise with profit 
to itself is not a debatable question. The only argument rests 
on the extent of the advertising campaign and on the time and 
manner by which the utmost results can be attained through a 
fair expenditure of energy, money and brains. 

The reasons which control the answer to this question must 
be many and varied. They relate to the mileage of the rail- 
way system, the natural attractions reached, the proximity of 
the business and residence sections, the character and habits of 
the population and many other features. Other questions are 
involved than those which relate to the financial expenditure 
required for an advertising campaign Anyone can see thai 

•Abstract of paper presented at meeting of the New England Street 
Kailwny Club, Boston, Dee. jo, 1900. 

a system operating 450 miles of track has an advertising prob- 
lem radically different from that which confronts the 12-mile 
road. Rut it requires a little more thought to differentiate in 
advertising between an industrial population and a community 
in which there is a large proportion of property holders. The 
large system may do its mere advertising of service so effective- 
ly that it will greatly increase the long-haul travel and 
thereby make a possible loss, when its facilities might other- 
wise have been employed in handling a smaller amount of 
very profitable short-haul traffic. During his brief control of 
the Cleveland Railway, Mayor Johnson made many mistakes 
from an operating standpoint, and one of them was that when 
he experimented with a low rate of fare, thinking that it would 
attract short-haul traffic, he failed to give sufficient service to 
accommodate short-haul passengers. 

In planning an advertising campaign designed to increase the 
patronage, it may safely be assumed that some of the residents 
of the one or more communities reached have little knowledge 
of the ways in which the service can add to their convenience 
or pleasure. The questions then to consider are these : What 
particular part of the service, what line, what facilities, what 
advantages can be advertised in order to develop the increase 
in the patronage which shall be the most profitable to the com- 
pany? Each branch of the service should be taken up, one after 
the other, to determine whether the full measure of public 
patronage is being secured. Is the company getting all that it 
should of summer pleasure travel? Do the schedules enable 
substantially all the passengers who reach or leave the city on 
the steam railroads to find cars at convenient times and places? 
Can any improvement be made in the existing service between 
steam railroad terminals and hotels, as well as outlying sec- 
tions of the city, so that more travel will be secured? How 
many fares are lost every day because the people who would 
take short trips can save time by walking instead of waiting 
for a car? Local conditions govern the attendance at parks, 
but it has been found in some instances that unless a satis- 
factory attendance develops early in the season no large volume 
of amusement travel of this character will be realized. If that 
is the general experience, the best time to advertise the park 
is early in the season. 

The real question which we want to consider seriously, how- 
ever, is the art of directing public attention to the everyday 
facilities offered by the railway company. I believe that the 
best foundation for an advertisement lies in the quality of the 
service. Let the people know that the service is good ; and 
let the advertising be so timed and displayed as to impress the 
greatest possible number of riders or prospective patrons. Suc- 
cessful advertising of street railway service, like that of a 
manufacturing commodity, must he alive and interesting. But 
the performance must always square with the product. 

A great many companies have gone extensively into the 
business of publishing circulars to encourage traffic, and some 
of these circulars are as elaborate as those issued by steam rail- 
road companies. While there may be some doubt as to the 
best character of advertising literature and the method of its 
distribution, there can he none as to the general principles in- 
volved. The electric road is always up against the fact, how- 
ever, that its average fare is 5 cents against the very much 
larger Slim per passenger of the steam railroads. 


Comparatively little has been done in this country in the way 
of poster advertising. This fact is my excuse for referring 
somewhat at length this evening to the advertising poster cam 
paign recently carried on in London by the Underground Elec 
trie Railways Company, Ltd., which has undoubtedly done 
more in this direction than any other electric railway com 
pany. [The paper then presented an account of the methods 
ol advertising followed in London. About 23 large posters 
anil a collection of circulars used in thai city were ex 
Ilibited. The latter included a 54 page pamphlet sold for 2 
pence containing a map of London in sections, a colored map 
of the Underground lines and connecting street railways and 



[Vol. XXXV. No. 2. 

an index of the underground railway stations, public buildings, 
amusement places, hotels, etc. There was also a penny pamphlet 
with a map of the system and its suburban connection, brief 
illustrated descriptions of the sight-seeing points in and about 
London, and a list of the principal theaters, clubs and steam 
railroad terminals in connection with the nearest subway sta- 
tion. The free pamphlets included one of the pleasure resorts 
in and about London with information on fares ; a book folder 
on places of interest in the city, giving the conditions of ad- 
mission when open and to what points tickets should be bought ; 
book folders containing season ticket rates showing map and 
list of excursion fares, including admission to Earl's Court; 
map with list of principal places of interest and subway inter- 
change stations ; guide to the schools and colleges ; guide to 
the churches and chapels; time table with list of the railway 
terminals ; individual pocket cards giving time-table of late 
theater trains with map of theater districts; monthly diary of 
events in and around London with rates of fare schedules of 
non-stop service ; schedule of bus service connections at subur- 
ban terminals, and a colored book map of the London tubes 
printed on linen backing.] 


The second aspect of the phases of publicity which we are 
considering is a development of recent times. It is a result 
of the onslaught against corporate management which has been 
so serious a feature of our business life lately. What was the 
position of the corporation in the years that preceded these 
attacks? Its voice was never heard in defense or explanation. 
Now the time has come to talk. A campaign against corpora- 
tions finds support because the public does not understand the 
operating and financial problems with which the managers of 
these properties have to deal. It is easy to say that all the 
properties are over-capitalized and pay excessive profits and 
that fares are too high. This and more has been said and be- 
lieved by a large element of the public in more than one com- 
munity. Any politician with a grievance who wanted a follow- 
ing could secure it with ease by talking against public service 
corporations. Now, these corporations, standing on their legal 
rights, can refuse to answer such attacks. But wiser policies 
are prevailing and to the recognition of publicity as a means 
for education of the public is due, in part, the progress in the 
understanding regarding corporate affairs which has taken 

The misunderstandings between the public and the street 
railway are almost wholly due to ignorance on the part of the 
public as to the details and difficulties of traction operation and 
management. If the public is educated through publicity, and 
its confidence is gained, half of the troubles of a public utility 
company are over. The public knows nothing about the 
troubles of the public utility company. It only sees a stream of 
nickels pouring into the company's treasury, and it often be- 
lieves that some desired or objectionable feature of service is 
either refused or maintained out of indifference to the public 
desires. In almost every case of this kind the demand or 
opposition could be satisfied by explanation. This applies with 
equal force to such problems as taxation and transfers, details 
of service, and to labor problems. Publicity can secure public 
support in a labor controversy, or it can prejudice the whole 
community against the company. 

Some of the deeply rooted notions and prejudices which have 
been developed in relation to the profitableness of great rail- 
way enterprises would be ludicrous if they were not serious. 
People assume that street railway companies pay taxes, but 
generally have no knowledge of the large sums extracted from 
these properties not only in direct taxation, but indirectly in 
the kindred nature of public benefits. The ignorance of the 
public has not been confined to these questions alone. Trans- 
fers have been distributed with so free a hand that the public 
has never considered their value. The man who rides 2 miles 
to his office every morning does not realize the large number 
of people who ride several times this distance. If a car is 

accidentally delayed, the neglect of the company in allowing 
such accidents to occur is regarded as a wilful offense. If cars 
are not operated on a headway calculated to meet the personal 
convenience of each passenger, there are many who cherish 
ill feeling. 

This .condition arises partly from a natural tendency on 
the part of many to exaggerate every evil, apparent or real, 
and to ignore or belittle the good that is being done. I doubt 
whether any of those present has ever seen a news story to 
the effect that there has not been a single accident on his 
lines for 30 days. But if one of his cars bumps a wheel off 
a wagon to-morrow the occurrence will be chronicled on the 
front page of the newspapers. This illustrates the necessity for 
systematic publicity that will tell the good news along with 
the bad news. 

There are two points of contact between the company and 
the public, so far as this branch of publicity is concerned, of 
which I will speak briefly to-night. One is the newspapers, the 
other is the employees themselves. 

The subject of the relations of public utility companies with 
the newspapers is a very broad one, and I do not mean to go 
fully into it. But it is undeniable that newspapers make public 
opinion, and it therefore follows that some steps are necessary 
to secure a fair presentation of public corporation affairs in 
the newspapers. This is a condition ; not a theory. I need not 
discuss the desirability of this condition of affairs. It exists 
and is to be dealt with just as any other situation, desirable or 
undesirable, is to be met and handled. In some cases this 
educational work can be accomplished by no greater expense 
than the salary of, the publicity man. In other situations the 
company must pay for advertising space in which to tell its 
side of the story. 

The secret of this kind of advertising is first to emphasize 
the fact that the company has nothing to conceal from the 
public in the way of its earnings or details of operation, and 
second, that in return the company expects to receive from the 
public its necessary co-operation, as well as equal fairness in 
its judgment upon matters connected with the company. 

In this, as in all general publicity work, the company must 
act as though the public was in Utter ignorance of its service. 
If it does this the assumption will not be far wrong. The 
average manager is too close to his work, and knows too much 
about it to realize how little outsiders know 

The choice of a man for carrying on this kind of publicity 
\vork is all important. Daily newspaper men have the best 
equipment for the job, but not every newspaper man can do it. 
It requires a "news sense," plus a knowledge of how public 
opinion is formed, plus the capacity to grasp the corporation 
viewpoint. The duties of such a man, however, will not be con- 
fined to preparing announcements of this kind. Indeed, on 
most roads and at most times his immediate work would be 
that of supplying the public, press and others with informa- 
tion and facts in regard to the company and its facilities as may 
be required. 

One would suppose, for instance, that everybody in Phila- 
delphia knew how to reach the Wissahickon district, the north- 
ern section of Fairmont Park. But the publicity man of the 
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company discovered that the Park 
Department received frequent telephone requests for informa- 
tion as to means of reaching various points. He had a post- 
card map made showing the line to the Wissahickon district 
and advertised that the map could be had for the asking. The 
next day there were hundreds of requests by mail and in per- 
son for the map, and these applications have kept up steadily 
for two months. 

Of course, the principal desideratum in work of this kind is 
not necessarily that there should be a special man with the 
title of publicity agent or manager, but that there should be an 
orderly and systematic manner of taking care of legitimate 
requests for information, for anticipating these requests when 
possible and for seeing that the company's side of any public 
question is properly presented. Sometimes this work can be 


undertaken by the manager, but on many roads he is too busy 
to attend to it. Whoever has it in charge should necessarily 
be in touch with the policy of the company in regard to matters 
of publicity and be easily accessible by the newspapers. 

The president or general manager who does not take a long 
reach, so to speak, and utilize to its fullest extent the kind of 
publicity of which I have just been speaking, and does not 
know what others are doing in this respect, is not fair to him- 
self, or to his company, or to the industry at large. 

The second point of contact between the company and the 
public is through the employees. The officers of an electric 
railway company see and meet a few only of the patrons of the 
company, but the conductors meet them all, and the impression 
which they convey to the public as regards fairness, intelligence 
and politeness is usually that which the public attributes to the 
company as a whole. It is somewhat disquieting for any person 
to feel that his reputation for these qualities has been entrusted 
into the hands of another, and still more when given into the 
hands of several hundreds or thousands of others. But this, 
to a large extent, is inevitable on every electric railway system. 
It is a condition which we cannot avoid, but which we can con- 
trol and improve. 


The third form of publicity to which I have referred is that 
required by law in regard to access to the company's records 
by commissions representing the public. In Massachusetts the 
commission has in addition broad recommendatory and manda- 
tory powers, while in New York and Wisconsin the commis- 
sions are acting under laws which, according to their interpre- 
tation, confer the most important mandatory powers respecting 
all vital questions of management, finance and operation. The 
question which I am to discuss in this connection, as I under- 
stand my topic, is not to differentiate between the powers con- 
ferred by law upon these respective commissions, or to take 
up the character of their work, but to consider the extent to 
which this kind of publicity is in the public interest. 

Let us look back a few years. The construction of street 
railway properties in the early stages of development of these 
enterprises was a rich field for the promotor. But as time 
passed these properties became more and more monopolistic in 
character until, to-day, in most communities it is regarded as 
in the public interest to have one corporation in control of all 
of the urban railway facilities. The program of construction, 
development and sale of railway properties in the future must, 
therefore, be confined largely to properties in new, or compara- 
tively new, districts which are now without adequate railway 
facilities. I do not mean that there is no longer a place for 
the promoter of street railways. Without the promoter, many 
electric railways which provide indisputable facilities would 
never have been constructed. Every project of this nature in- 
volves elements of business risk which only promoters and the 
capitalists whom they are able to enlist appear to be willing to 
assume at the initial stage. While the promoter therefore will 
find opportunity for construction as new sections of the country 
are opened to settlement and as population increases in exist- 
ing districts, which were now without urban and interurban 
facilities, it will be found that for the great majority of ex- 
isting properties safety and conservatism point the way to 
operation as differentiated from promotion. It is better for all 
concerned that street railways should be considered as going 
properties with a fixed investment without excessive over- 
capitalization and that no community should have the right to 
destroy capital investment. A reasonable return should be al- 
lowed on the investment in the business with compensation for 
unusual efficiency of management. These conditions are more 
likely to prevail where the public knows the truth about the 
property than where the essential points arc buried in mystery, 

Taken by itself, publicity of all the intimate details of the 
accounts and records of properties of tin's character will not, 
cannot, create ideal conditions. The mere passage of a law, the 
mere creation of a commission, the making public of records 
pertaining to financial and operating questions will not create 
ideal conditions, but the careful use of opportunities vested by- 

law in a conservative commission may be made to redound to 
the benefit and protection of the public interest. This public 
interest of which I speak cannot be confined to the interest of 
the traveling public in the common acceptance of the term, but 
must include also the equal interest of the investing public and 
of that class of the public which constitutes the officials and 
employees of the corporation. 

Until this new development became a feature of our govern- 
ment, in some States many of the advocates of commission rule 
believed that public utility rates generally were too high and 
that the consuming element of the community needed protection 
from excessive rates. The real fact of the matter is that in- 
quiries into the cost of operation have led to discoveries which 
have been astounding to many and in more cases have led to 
increases rather than to decreases in rates. In a number of in- 
stances the public has been getting its transportation for years 
at less than a fair cost, plus a reasonable return. Since our 
interest lies in the perpetuation of these railways as solvent 
properties, we can but admit that wise commission rule may 
tend to that end. 

Electric railways have been fortunate in having had a fair 
investigation of some of these problems. So long as govern- 
mental inquiry is conducted carefully and a wise control is 
exercised over properties which have been subject to many 
vicissitudes in the past, the ultimate outcome should be bene- 
ficial. It should lead inevitably to a final swing of public senti- 
ment toward a far better understanding of corporate rela- 
tions than previously existed. And public sentiment, once 
gained, is a controlling element in the success or failure of any 
business enterprise, corporate or individual. 


Finally, I do not advocate publicity as a royal road to public- 
favor and support. Every electric road has lubrication troubles, 
no matter how much oil and grease it buys. But no road would 
think of trying to operate without any lubricant. Publicity 
work is much the same way. When properly directed it will 
increase the receipts; it will bring about a better understanding 
between the company and the public ; it will assist the com- 
pany to gain a fair hearing in cases of conflict, public, private 
and political, and it will help to secure unprejudiced juries in 
accident cases. The life of a street railway man will never be 
an easy one. But publicity of the kind I am talking about will 
make his work much easier than it can ever be in an atmosphere 
of criticism and hostility. 


Plans are now under way to hold an exposition of Amer- 
ican products in Berlin, Germany, during the months of June, 
July and August, 1910. The projectors are receiving the en- 
couragement of the highest officials and prominent citizens of 
both Germany and the United States. The American commit- 
tee which has been organized, with headquarters at 50 Church 
Street, New York, has already issued a prospectus outlining 
the scope and practical advantages of the exposition. It is 
pointed out that the cost of exhibiting will be reduced to a 
minimum, as the German Government will waive the customs 
duty on all goods not sold eventually, and the Hamburg-Amer- 
ican and North German Lloyd steamship lines will grant a 
freight reduction of 30 per cent on exhibits both ways. Fur 
thermore, each exhibitor will have to pay only one fee, which 
will cover space, lighting, decorations, packing, policing, in- 
surance, advertising in (he official catalog, etc. This absence 
of extras will save the exhibitors considerable expense and 
annoyance, besides enabling them to calculate their costs aecn 
rately in advance. 

B, S. Josselyn, as president of the Portland Railway, Light 
& Power Company, has contributed $7,500 toward the expense 
of the Rose Festival to be held in Portland from June ft to 

10, TOIO. 



[Vol. XXXV. No. 2. 



The value of a railway lies not in its physical property, but 
in the use of that property. Value begins with use and in- 
creases as use increases. 

The things that secure a broad, extensive and profitable use 
are, therefore, the things which give value to a railway. 
Among these are : 

t. The location of the railway with reference to natural re- 
sources producing traffic. 

2. The location of the routes selected with reference to eco- 
nomical construction and service. 

3. Suitable construction and equipment. 

4. Such combination of capital and labor, and efficiency of 
management as will secure the maximum traffic per dollar of 

Unless there be a profit beyond the investment return, there 
is no reward for the conception of the undertaking, its eco- 
nomical construction, the subsequent additions of improved 
machinery and appliances, the introduction of economies of 
operation, nor the maintenance of harmonious relations with 
the public and connecting lines, all of which are necessary to 
secure the greatest amount of traffic per dollar expended. 

The following questions present themselves: Can a "fair 
valuation" be made? By what method should it be reached? 
For what practical purposes can it be used? By whom should 
it be undertaken ? 

"Valuation" seems to relate to "value" and a "railway valua- 
tion" would seem to be a process of ascertaining "railway 
value." Value, however, is a ratio in exchange ; that is to say, 
in commerce. Value, then, is an incident of commerce, and 
cannot exist without it, and to qualify the term "value" by the 
word "commercial" is superfluous, for all value must be com- 
mercial. When it is proposed, therefore, to undertake some- 
thing which is not to be a "commercial valuation," it is plain 
that the thing to be ascertained, whatever it may be, cannot be 
"value." The thing now proposed is not new, although its 
advocates have been pleased to give it a new name. What 
they are really proposing is to ascertain "cost of reproduction 
less depreciation." 

Through laying undue stress upon the present value of mate- 
rial in place, much confusion has arisen regarding the elements 
entering into value. This is caused largely by using the term 
"physical valuation" instead of "present cost of reproduction." 
This confusion has become so great that many regard the pres- 
ent value of material in place as constituting the only element 
in such value. Little attention has been given to value de- 
rived from use. It is unfortunate that so well known a phrase 
as "cost of reproduction" should give place to one which is 
little understood and has already proved misleading. 

Nothing is clearer than that the present agitation does not 
contemplate an ascertainment of the actual value of the prop- 

It would seem only wise and prudent to determine, before in- 
curring the enormous expense incident to ascertaining the cost 
of reproduction, what relation, if any, it will have to the 
valuation of the railway; that is, to determine how such cost 
will be used in arriving at value. If it can be used (and I do 
not to-day say it can), then consideration must be given 
to the elements that enter into the cost of reproduction. The 
plan now most generally advocated is that which has been fol- 
lowed by the several States that have undertaken a valuation 
of railways. Such valuations were undertaken originally for 
taxation purposes. There are differences not only in the 
methods followed by the several States, but there are many 
items which, as yet, have not entered into the valuation by any 
of the States and which should receive proper consideration. 
Among the items that have been ignored or inadequately 
treated are : 

♦Abstract of paper presented at a joint session of the American 
Economic Association and American Political Science Association, New 
York, Dec. 30, 1909. 

I. Cost of surveys. 2. Rate of interest during construction. 
3. Discount on securities sold. 4. Cost of material. 5. Cost of 
labor. 6. Excavation and embankments. 7. Contingencies and 
contractors' profit. 8. Effect of machinery on cost of con- 
struction, y. Carrying charges. 10. Impact and adaptation. 
11. Special conditions affecting cost. 12. The cost of progress. 

The cost of reproduction is a matter of individual opinion. 
Xo engineer in estimating on the several important items of 
construction work for the year will come within 10 per cent 
of the total aggregate cost. Many of the more important 
items are frequently underestimated from 25 to 50 per cent. 
If experienced engineers, knowing the local conditions, cannot 
estimate the exact cost, how can those without special knowl- 
edge be expected to do so. An especially good illustration is 
that of the Panama Canal. The original estimate of the cost 
of engineering and construction work was $139,705,200, but 
the present estimate is $297,766,000 (page 18, President's mes- 
sage to 61st Congress), and it is probable this cost will be 
greatly exceeded. 


The Interstate Commerce Commission, even while advo- 
cating valuation, does not contend that after it has been accom- 
plished, the regulating authority can proceed generally to 
utilize the results as a basis for rate-making. 

We see that even in the suggestions of Prof. H. C. Adams 
and of the commission, the question of cost of reproduction 
occupies but a very small place in the process of determining 
the reasonableness of a rate. 

Bearing in mind that the power to regulate railway charges 
rests wholly upon the fact that the railway is a common car- 
rier, and extends no further than the power to control the 
charges of any common carrier, let it be supposed that an 
individual operating an express wagon upon a public highway, 
as a common carrier, has invested in his business the sum of 
$5,000, and that he performs, within a particular period, 500 
services at a uniform rate of $1 per service, and at an oper- 
ating expense of 50 per cent of his gross receipts, thus leaving 
$250, or 5 per cent for the return to capital. Assuming the 
rate of $1 to be reasonable under these conditions, let us 
inquire : 

((/) Does the rate become unreasonable if the introduction 
of operating economies reduces the operating ratio to 25 per 
cent, leaving 7^ per cent for return to capital? 

(b) Does the rate become unreasonable if, with no increase 
in capital, the number of services and the operating expenses 
are both doubled, with the result that capital earns 10 per 

(c) Upon the additional assumption that one-half of the 
capital was originally borrowed at 5 per cent, does the rate 
become unreasonable if the loan is renewed at 3 per cent, 
leaving 7, per cent upon the portion of capital actually supplied 
by the individual conducting the business? 

If anyone is disposed to answer the foregoing questions, or 
any of them, in the affirmative, he should do so with a full 
understanding that his answer commits him to the principle 
that those who engage in public service industries are not 
entitled to the rewards that naturally spring from superior 
management. If this doctrine should be established, there 
would be little basis for the hope of further improvement in 
the methods of public transportation. 

The truth is that neither the industries of the country aside 
from the railways, nor the railways themselves, could exist 
under rates calculated from a "valuation" upon any such basis 
as that proposed. It is not meant by this that there is no 
case in which such a method could be applied without complete 
disaster, but it is asserted that the general adoption of such a 
method of rate-making is impracticable. The retail merchant 
may endeavor to add a uniform percentage to the wholesale 
price of the goods which he sells, but this desire always yields 
in the face of competitive conditions, for the price must always 
be one at which the goods will sell. Under some conditions 
rates must be made which do not produce what on every other 
consideration would amount to a "fair return upon thf fair 
value of the property." 

January 8, 1910.] 



'1 he phrase "what the traffic will bear" is generally mis- 
construed to mean "all that the traffic will bear." What it 
does mean is : "All that "some of the traffic will bear." It 
can be safely stated that "all the traffic will bear" is charged 
only in cases where it is found necessary to make reductions 
from the normal rate in order to permit the traffic to move 
at all, and that the charge of "all the traffic will bear" is 
not made for the purpose of securing an excessive rate for the 
service performed. 


The system of accounts promulgated by the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission makes it impossible that cost of property 
and par of outstanding securities should be equal. They ex- 
pressly forbid the capitalization of many construction items 
amounting to $200 or less. 

That system establishes depreciation accounts but makes no 
provision for appreciation. It provides for the arbitrary with- 
drawal from the accounts of the cost of property prematurely 
withdrawn from service through additions and betterments, 
undertaken for purposes of improving the service or more 
economical operation, and does this without regard to whether 
capital has been reimbursed for its investment. It does not 
encourage economical operation, but does offer a premium to 
any road which increases the cost of property per dollar of 
revenue received; that is, it encourages a result directly con- 
trary to all economical principles. It does not encourage com- 
petition, but does make the strong roads stronger and the weak 
roads weaker. 

It requires the carriers to pay out of earnings many items 
which should be capitalized. For such of the items as repre- 
sent property "abandoned to make way for providing the 
public with better facilities," the statistician of the commis- 
sion admits that there is merit in the argument of the stock- 
holder that the cost of progress should be capitalized. Not- 
withstanding this, the commission ignored the claims of the 
stockholder and did so against the unanimous recommenda- 
tion of the Railway Accounting Officers, and without granting 
any formal public hearing. 

A good illustration is the question of increasing the tonnage 
capacity of the track. This can be done by either reducing 
the grades or building additional main tracks. If the grades 
are reduced, a large percentage of the cost must be charged to 
operating expenses. If additional main tracks are constructed, 
all the cost must be capitalized. By reducing the grades, the 
capacity of the line can be doubled and the business handled 
with fewer locomotives and fewer engine and train crews. 
No such reductions can be obtained through the construction 
of additional main tracks. 

The suggested future use of the present cost of reproduction 
without a reinventory, but by a process of addition and sub- 
traction, is equivalent to saying that the present cost of re- 
production can be ascertained by applying a similar process 
of addition and subtraction to the original cost of the property. 
Neither that plan, nor the system of accounts promulgated by 
the commission, gives due consideration to the effect on capital 
caused by the premature withdrawal of facilities in the in- 
stallation of betterments for increasing the productive capacity 
of the plant. They provide for the systematic taking away 
from the investor of a portion of the capital which he has 
invested, without in any way securing to him a commensurate 
return. In no instance do they provide lor appreciation in 
either the selling price of real estate Or in other elements en 
tering into the value of the railway as a going concern. What 
could make the risk to capital more extensive? 

Actual figures will not be continued 011 t lie asset side of the 
balance sheet, bill some theoretical prices and figures deter- 
mined by a "rule of thumb." The only actual cost figures to 
be continued on the asset side will relate to non-physical prop- 
erty. Thus we see that, although the Interstate Commerce Act 
authorized the commission to prescribe a system of accounts 
that only contemplated :i record of the acts of the carrier, 
they have attempted Q system of control, which would permit 
then fn substitute fictitious fur actual transactions. 

I he commission has had no duty to perform which has been , 
or is likely to become more important than the preparation of 
a system of accounts for the carriers. This work was dele- 
gated to others. While some carriers were consulted by the 
statistician, those to whom the work was delegated made a 
number of recommendations to the commission which the 
carriers believed would seriously affect their ability to interest 
capital or improve their property to meet the increasing de- 
mands of commerce. These recommendations were adopted 
by the commission against the protest of the carriers, and they 
most emphatically denied the request of the carriers that a 
public hearing be had before the promulgation of any system 
of accounts. 


While asserting "that the public is in partnership in the 
public service industries," the scheme of valuation fails to recog- 
nize that all partners are expected to bring something of value 
and share proportionately in both the losses and the profits. 
Professor Adams' scheme, if carried out, would not only 
cause the investor in railways to stand the loss from any 
possible reduction in the estimated cost of replacement or in 
the operation of his plant, but would give to the public any 
profits that might arise over and above an investment return. 
It does not, however, contemplate that the users of transporta- 
tion shall share with the railway investors, any profits that 
may arise in their business over and above an investment 

Has capital assumed no risk, and has its reward been un- 
duly high ? The processes of liquidation through which many 
roads have passed, answer the first part of this question. The 
average return to-day on securities outstanding (which mem- 
bers of the Interstate Commerce Commission, the President of 
the United States and other persons of authority have pub- 
licly stated undoubtedly represent approximately the present 
value of the properties) is not over 4 per cent. 

It should not be inferred that the railways object to having 
a valuation placed upon their properties. In effect such valua- 
tions are daily attempted with greater or less success by sub- 
scribers to new issues of securities and even by those who 
invest largely in securities heretofore issued. There is, how- 
ever, serious objection to an incomplete and misleading valua- 
tion bearing the stamp and carrying the weight of Govern- 
mental sanction, which can be of no practical advantage to the 
Government, the public, or the railways; but may easily injure 
the public and the railways by disturbing the confidence of the 
former and hampering the activities of the latter. It seems 
very clear that such a valuation as is proposed would be wholly 
useless to the Government for any practical purpose, because 
it would omit so many factors essential to any fair appraise- 
ment of the worth of the enterprises as going concerns. The 
only purposes suggested are for : 
a Rate-making. 
b Control of security issues. 
c Taxation. 

(a) For rate-making. — Unless the Supreme Court overrules 
its well-considered decisions, such partial valuation cannot 
possibly form the basis of determination of any rate or rates, 
general or special. 

(b) Control of security issues. — No such control is as yet 
vested in the commission, nor can it be under the Federal 
Constitution. There cm, therefore, be no advantage in secur- 
ing such ;i valuation to facilitate the performance of a func 
tion which does not now and probably never will exist. 

(c) It is assumed that the taxation referred to i.s Federal 
taxation, with regard to which it may be briefly said: (l) A 
partial and unequal valuation could not be the basis of a fair 
tax. (2) The Congress has already elected to tax all cor 
porations, including railways, upon their net profits; to which 
a physical valuation can have no conceivable relation. (3) If 
111 future other methods of taxation should be proposed, to 
which ;uiy valuation is relevant, it will then be soon enough 
to provide for a valuation which will harmonize with tin 
system under consideration. 



[Vol. XXXV. No. 2. 



Fig. 1 

In a street railway system of a large city reliability of serv- 
ice is of prime necessity. Such a system is usually served by 
a number of power houses or substations, and the question 
of connections between stations is of considerable importance. 
The object of interconnecting the stations is to reduce the 
liability of a complete shutdown on those trolley sections fed 
from a given station if the station should be disabled. By in- 
stalling tie lines current may be fed into the disabled station 
from others to which it is connected. The simplest way to 
accomplish this would be to have between stations several 
cables or "trunk tie lines" of such total carrying capacity that 
the current fed into the disabled station from the adjacent ones 
would be any desired fraction of the total station capacity. 
Under normal operating conditions these ties would serve 
as equalizers between the various stations. 

The investment for such ties would be quite large and essen- 
tially the same results may be secured by selecting a number of 
the more important trolley sections and feeding them from two 
stations. The feeders to these chosen sections should be de- 
signed so liberally that on the whole system, in case of the 
shutdown of one or two stations, a considerable proportion of 
the load could be carried on the remaining stations through 
these tie lines. The sections to be chosen for ties depend en- 
tirely upon local conditions, but in general those upon which 
the continuity of service is most important should be selected, 
for if one station is shut down or one feeder is disabled the 
cars on the section could still be 
operated from the other station 
by means of the second feeder. 
No general figure can be given 
which will indicate the per cent 
of station loads which should be 
provided for in the capacity of 
the tie lines, for the addition of these lines to the feeder sys- 
tem should be looked upon as an added investment in the 
nature of insurance against interruption of service, and a de- 
cision as to the proper amount to spend would depend upon 
the importance attached to the continuity of service. 

The calculations of all feeders are, of course, based funda- 
mentally upon Ohm's law, but the writer has found it very 
convenient, especially in calculating tie lines, to utilize two 
corollaries which are derived from this fundamental relation. 
The first of these is that the maximum drop, measured from 
one end of a uniformly loaded conductor, is one-half the drop 
produced by an equal total load concentrated at the distant end 
of the conductor. Or, stated in another way, the maximum 
drop on a uniformly loaded conductor is equal to the drop 
produced by the total load concentrated at the center of the 
conductor. This may be proved readily by reference to Fig. 1, 
in which OR represents the resistance of the conductor and 01 
the total current in the conductor. If the current at one end is 
/ and the load diminishes uniformly to zero at the other end of 
the conductor, then the line IR is the current curve for a uni- 
formly distributed load. For the same total load concentrated 
at the distant end P, the current curve is IP. The areas in- 
cluded between the current curve and the axes represent in 
each case the drop over the conductor. For the uniformly dis- 

it is IR. 

The second corollary has to do with the similarity between 
moments in a mechanical system and drops in an electrical 
system. For example, a beam supported at both ends and 
having on it a certain distribution of load will be in equilibrium 
when the sum of the moments about any point is zero. Simi- 
larly if a conductor has current fed into it from both ends to 
supply any distribution of load upon it there will be for every 
distribution some point of division on the conductor through 

tributed load this area is 

and for the concentrated load 

which no current Hows. This is the point of maximum drop 
and of equal drop from both ends. The system may then be 
said to be in equilibrium. 

In an electrical system we have current, resistance and drop 
corresponding, respectively, with load, distance and moment of 
the mechanical system. If the conductor is of uniform size 
throughout its length, as is usually the case in tie lines, we 
may use length of conductor instead of resistance. 

Based upon these principles we may calculate in detail some 
typical sections. In the illustrations given, the two sections 
are assumed to be operating at the same voltage, and the trol- 
ley sections are considered to be uniformly loaded and the 
feeders of uniform size. If these assumptions should not be 
true in any case, simple modifications in the method would 
properly provide for the difference. 

In the case of an isolated section which is fed from one 
station only, such as is shown in Fig. 2, the calculation is very 
simple. The section AB of length L feet has a uniformly dis- 
tributed load of / amperes, which is considered as concentrated 
at the center of the section. If r is the resistance per foot of 
feeder, the drop from the power station to the nearer end of 
the section is rDI. The added drop to the end of the section is 
l /> rLI if the feeder is continued undiminished in size to the 
end of the section, and the total drop is given by the equation 

E = r (d+—\ I 



If the feeder is reduced in size as the load decreases the maxi- 
mum drop at the end of the section will be somewhat greater 
than that given. As an illustration we have : 

Load on section is / = 750 amp. 

Length of section L = 4000 ft. 

Distance from station to section is D = 1000 ft. 

Size of cable used is 1,000,000 circ. mil, whose resistance 
per foot is r — 0.00001056 ohm. 

Hence the drop to the end A of the section is 

B = r(D + ±-)l 

= 0.00001056 ^1 
= 23.7 volts 

The calculation of a tie section is a little more complex. 
Take, for example, the simplest case, illustrated in Fig. 3, in 
which the main feeder beteewn stations is assumed to extend 
the entire length of the section and to be uniform in size. The 
section AB has a uniformly distributed load of total value / 
amp, of which h amp are assumed to come from station Si 
and h amp from Ss. P is the point of division of load between 
the stations and is the point of maximum drop on the feeder. 
We are usually concerned in knowing the load on each station 
and the maximum drop on the section. 

To determine the load A on station Si take moments about 
S». These moments must be so chosen that they will involve 
only the one unknown, the value of which is sought; other- 
wise the solution of simultaneous equations becomes necessary 
and much needless labor is introduced. In this case assume 
the total load to be concentrated at the center of the section. 
Then its moment about S, would be 


The moment of the load I x at Si which would just balance this 
moment, about St, is 

(Di + L + D 2 )h 
Equating and solving we get the load on Si equal to 


1 1 



JD1 + L+ D 2/ 

which shows that the load on one station is equal to the total 
section load multiplied by a fraction whose numerator is the 
distance from the second station to the center of the trolley 
section, and whose denominator is the distance between the 

The following data are from an actual case: 

January 8, 19 10.] 



Load on section is / = 1050 amp. 
Length of section is L = 4670 ft 
Distance to station Si is L>i = 5170 ft 
Distance to station S 2 is Z? 2 = 4320 ft 
Size of cable, 1,000,000 circ. mil. 
The current on station 5\ is then, by equation (2) 

4320 + 

1050 -f- 494 amp. 

5170 -f 4670 + 4320 
Load on station 5 2 is then 

/, = / — = 1050 — 494 = 556 amp. 
The location of the point P of division of load is readily 
determined. Since the load is uniformly distributed along AB 
we get 

L, = —j- L 


We then have numerically 

Li = X 4670 = 2185 ft. 


that is, at 2185 ft. from the end A of the section each power 
station, delivers current. If the load distribution changes, 
then this point of division shifts, and may be determined for 
each distribution. 

The maximum drop on the section occurs at P, and it is the 
same from both stations. We have its value as in equation (1) 


= 0.00001056 ^5 '7° 
= 32.6 volts. 




A second type of tie section is one in which the main feeder 
between stations does not parallel the trolley section, through- 

out its length, as shown 111 Fig. 4 The loads on the three 
parts of the trolley section arc £',, C%, and C». We then have 
the total load 

I=:Ci + Ci + C» (5) 
To find the load on we lake moments as before, about S,, 
which gives 

CD, + C, (p» I ^ \ + CAIh + U) = /, (D, + U H lh) 

Multiplying out and factoring we get 

(C, + C, + C) Pt + C^- +CJL* = U (D, + U + D t ) 
which by substituting from (5) gives 

ID, + C, - 2 +CL. = U (D, + U + Dt) 

and hence 

ID, + C, ^ + CJL, 
Di + L- + D, 


The load distributed over the distance x is /, — Cs, and since 
the distribution is uniform, we have 

h — C , 


The drop from 5* s to the point of division P is then as shown 
in equation .( 1 ) 

B l ^(h-Cz)^- + hD,r (8) 

The load per foot of section = 

0.1 1 14 amp. 

which is the maximum drop on the feeder, but which may be 
exceeded at the ends A and B of the trolley section. 

For a particular case we have : 

Load on section is I =750 amp. 

Length of section is L = 6740 ft. divided into lengths of 
3400 ft., 1970 ft. and 1370 ft. 


Hence G = 3400 X 0.1114=378 amp. 
C-- = 1970 X 0. 1 1 14 = 220 amp 
C 3 = 1370 X 0.1114= 152 amp. 

Length of section parallel to feeder is L~_ = 1970 ft. 

Distance from section to Si is 1)1 = 5170 ft. 

Distance from section to S, is ^2 = 7440 ft. 

Substituting these values in equation (6) gives 

A = 

1 970 

750 X 7440 + 220 X — h 152 x 1970 

= 418 amp 

5170+ 1970 + 7440 

L, — I — h = 750 — 418 = 332 amp. 
The point of division between stations is located from equa- 
tion (7) 

418 — 152 _ , 

x — X 1970 = 2380 ft. 


Since this distance is greater than the length L : , and since 
the load G is greater than the load on station S,, it will be seen 
that Ci is divided between .Si and Hence the point of maxi- 
mum drop on the feeder is at the end of L,, where the cable 
leaves the section. In this case the drop is simply 
= = L_D,r 

= 332 X 7440 X 0.00001056 
= 26. 1 volts. 

If the point /' should fall within the length /.•„•, then the 
drop to P is determined from equation (8). 

The method as given here has been found to be very satis- 
factory in practice. The results are obtained without any 
"cut-and-try" process and by a little familiarity with the method 
it is possible to work quite rapidly. The final results show 
those facts which it is usually necessary to know — viz., the di- 
vision of load between stations and the maximum drop on 
the cable. 

An electric locomotive has been built in Germany which is 
propelled by two 35 hp motors supplied with current from 408 
Edison storage-battery cells. The battery has a capacity of 
280 amp hours and a discharge pressure of 502 volts. Each cell 
weighs about 30 lb. and consists ol nickel iron electrodes im- 

mersed in a solution of caustic potash, rhe locomotive has 
been tested with a 36-ton train .is a trailing load and has run 
132.5 miles before the battery voltage dropped to 468 volts. 
The life of the battery is estimated at 18,750 miles. 



[Vol. XXXV. No. 2. 



New York, Dec. 

2i, 1909. 

To the Editors : 

With a large part of the letter of W. R. McKeen, Jr., on the 
ventilation and heating of cars, in your issue of Dec. 18, no one 
can disagree, but in regard to one point there must certainly be 
a difference of opinion. Why should fresh air be taken in near 
the floor, there to pass over and come in contact with shoes, 
rubbers, wet skirts, and the general accumulation of dirt on 
the floor ; become laden with germs and foul odors, and then 
rise to the breathing level, ready to deliver whatever of a 
disease-breeding nature it may have gathered, to the delicate, 
membrane of the nose and throat and the lungs? 

The more reasonable method seems to be to take in the fresh 
air near the roof and exhaust the foul air near the floor. To 
do this the old-fashioned and practically worse-than-useless 
deck should be done away with and the roof made air tight ex- 
cept for the openings where air is to be admitted. From 
these openings it should be passed over the heaters, from which 
it must, of course, rise, at least a short distance, into the body 
of the car. 

In the case of street cars it might be found advisable to 
place the heaters under the seats and allow the warm air to 
escape from the window pockets back of the seats, where most 
of the complaints of low temperature arise. The fresh air 
could then be taken in on a level with the heaters through either 
the side or end panels. The only difficulty in such a system 
would be that many passengers will not be satisfied that a car 
is properly ventilated unless they can see an opening direct to 
the outer air. 

William C. Whiston. 


J. E. Osmer, master mechanic, Northwestern Elevated Rail- 
road, Chicago, has recently obtained patents on a new method 
for mounting gears used in electric railway car propulsion. 
The noteworthy feature of the new method is the supplanting 
of the ordinary solid or split gear wheel with a pressed cir- 
cular rack which is supported on an annular ring projecting 
inwardly from the web of one of the car wheels, as illus- 
trated. This form of construction will permit the motor-axle 
bearing on the pinion end to extend inside of the gear, where it 
will be in direct line with the gear and pinion. Placing the 



New Gear Mounting — Parts of Sectional Rack 

motor-axle bearing in direct line with the transmission of the 
torque makes possible a more rigid form of construction, which 
should afford longer life for the gears and bearings. 

Two methods of gear mounting are proposed; one with a 
solid rack and the other with a segmental rack. The circular 
rack used in both constructions is hydraulically pressed, then 
machined and treated, with a view to increasing the life over 
that which can be obtained from a cast-steel gear. In either 
type of construction the rack is carried on an annular exten- 
sion welded to the web of the car wheel. This method of at- 

tachment is stated to be equally efficient with iron and cast- 
steel wheel centers, if tires are used, or with the pressed and 
rolled wheels now in use on many electric roads. The Oxy- 
acetyline or Oxy-hydric welding processes are both available 
for mounting the annular extension on wheels, and it is stated 
that arrangements shortly will be made with wheel manufac- 
turers so that wheels may be purchased with the annular ex- 
tension welded on. In the type of construction using the solid 
rack the interior of the rack is machined to the proper size for 
shrinking solidly upon the annular extension after the rack 

New Gear Mounting — Application cf Solid and Sectional 
Cut" Racks 

has been heated sufficiently. This shrinking fit is ail the fasten 
ing necessary. With the solid rack type of construction the 
ear wheel must be removed from the axle when the rack is to 
be renewed. In the type of construction using the sectional 
rack the interior of the rack is machined to a slip fit with the 
annular extension. The sections of the rack are bolted to 
the annular extension, and, if desired, an outer end ring may 
be shrunk on a flange formed on the motor side of the rack. 
This double method of securing the rack is recommended for 
use only with very heavy duty motors, such as might be re- 
quired in locomotive use. Keys are not required in either type 
of construction. With the divided rack, it is neither necessary 
to remove the axle from the truck nor the wheel from the axle 
when renewing the gear. 

An important feature of this method of mounting the cir- 
cular rack is that the torque from the motor is transmitted 
first entirely to one wheel and then half through the axle to 
the opposite wheel. With the usual gear mounting the entire 
torque is transmitted from the gear direct to the axle and then 
divided. This practice requires a larger axle to transmit the 
stress and to provide metal for a key way. Motors of the 
present type can be used with gears constructed and mounted 
in the new way. It will be preferable with new motor equip- 
ments to have an extended axle-bearing lining cap with an 
extended lining housing made integral with the magnet frame ; 
thus furnishing a longer bearing at the pinion end of the 
armature where the torque is applied. With motors having 
axle bearings designed for the ordinary mounting the new 
method of gear mounting can be used with the present axle- 
bearing lining by bolting a split cast-iron sleeve around the 
axle to arrest the lateral thrust between the motor-axle bear- 
ing and the wheel hub. 

This new type of construction requires a much smaller gear- 
case, and the amount of gear compound required is thus re- 
duced. The gearcase designed for this mounting is a U-shaped 
band enclosing the teeth of the circular rack and pinion. 

Mr. Osmer states that the new type of gear mounting wilt 
effect a saving in weight and will cost less than the ordinary 
gear wheel pressed or keyed to the axle. The saving will re- 
sult from a reduction in material and the time required for 
application of gears. Additional saving will be brought about in 
the cost of material for axles and gearcases, because they can 
be made smaller ; in the cost of gears, because they will wear 
longer, and in gear compound, because less will be required. 
A reduction in current should follow the lessening of the 
weight of the parts and the placing of the motor-axle bearing 

January 8, 1910.] 



in the direct line of the applied torque. The chief feature of 
economy is, of course, brought about by the reduction in the 
first and renewal cost of the circular rack as compared with 
a gear wheel. 


The Advance Machinery Company, Toledo, Ohio, has re- 
cently brought out the electric glue heater illustrated, which is 
intended to provide a neat, quick and economical method for 
dissolving glue. The maker asserts that it is possible to dis- 
solve the glue in 30 minutes, and that the current may be 
switched off after 45 minutes or reduced, as the operator may 

The heater is made entirely of copper and brass, and the 
construction is such that when the glue is brought to the 
proper temperature in the morning the heater may be switched 
out of circuit, as the heat-retaining jacket serves to maintain 
a temperature of about 150 deg. for from four to five hours. 
The glue is first put in soaking buckets, and after it has ab- 

Electric Glue Heater 

sorbed all the water necessary and acquired a jelly-like con- 
sistency it is put into the glue receptacle. The latter is cylin- 
drical in form, and is surrounded by a jacket filled with water. 
This water jacket is within an additional- copper jacket. The 
wall between the outside jacket and the water jacket is filled 
with mineral wool. The water in the jacket is heated by elec- 
tric coils provided with three-way switches or several sockets, 
according to the size of the heater. The heaters are made as 
small as 1 pint or as large as 100 gal. 



The accompanying engravings illustrate two types of trolley 
wire ears made by the Indianapolis Brass Company, Indian- 
apolis, Ind. They are typical of a complete line of ears for 
all standard sections of trolley wire. The plain car for round 
wire has a groove of sufficient depth to allow il to be formed 

Clinch Ear for Round Wire 

nearly around the wire so as to support it rigidly while leaving 
the under side of the wire unobstructed as a running surface 
for the trolley wheel. These ears are made in 12-in. and 15-in. 
lengths with %-in. or J^-in. stud bolts to take from to 0000 
round wire. They can be tinned for soldering if desired. The 

splicing ear illustrated is intended to be used where splices are 
to be made at a hanger and it is made to take either a 5^-in. 
or J^-in. stud bolt. The trolley wire is securely fastened in 
the ear by set screws and the under or running surface of the 
wire and ear is perfectly smooth. These splicing ears are made 

Clinch Splicing Ear 

to take the same size and section of wire at both ends or in 
any combination of sizes and sections. The ear illustrated is 
designed to take Fig. 8 section wire at both ends. The metal 
of which these ears are made is claimed to have excellent wear- 
ing qualities and high tensile strength. 


The Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Company, which 
operates the first 1200-volt d.c. railway in this country, has 
recently equipped its line with a novel automatic trolley switch. 
The purpose of this switch is to change the trolley from the 
main wire to the siding wire when the track switch is thrown 
for the siding. It consists essentially of a switch blade about 
4 ft. long tapered at both ends. One end is pivoted to the 
siding trolley wire and works under the wire. The free end 

Overhead Switch Open for Main Line Track 

is moved to and from the main line trolley wire by a simple 
system of bell cranks and rods. When the track switch is set 
for the main line, the trolley is absolutely free from any extra 
attachments or obstructions and the highest speed can be main- 

Overhead Switch Closed for Siding Track 

tained in passing it without any damage to the trolley wheel 
or liability of throwing the wheel from the wire. Although 
much sleet has fallen during the last few weeks, it had no 
effect on the switch operation. This switch was designed by 
II. I). Murdock, superintendent of the company. 



[Vol. XXXV. No, 2. 


Griffin S. Ackley, formerly president and general manager of 
the National brake Company, Inc., Buffalo, N. Y., retired 
from the management of that company on Jan. i. He has sold 
his entire holdings of stock, constituting a controlling interest, 
to a syndicate of capitalists. Mr. Ackley organized the 
National Brake Company over six years ago and was its 
president and general manager until the date of his retirement. 
Under his able management the company built up a very large 
business with Peacock & Ackley adjustable brakes throughout 
the world. The Ackley adjustable brake was put on the 
market less than a year ago. It is Mr. Ackley's own invention, 
and has been patented in more than 20 countries. It has al- 
ready been introduced on over 200 street railways, many of 
which are in Europe, where sales agencies have been estab- 
lished in London, Berlin, Brussels, Paris and Zurich. The 
National Brake Company has purchased from Mr. Ackley all 
the United States, Canadian and Mexican patents on the Ack- 
ley adjustable brake and will continue to have the exclusive 
right to sell these brakes on the North American Continent. 
Mr. Ackley in turn has acquired from the National Brake 
Company all of the export business and good will in the Pea- 
cock and Tiger brakes in addition to the Ackley brake. He 
is still the sole owner of the patents on the last-named brake 
for all countries except the United States, Canada and Mexico. 
He will, however, have the sole right to sell all of the different 
types named throughout the world outside of the North Ameri- 
can countries noted under the name of the Ackley Brake 
Company. The new company's headquarters will be in the 
Hudson Terminal Buildings, New York City, and additional 
foreign agencies will be established by it in countries where 
the company has no representatives. Mr. Ackley is now pre- 
paring his itinerary for a trip around the world in the 
interest of the new company. For the present the National 
Brake Company will manufacture the brakes for Mr. Ack- 
ley under contract for export, and has already re- 
ceived ope order for 1270 Ackley brakes from the new com- 


Circular No. 12c in the Accounting Series issued by the 
Bureau of Statistics and Accounts of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission contains answers to important questions relative to 
the several classifications for steam roads, issued by the com- 
mission. Several of the cases, although pertaining to the steam 
railroad classifications, are of interest to electric lines. These 
cases are as follows : 

Case 433. Query. We have a power house furnishing cur- 
rent for propulsion of electric locomotives and cars, and also 
for heating, lighting and other purposes in connection with the 
operation of a steam railroad. It is now proposed to sell 
current generated in the same power house to a local street 
railway company. To what account should the revenue derived 
from the sale of power be credited? Should not a proportion 
of the expenses of operating the power plant be charged to the 
appropriate accounts ; and, if so, through what clearing ac- 
count should the charges be handled? In connection with the 
power plant we desire permission to use the account "operat- 
ing power plants" solely as a clearing account, and to charge 
originally all expenditures into that account and then clear the 
account by charging the various accounts benefited, setting up 
an account to be called "electric traction" to represent the 
current furnished for moving trains. 

Answer. Authority cannot be given for the opening of an 
account to be called "electric traction," for the reason that there 
is an account for that purpose entitled "operating power plants" 
already prescribed in the classification of operating expenses. 
In view of the statement that "It is now proposed to sell current 
generated in the same power house to a local street railway 
company," the operation clearly becomes an outside operation. 

and the entire revenues and expenses of such operations should 
be set up in full in the outside operations accounts, as pro- 
vided in the classification of such accounts. The cost of 
current used by the railroad company should be cleared 
through the outside operating account, 'other operations Cr.' 
and the amount so cleared should be distributed to appro- 
priate accounts in the classification of operating expenses for 
steam roads. The revenue derived from the sale of power to 
outside parties will, of course, remain credited to the revenue 
account of the outside operation, the net revenue of which will 
be carried direct to income accounts as provided for under 
"electric light and power plants" in the classification of revenues 
and expenses for outside operations. 

Case 495. Query. A contract with an electric line permits 
it to operate its cars over our track, for which privilege it pays 
us 10 cents per car. We are to bear all the expense of main- 
taining the track. What account should be credited with the 
amount received from the electric company? 

Answer. If the electric line is part of a steam road, or is 
a carrier using the classifications for steam roads, the revenue 
should be apportioned to the proper joint-facility rent account 
under income. If, however, the electric line is not a com- 
mon carrier reporting to the commission, or is a common 
carrier using the classifications provided for electric railways, 
the amount received should be credited to revenue account No. 
18, "rent of buildings and other property." 


Arrangements are being completed at the office of the Ameri- 
can Street & Interurban Railway Association for the mid- 
winter convention of the association to be held Jan. 28. The 
preliminary announcement of the convention and the notices 
in regard to it which were sent to member companies have re- 
ceived a most favorable reception, and it is the general verdict 
that the meeting will be most profitable both to the associa- 
tion and to those who attend. The formal notices in regard to 
the convention will be sent out from the office of the association 
this week and will contain a list of the speakers with the 
titles of the subjects which they will discuss. The meetings will 
be held in one of the assembly rooms at the headquarters of 
the railway association, 29 West Thirty-ninth Street, New York 

The mid-winter meetings of the various committees, as an^ 
nounced, will be held on Jan. 27 and the conference proper on 
Jan 28. The meetings will conclude with a dinner which will 
be extended to the association by the Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion. This dinner will be held at the Knickerbocker Hotel on 
the evening of Monday, Jan. 28, at 7 o'clock. All street rail- 
way officials who are present at the conference will be invited 
to be present at the banquet. 


A meeting of the committee on the transportation of United 
States mail of the American Street & Interurban Railwiy 
Association was held at the office of the association on Jan. 5. 
Those present included Robert S. Goff, vice-president and 
general manager of the Boston & Northern Street Railway, 
Boston, Mass ; C. H. Hile, assistant to the vice-president, 
Boston Elevated Railway, Boston, Mass., and Col. A. R. Piper, 
general freight agent of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. Upon invitation, John H. Pardee, secretary 
of the Street Railway Association of the State of New York, 
and Edgar S. Fassett, general manager of the United Traction 
Company of Albany, N. Y., were present. 

Mr. Fassett was appointed a committee of one to draw up 
a form of inquiry to be sent to different railway companies 
throughout the country to learn the conditions on each road 
so far as this matter was concerned. 

January 8. 1910.] 



News of Electric Railways 

Meeting of Central Electric Railway Association 

The annual meeting of the Central Electric Railway 
Association will be held on Jan. 27, 1910, in the assembly 
room of the Great Southern Hotel, Columbus, Ohio. The 
program of the meeting follows: 

Morning Session, Jan. 27, 1910 
9:30 a. rh. — Business session and reports of special com- 

10:00 a. m. — "Notes on Street Paving," by Thomas B. 
McMath, Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Company, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

10:45 a - nl - — "The Daily Inspection and Up-Keep of 
Rolling Stock," by H. H. Buckman, master mechanic of the 
Louisville & Northern Railway & Lighting Company, New 
Albany, Ind. 

11:30 a. m. — -Adjournment for lunch. 

Afternoon Session 

1:00 p. m. — "The Railroad Commission and Its Relation 
to Interurban Roads," by O. P. Gothlin, of the Railroad 
Commission of Ohio. 

1:45 p. m. — "The Method of Procedure When a Person 
Refuses to Pay Fare for Self or Child," by C. C. Williams, 
ex-Judge of the Common Pleas Court of Columbus, Ohio. 

2:30 p. m. — Reports of standing committees: Insurance, 
Henry N. Staats, chairman: lightning arresters, W. E. 
Rolston, chairman; publicity, George S. Davis, chairman; 
standardization, T. W. Shelton, chairman; supply men, 
John F. Ohmer, chairman; traffic, W. S. Whitney, chairman; 
personal injury claims, E. C. Carpenter, chairman ;. trans- 
portation, T. F. Grover, chairman; vigilance and member- 
ship, C. D. Emmons, chairman. 

3:30 p. m. — Annual report of secretary. 

3:45 p. m. — Annual address of the president. 

4:15 p. m. — Election of officers. 

Cleveland Traction Situation 

Charles S. Horner, who has been mentioned as president 
pro tern of the new City Council at Cleveland, stated a few 
days ago that if Mayor Baehr did not object, the date of 
the referendum vote on the street railway franchise would 
be fixed for April 1, 1910. 

The retiring Council, always loyal to Mayor Johnson, 
took no action at its last meeting regarding the date for 
the vote. Traction matters were barely mentioned at the 
meeting, barring the adoption of a resolution to the effect 
that all communications received by city officials from the 
street railway should be made matters of record. These 
communications have been in the hands of Newton D. 
Baker, city solicitor, but will now become official papers. 

On Dec. 29, 1909, the stockholders of the Forest City 
Railway were notified that an effort would be made to cen- 
tralize the stock of the Cleveland Railway to protect their 
interests at the annual meeting on Jan. 26, 1910, and proxies 
were asked in favor of D. C. Westenhaver, Fred C. Alber 
or a third party to be designated by each shareholder. The 
letter sent these stockholders called attention to the pro- 
vision Judge Tayler made for the guarantee made on their 
stock by Mayor Johnson and the Municipal Traction Com- 
pany, and was signed by Fred C. Alber. A year ago ani- 
mus was shown at the annual meeting of the stockholders 
of the Cleveland Railway, the former holders of stock of 
the Forest City Railway feeling that they would not receive 
fair treatment. All opposition was withdrawn, however, on 
the appointment of S. T. Everett to represent them on the 

Mayor Johnson has announced that he will leave the city 
for five weeks immediately following the close of his term 
of office for the purpose of Inking a vacation in some place 
where he will be free to enjoy himself untrammeled, and 
has said that he has no intention of retiring from public 
life in Cleveland. He advised that those retiring from 
office aid their successors in every way possible 

United States Supreme Court Holds Minneapolis Reduced 
Fare Ordinance Invalid 

In an opinion by Justice Day, the Supreme Court of the 
United States on Jan. 3, 1910, held invalid the ordinance 
adopted by the City Council of Minneapolis in i9°7» re- 
quiring the Minneapolis Street Railway Company to sell 
six tickets for 25 cents. The company contended that the 
ordinance was a violation of the contract implied in its 
charter, which, issued in 1873. was to run for 50 years and 
authorized a charge of 5 cents for each ride. The United 
States Circuit Court for the District of Minnesota declared 
against the ordinance, and Justice Day's decision sustained 
that finding, but with modifications. In the course of his 
opinion Justice Day said: 

"We think that the requirement of the ordinance that 
the company should operate its roads by the sale of six 
tickets for a quarter, as required by the ordinance, was an 
enactment by legislative authority which impaired the obli- 
gation of the contract thus held, and owned by the com- 
plainant company. We therefore reach the conclusion that 
the decree of the Circuit Court enjoining the execution of 
the ordinance should be affirmed." 

Wheel-Guard Order in Brooklyn 

The Public Service Commission of the First District of 
New York has issued an order to the street railways oper- 
ating in Brooklyn regarding the use of wheel guards which 
it has concluded as follows: < 

"1. That Coney Island & Gravesend Railway, Sea Beach 
Railway and South Brooklyn Railway, on or before Feb. 1, 
1910, equip all cars with wheel guards of a type or types to 
be approved by the commission, and shall not thereafter 
operate any cars unless equipped with such wheel guards in 
a good operating condition. 

"2. That Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad and Brook- 
lyn, Queens County & Suburban Railroad equip all cars 
with wheel guards, of a type or types to be approved by 
the commission, at the rate of not fewer than 20 cars a 
month, beginning Feb. 1, 1910, until all of their cars shall 
have been so equipped and shall not thereafter operate any 
cars unless equipped with such wheel guards in a good 
operating condition. 

"3. That Nassau Electric Railroad equip all cars operated 
by it with wheel guards of a type or types to be approved 
by the commission at the rate of not fewer than 60 cars a 
month, beginning Feb. 1, 1910, until all of its cars shall 
have been so equipped and shall not thereafter operate any 
cars unless equipped with such wheel guards in a good 
operating condition. 

"4. That the Brooklyn Heights Railroad equip all cars 
operated by it with wheel guards of a type or types to be 
approved by the commission at the rate of not fewer than 
120 cars a month, beginning Feb. 1, 1910, until all of its 
cars shall have been so equipped and shall not thereafter 
operate any cars unless equipped with such wheel guards 
in a good operating condition. 

"5. That as soon as Brooklyn Heights Railroad, or any 
other companies, shall have equipped cars operated exclus- 
ively over the Brooklyn Bridge, or exclusively over the 
Williamsburg Bridge, with such wheel guards, said company 
or companies shall be relieved from equipping said cars 
with fenders. 

"6. That as soon as Brooklyn, Queens County & Suburban 
Railroad, or any of said companies above mentioned, shall 
have equipped the cars operated exclusively on what is 
known as the Broadway Shuttle Line, 011 Broadway between 
Havcmeycr Street and Broadway Ferry, with such wheel 
guards, they shall be relieved hereby from equipping said 
cars with fenders. 

"7. That as soon as the companies shall have equipped 
with Stich wheel guards the cars operated by them on 
Fulton Street (from Greene Avenue to Tillary Street). Flat- 
bush Avenue (from Fifth Avenue to Fulton Street), Broad- 
way (west of Ralph Avenue), Livingston Street (from Flat- 

8 4 


[Vol. XXXV. No. 2. 

bush Avenue to Court Street), Washington Street and 
Adams Street, then said companies shall have the right 
hereby to fold up fenders on cars when passing over said 
streets within the limits mentioned and be relieved from 
equipping with fenders cars operated exclusively over said 
streets within said limits. 

"8. That, except as hereinbefore expressly provided, all 
cars owned or operated by any of the companies herein- 
before mentioned, when equipped with such wheel guards, 
shall so carry the fenders that no part thereof shall be less 
than 10 in. clear above the rails, and that the front edge of 
the apron shall not be more than 14 in. clear above the 

"9. That all of said companies hereinabove mentioned, on 
or before Jan. 10, 1910, submit to the commission for its 
approval complete drawings and specifications showing 
among other things all measurements and the method of 
attachment to the car of the type or types of wheel guards 
desired to be used by them in compliance with this order; 
and it is further 

"Ordered, that except as expressly amended by this order, 
which applies to said companies hereinabove mentioned 
exclusively, said order of April 28, 1909, as amended by said 
order of May 14, 1909, shall be and remain in full force and 
effect; and it is further 

"Ordered, that this order shall take effect on Dec. 24. 
(Q09. and shall remain in force until revoked or modified." 

Transit Affairs in New York 

The Public Service Commission has voted to grant the 
Mew York Central & Hudson River Railroad an extension 
of 18 months from Jan. 1, 1910. for depressing the tracks 
leading to the Grand Central Station and the building of a 
new terminal. 

The Manhattan Bridge Three-Cent Line was incorporated 
at Albany on Dec. 30, 1909, with a capital stock of $50,000, 
to build a railroad from Flatbush Avenue and Fulton Street, 
Brooklyn, over the Manhattan Bridge and through Canal 
Street, New York, to the Hudson River. The length of 
the route is about four miles. The engineering details are 
all in the hands of John C. Brackenridge. The officers of 
the company are Frederick W. Rowe, president; John C. 
Brackenridge, vice-president; Walter Hammit, secretary, 
and Edward T. Horwill, treasurer. 

Mexican Views. — The Mexican Tramways Company, Ltd., 
Mexico City, Mex., has published a handsome album con- 
taining 49 views of the buildings and other property of the 
company and scenes in Mexico City. The album is pub- 
lished in London and a copy has been sent to each stock- 

City Superintendent of Street Railways Favored in St. 
Louis. — The special joint committee of the Municipal As- 
sembly which has the matter under consideration is said to 
favor the proposal to create the position of superintendent 
of street railways under an act of the Municipal Assembly 
of 1903, the official appointed to that office to supervise 
street railway service in the interest of the city. 

Bonds Voted for Municipal Line in San Francisco. — At 
the election held in San Francisco on Dec. 30, 1909, it was 
voted to issue $2,020,000 of bonds to provide funds for 
equipping the Geary Street, Ocean & Park Railroad with 
electricity and operating it as a municipal enterprise. This 
is the third time within five years that the question has 
been submitted to the voters. 

Public Utility Commissioners Named in Los Angeles. — 
In accordance with the decision of the voters of Los Angeles 
at the recent election that a public utilities commission be 
created to supervise the operation of the public service cor- 
porations doing business in Los Angeles, Mayor Alexander 
has sent to the City Council for confirmation the names of 
Meyer Lissner, Frank J. Hart and Paul Haupt as members 
of the new commission. 

Electrification of Canadian Pacific Railroad at Montreal 
Denied. — In reply to a letter addressed by the Electric 
Railway Journal to the Canadian Pacific Railroad at Mon- 
treal recently in regard to the report that the company con- 
templated electrifying its lines in and about Montreal, D. 

McNicoll, vice-president of the company, replied under 
date of Dec. 28, 1909, as follows: "There is nothing in the 
reports to which you refer in connection with the proposed 
electrification of our lines in this vicinity." 

Proceedings of the Arkansas Association. — The report of 

the second annual convention of the Arkansas Association 
of Public Utility Operators held at Hot Springs, Ark., on 
May 12, 13 and 14, 1909, has been published. It comprises 
a volume of 104 pages, 6 in. x 9 in., and includes the papers 
presented at the convention and a verbatim report of the 
discussion. The papers presented at the meeting which 
were of interest to electric railway circles and the discussions 
thereon were published in the Electric Railway Journal 
of May 22, 1909, page 940. 

Philadelphia Transit Talks. — Transit Talk No. 39 of the 
Philadelphia (Pa.) Rapid Transit Company was dated Dec. 
16, 1909. The subject was "Courtesy," and an invitation was 
extended to the public to co-operate with the company in 
making for efficiency by reporting all cases of negligence 
on the part of employees to perform their duties properly 
and courteously. Talk No. 40 was headed with the ques- 
tion, "Lost Anything?" It contained some facts about the 
lost-and-found department, and suggested that people who 
had lost articles write or telephone the lost-and-found de- 
partment of the company. 

State and County Cannot Both Exact Tax Based on 
Earnings. — The claim of the Terre Haute, Indianapolis & 
Eastern Traction Company, filed some time ago against 
Wayne County, Ind., has been allowed and certain back 
taxes, paid to the county in 1907 and 1908, based on the 
"cash on hand" of the company, have been ordered re- 
funded. The claim was based on a decision of the Supreme 
Court to the effect that the State Board of Tax Commis- 
sioners, in valuing the property of railroads, considered 
among other things the net earnings of the companies. 
It was held therefore that any cash that the company 
might have on hand could not be taxed in addition to the 
valuation placed by the State on the property as a whole, as 
this cash represented a part of the net earnings. 

Meeting of Central Railway Club. — The annual meeting 
of the Central Railway Club will be held at the Hotel Iro- 
quois, Buffalo, N. Y., on Jan. 13, 1910, at 2 p. m. The 
feature of the business session will be the annual reports 
and a paper by W. O. Thompson, master car builder of the 
Western Division of the New York Central & Hudson River 
Railroad, his subject being "Car Interchange: Its Past, 
Present and Future." The annual dinner of the club will 
be held at 7:30 p. m. It will be preceded by a reception 
in the main parlor of the Hotel Iroquois. A musical pro- 
gram will be followed by addresses by Frank Hedley, vice- 
president and general manager of the Interborough Rapid 
Transit Company, New York, and second vice-president of 
the New York Railroad Club, and others. E. M. Tewkesbury, 
general superintendent of the South Buffalo Railway, and 
second vice-president of the club, will be toastmaster. The 
price of dinner tickets has been fixed at $2 per plate for 
members and for ladies and $3 for non-members. Harry D. 
Vought, 95 Liberty Street, New York, N. Y.. is secretary 
of the club. 

January Meeting of the A. S. M. E. in Boston. — The 

meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
to be held in Boston on Jan. 21, 1910, will take the form of a 
banquet at the Hotel Somerset to be tendered jointly by 
the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Bos- 
ton Society of Civil Engineers and the Boston branch of the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers, to the presi- 
dents of the three societies, George Westinghouse, Geo. B. 
Francis and L. B. Stillwell, respectively, and other guests, 
including John Anderson Bensel, the incoming president of 
the American Society of Civil Engineers. Following the 
banquet there will be addresses by several of the guests and 
a paper will be presented on the main and auxiliary ma- 
chinery of the battleship North Dakota, illustrated by lan- 
tern slides. The president of the Boston Society of Civil 
Engineers will also outline what that society has accom- 
plished toward a project that has been under discussion at 
Boston for a united engineering building to be occupied 
by the several professional engineering organizations lo- 
cated in Boston and vicinity. 

January 8, 1910.] 



Financial and Corporate 

New York Stock and Money Market 

Annual Report of Boston Elevated Railway 

January 4, 1910. 

The stock market to-day was more active than for any 
day within the past two months and prices showed a dis- 
tinct disposition to advance, in spite of the fact that call 
money rates were high. Traction shares, especially Inter- 
borough-Metropolitan issues, are strong and active. Third 
Avenue has advanced to more than 18. 

Call money touched 14 per cent yesterday and to-day 
ranged 6 to 9 per cent. Ninety-day loans were 4^2 to 4$i 
per cent. 

Other Markets 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Stock has advanced and the 
majority of the transactions to-day were in the neighbor- 
hood of 28. Union Traction has been moderately active. 

In the Boston market, the Massachusetts Electric issues 
have been quite active and the common stock has advanced 
2 points during the past week. The preferred is also a 
trifle stronger. Boston Elevated has advanced. 

In Chicago, the various series of the Chicago Railways 
Company have been active during the week. Series 1 has 
remained about stationary in price, while Series" 2 has ad- 
vanced several points during the week. There has been 
some trading in Series 3 and 4. 

Bonds of the United Railways, Baltimore City Passenger 
Railway and of the Fairmont & Clarksburg Traction Com- 
pany are the only traction securities being traded in Balti- 

At the weekly auction of securities in New York, $10,000 
5 per cent bonds of the Second Avenue Railroad sold at 65. 

Quotations of various traction securities as compared with 
last week follow: 

Dec. 28. Jan. 4. 

American Railways Company 247% 848 J4 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (common) "57 *57 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (preferred) *c>2 *02 

Boston Elevated Railway i32*A 136'A 

Boston & Suburban Electric Companies 15 ai6 

Boston & Suburban Electric Companies (preferred) *75 74 

Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (common) ai2 an 

Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (preferred) a48 348 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company 79 A - 79A 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company, 1st pref., conv. 4s 86J4 

Capital Traction Company, Washington *i33!^ ai3S'A 

Chicago City Railway *ioo 185 

Chicago & Oak Park Elevated Railroad (common) *2 * 2 

Chicago & Oak Park Elevated Railroad (preferred) *io *io 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 1 aiio aiog 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 2 a.33 &35 l A 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 3 ais a20 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 4s *io aio 

Cleveland Railways '84 *84 

Consolidated Traction of New Jersey ^77 'A &77 

Consolidated Traction of New Jersey, 5 per cent bonds. ..*io6 aio6 

Detroit United Railway "65 '65 

General Electric Company 159 V2 iS9% 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (common) 102A 3104'/? 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (preferred) 87 87!!. 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company (common) 24 24A 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company (preferred) 62 61 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company (4V2S) 8.3 -34 83 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (common) 333 a35 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (preferred) '79 '75 

Manhattan Railway *I40 '138 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (common) ai6'A ai9 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (preferred) a79 a8o^2 

Metropolitan West Side, Chicago (common) 319 ai9 

Metropolitan West Side, Chicago (preferred) 357 as7 

Metropolitan Street Railway '23 20 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light (preferred) * 110 *i 10 

North American Company *8s 83^ 

Northwestern Elevated Railroad (common) ai8 ai7'/5 

Northwestern Elevated Railroad (preferred) af>8 370 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburg (common)^ asi'4 

Philadelphia Company, Pitt'burg (preferred) Z4S'A a4s!4 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company 827 a28-5^ 

Philadelphia Traction Company a8g 389 

Public Service Corporation. 5 per cent col. notes * loo'A *iooMi 

Public Service Corporation, ctfs *ioi'/i ai04 

Seattle Electric Company (common) atia'A an$ 

Seattle Electric Company (preferred) 104 aioj 

South Side Elevated Railroad (Chicago) aso 356 

Third Avenue Railroad. New York 187-x 

Toledo Railways & Light Company *9$4 12 A 

Twin City Rapid Transit, Minneapolis (common) lib 117 

(Jnion Traction Company, Philadelphia 352 aj2-K 

United Rys. & Electric Company, Baltimore att'/i 314 

United Rys. Inv. Co. (common) 42A 41 A 

United Rys. Inv. Co. (preferred) 7<V» *7< 7 A 

Washington Ry. & Electric (common) *43W a 1 .3 1 » 

Waihineton Ry. & Electric Company (preferred) "91A ^91 A 

West End Street Railway, Boston (common) aqs'/j 395 

West End Street Railway. Boston (preferred) *I00 "ion 

Westinghouse Electric & Mfe. Company 82'/! 82 

WeStinghotlfC Elec. & Mfg. Company ( 1 st pref.) 130 "130 

a Asked * Lnst Sslc 

Earnings from operation of the Boston Elevated Railway 
in the year ended Sept. 30, 1909, were $14,493,853, as com- 
pared with $14,074,697 in the previous year, indicating a 
gain of 3 per cent. Of the total gross revenue, $14,024,768 
was received from the transportation of passengers. The 
statement of earnings for the year is as follows: 

Earnings from operation $i4.493>853- 1 3 

From .passengers carried $14,024,768.39 

From carriage of mails 37,977-46 

From tolls for use of tracks by other 

companes 41,736.60 

From rentals of real estate 134,401.49 

From advertising 108,075.00 

From interest on deposits, etc 138,041.47 

From miscellaneous income 8,852.72 

Total $14,493, 853.13 

Operating expenses $9,488,483.83 

For general expenses $999,284.70 

For maintenance of roadway and buildings 1,415,477.61 

For maintenance of equipment 1,042,855.35 

For transportation expenses 6,030,866.17 

Taxes 1,063,774.87 

West End St. Ry. tax on capital stock and 

property 631,116.26 

Boston Elevated Ry. tax on capital stock 

and property ^93,487.57 

Boston Elevated Ry. compensation tax and 

tax on income 139,171.04 

Coupon interest on West End St. Ry. bonds 680,180.00 

Coupon interest on Boston Elevated Ry. 

bonds 556,000.00 

Less interest accrued this year charged to 

construction account 177,091.34 

■ 378,908.06 

Rentals of leased railways 1,346,157.04 

Rental of East Boston tunnel 53,216.16 

Rental of subway $211,746.17 

Less amount collected of Boston & Northern 

St. Ry 24,954.61 186,791.56 

Rental of Washington Street tunnel 254,923.69 

Depreciation fund 200,000.00 

Dividends paid on capital stock 802,503.00 

Balance carried to surplus account $38,914.32 

William A. Bancroft, the president, says in his report: 
"The various extensions and additions to the company's 
service mentioned in the last report are being rapidly pro- 

"Besides its ordinary taxes the company's contribution 
to the public during the last fiscal year amounted to at 
least $430,573.27, made up as follows: 

Compensation tax for the use of streets under the Acts of 

1897 $124,171.04 

Interest at 4 per cent on $4,361,025, cost of paving laid in 

streets by company 174,441.00 

Cost of maintaining street paving by company 63,446.61 

Amount of subway rental devoted to sinking fund 63,514.62 

Moving snow removed from sidewalks and roofs (estimated) 

not less than 5,000.00 

Total extraordinary payments to the public $430,573.27 

Add taxes assessed on real estate 310,007.90 

Add taxes assessed on capital stock and income 629.595.93 

Total $1,370,177.10 

To the above may be added the balance of subway rental... 123,276.94 

Also the rental of the East Boston tunnel 53,216.16 

Also the rental of the Washington Street tunnel 254,923.69 

Grand total, which is about 12.4 per cent of the gross 

revenue of the company for the year $1,801,593.89 

"Concerning the capitalization of the properties owned 
and leased by this company, your directors wish you to 
know that the capital stock of the West End Street Railway 
on Sept. 30, 1909, was as follows: 

Preferred $6,400,000 

Common 11,120,150 

Total $17,520,150 

"Of this capitalization the preferred stock was the 
amount authorized by the Legislature (Chapter 413, Acts 
of 1887) for the purchase of the horse railroads which made 
up the West End system, and was considered only the 
value of these properties. 

"Of the common stock $7,150,000 was paid in in cash at 
par, anil the balance was sold under orders of the Railroad 
Commissioners for cash at prices ranging from 40 to 80 
per cent in excess of the par value, realizing a premium of 

"Of the $13,450,100 par value of the stock of the Boston 
Elevated Railway the first $10,000,000 was paid in in cash 
at liar, and the balance was sold under orders of the Kail- 
road Commissioners fur cash at a price of from ro to 55 
per cent in excess of the par value, realizing a premium of 
$r,86o,<)68. 13 above the par value. The present capitaliza- 



[Vol. XXXV. No. 2. 

tion of the two companies, therefore, represents an actual 
payment in cash of $3,978,017.26 above the par value of the 
outstanding stock. The amount of this cash premium has 
been invested in the properties now owned by the com- 
panies. So there is not only no capital inflation of these 
properties, but much more has been paid in than is repre- 
sented by the par value of the stocks. The dividends paid 
on the stocks and the interest paid on the bonds of the 
two companies make an average return to the capital in- 
vested of something less than 5.13 per cent per annum. It 
is not true, therefore, of these properties that 'excessive 
dividends are paid on watered stock.' 

"From the summary of stockholders of record Oct. I, 
x 1909, it appears that the total number is 3972, holding 134,- 
501 shares of stock. Of these 3505, holding 116,818 shares, 
live in Massachusetts. In other words, 87 per cent of the 
stock is held in Massachusetts. 

"The total length of surface tracks controlled by the 
company is now 460.039 miles. This, with the elevated mile- 
age of 24.087 miles, makes a total mileage of 484.126. 

"Traffic statistics compare as follows: 

, Year ending Sept. 30 , 

1909. 1908. 1907- 

Round trips 5.549.774 5.571.459 5,606,616 

Revenue car-miles, surface 43,599,806 43,818,640 44,027,731 

Revenue car-miles, elevated 7,295,450 7,806,503 7,802,457 

Revenue car-miles, U. S. mail cars.... 232,425 232,746 231,381 

Revenue car-miles, total 51,127,681 52,061,569 

Total revenue passengers carried 281,008,471 273,132,584 271,084,815 

Average receipts per passenger $.04991 $.04989 $.04997 

Consolidation of Michigan Companies 

Holdenpyl, Walbridge & Company, New York, N. Y., 
E. W. Clark & Company, Philadelphia, Pa., and W. A. Foote, 
Jackson, Mich., announce the organization of the Common- 
wealth Power, Railway & Light Company, to take over the 
Commonwealth Power Company, Grand Rapids-Muskegon 
Power Company, Saginaw-Bay City Railway & Light Com- 
pany, Grand Rapids Railway, Michigan Light Company, 
Flint Electric Company, Flint Gas Company, Cadillac Water 
& Light Company, Charlotte Electric Company, Shiawassee 
Light & Power Company and the Au Sable River Property 
and Rights. These companies own the electric light and 
power properties in Grand Rapids, Saginaw, Bay City, Kala- 
mazoo, Battle Creek, Jackson, Flint. Pontiac, Cadillac and 
a number of intermediate towns, the electric railways in 
Grand Rapids, Saginaw and Bay City and between Saginaw 
and Bay City, the gas properties in Kalamazoo, Jackson, 
Pontiac, Saginaw, Bay City and Flint and developed and 
undeveloped powers on the Muskegon, Kalamazoo, Grand 
and Au Sable Rivers. The Commonwealth Power, Railway 
& Light Company is to be capitalized at $18,000,000, of 
which $6,000,000 is to be preferred stock and" $12,000,000 
common stock. No bonds are to be issued. The combined 
earnings of the consolidated companies for the calendar 
year ended Dec. 31, 1909, November and December being 
estimated, follow: 

Gross earnings .$4,487,177 

Operating expenses 2,317,561 

Net earnings from operation $2,169,616 

Less taxes and interest on $16,677,000 outstanding bonds of 
constituent companies 1,049,373 

Surplus earnings $1,120,243 

Less dividends on $6,894,000 preferred stock of constituent 

companies in the hands of the public 398,640 

Balance available to the Commonwealth Power, Railway & 

Light Company $721,603 

Dividend on $6,000,000 Commonwealth Power, Railway & Light 

Company 8 per cent preferred stock 360,000 

Balance $361,603 

Consolidation of Chicago South Side Surface Railways 

An official statement regarding the Chicago City & Con- 
necting Railways says that the property of the Chicago 
City Railway, Southern Street Railway, Calumet & South 
Chicago Railway and the Hammond, Whiting & East Chi- 
cago Electric Railway as a whole is to be taken over on a 
4 per cent basis — that is, after payment of interest upon 
rehabilitation bonds and the city's percentage of earnings, 
the net earnings for 1910 upon the bonds and shares of 
stock deposited will be approximately $2,550,000. which is 
4 per cent upon $62,000,000. This capitalization will consist 
of $22,000,000 5 per cent first lien bonds, which are the only 

securities that will be offered to the public at this time. 
Instead of issuing the $25,000,000 preferred and $15,000,000 
common stock at first proposed, there will be issued par- 
ticipation certificates, which, while without any face value, 
will be entitled to certain percentages of the earnings over 
and above the fixed charges. The plan for the issuance of 
these certificates is only partially matured, but it is prac- 
tically agreed that they will be two classes, and the division 
of the earnings will be 4 l / 2 per cent for the first class, after 
which the second class will receive 4 per cent. After this 
the two classes divide the earnings up to 6 per cent, which 
is the limit allowed for the first class. It is presumed, but 
not so stated, that the division of these certificates will be 
in the same proportion as the first plan proposed to divide 
the stock issue between preferred and common. 

The bonds will be dated Jan. 1, 1910, and will mature 
Jan. 1, 1927. They will be secured by deposit with trustees 
of the following securities: $16,971,900 of stock of the Chi- 
cago City Railway, valued at 200; $5,000,000 of bonds of 
the Calumet & South Chicago Railway; $1,635,000 of 5 per 
cent bonds and $800,000 of stock of the Southern Street 
Railway; $1,000,000 of first mortgage 5 per cent bonds of 
the Hammond, Whiting & East Chicago Electric Railway 
not yet issued, and $1,000,000 common stock of this com- 
pany not yet issued. The securities comprise all the bonds 
and stocks of the Southern Street Railway and of the Ham- 
) mond, Whiting & East Chicago Electric Railway. The 
provision of deposit will include caring for the debts of the 
underlying properties, other than those incurred for com- 
pletion and rehabilitation. A sinking fund is provided after 
the third year which will result in the retirement of $3,000,- 
000 of the bonds before maturity. The earnings of the 
combined properties are about 2 1/3 times the interest re- 
quirements of the bonds. It is stated that the bonds are 
underwritten and partly sold. The unsold portion will be 
offered by J. P. Morgan & Company, the Illinois Trust 
Company and the First Trust & Savings Bank. 

Forty-second Street, Manhattanville & St. Nicholas 
Avenue Railway, New York, N. Y. — The sale of the 
property of the Forty-second Street,. Manhattanville & St. 
Nicholas Avenue Railway under foreclosure of the $1,600,000 
second mortgage has been postponed until March 1, 1910. 
The amount found to be due for principal and interest is 

Lake Shore Electric Railway, Cleveland, Ohio. — The anr 

una! meeting of the Lake Shore Electric Railway will be 
held on Jan. 25, 1910. The company has outstanding $3,000,- 
000 of 5 per cent cumulative preferred stock on which no 
dividends have been paid, the accumulations on which 
aggregate $1,626,000, and, with the outstanding capital, 
make a total capitalization of about $4,626,000. A plan for 
refinancing will be considered at the meeting. It has been 
roughly estimated that a holder of 100 shares of the present 
preferred stock should receive 33 J/3 shares of new 6 per cent 
cumulative stock and 66% shares of non-cumulative pre- 
ferred stock. The holders of the preferred stock issued in 
October, 1901, will probably be given some advantage over 
the holders of stock issued in 1903, however, as the ac- 
cumulations on the stock issued in 1901 are greater than 
those on the stock issued in T903. 

Public Service Corporation, Newark, N. J. — In a letter 
addressed recently to J. P. Morgan & Company, of New 
York, N. Y., in connection with the sale of $8,000,000 of gen- 
eral mortgage 5 per cent bonds, President Thomas N. Mc- 
Carter stated the gross earnings of the system controlled 
by the corporation, including miscellaneous income, as fol- 
lows: Year 1905, $19,909,843; 1906, $21,498,826; 1907, $23,- 
628,044; 1908, $24,267,687; nine months ended Sept. 30, 1909, 
$19,286,261. The increase in gross revenue for the first nine 
months of 1909 over the corresponding period of 1908 was 
$1,654,204. During the 12 months ended Sept. 30, 1909, gross 
earnings, including miscellaneous income, were $25,921,892 
and operating expenses, taxes, rentals and fixed charges of 
leased and controlled properties were $23,235,533. 

Tacoma Railway & Power Company, Tacoma, Wash. — 
Stone & Webster, Boston, Mass., say that they know of 
no foundation for the report that the Union Pacific Rail- 
road is negotiating for the purchase of the property of the 
Tacoma Railway & Power Company. 

January 8, 1910.] 



Traffic and Transportation 

Increase in Fares in Wisconsin 

The Wisconsin Electric Railway, Oshkosh, Wis., and the 
Eastern Wisconsin Railway & Light Company, Fond du 
Lac, Wis., have announced a general increase in the fares 
on the electric railways which they control, effective on 
Jan. 15, 1910. Briefly, the new schedule increases the fare 
on the Oshkosh-Neenah line 5 cents, the Oshkosh- 
Omro line 5 cents and the Oshkosh-Fond du Lac 
line 10 cents, making the new Oshkosh-Neenah fare 
25 cents, the Oshkosh-Omro fare 20 cents and the Oshkosh- 
Fond du Lac fare 35 cents. On Jan. 15 a straight 5-cent 
fare will be charged on all city lines, except between 6 a. m. 
and 7 a. m. and 6 p. m. and 7 p. m., when workingmen's 
tickets will be honored. The statement of the company to 
the public, dated on Dec. 16, 1909, was signed by J. P. 
Pulliam, manager of the railway department, and approved 
by Clement C. Smith, president, and R. T. Gunn, general 
manager. It follows: 

"We are this day giving public notice to the patrons of 
our lines that on Jan. 15, 1910, a new schedule of fares will 
be put into effect. While the fares to certain points on the 
interurban lines will be lowered, the fares in general will 
be raised. We have reached the determination to raise 
these fares with great reluctance, because it is our purpose 
to furnish transportation as cheaply as it can be furnished; 
but we would find it impossible to operate the lines on the 
present basis. 

"The fare from Oshkosh to Neenah is now at an average 
rate of 1.28 cents per mile; the fare from Oshkosh to Fond 
du Lac at an average of 1.37 cents per mile, and the fare 
from Oshkosh to Omro at an average of 1.35 cents per 
mile. Our records show that all of these fares were en- 
tirely too low, even at the time they were first put into 
effect. It was then hoped by the management in putting 
these low fares into effect that travel might be stimulated 
to such an extent that the low fares would be justified. 
Such has not been the case, although every effort has been 
made to increase the earnings and decrease the operating 

"The necessity for increasing the fares became evident to 
the management of the Winnebago Traction Company in 
the spring of 1905, and the company at that time raised the 
fares from Oshkosh to Neenah from 20 cents to 25 cents, 
and from Oshkosh to Omro from 15 cents to 20 cents. The 
company's records show there was a considerable increase 
in earnings, and they also show the number of passengers 
carried did not decrease. 

"In March, 1908, following the panic of 1907, which re- 
duced all travel materially, the receiver of the Winnebago 
Traction Company sought to build up earnings again by 
reducing the interurban fares to the rates charged formerly. 
There was an immediate decrease in gross earnings, and 
this decrease has continued to the present time. From this 
experience, it appears the public was satisfied with the in- 
crease of rates in 1905, and it was shown conclusively that 
increasing the rates did not decrease the number of passen- 
gers carried and lowering the rates did not increase the 
number of passengers carried. 

"The former bondholders of the Winnebago Traction 
Company still own the greater part of the bonds of the 
Wisconsin Electric Railway. They have suffered a heavy 
loss through the reduction in the amount of bonds on the 
property. The present management represents these old 
interests as well as the interest of those who made new 

"The present management of the two properties was 
therefore fully aware of former conditions when it took 
charge of the properties. It was hoped, however, by re- 
ducing the bonded debt, by bringing the two properties 
under the same management, by centralizing the work of 
repairs and maintenance of cars, by through operation of 
interurban cars from Fond du Lac through Oshkosh to 
Neenah, and by other economies due to one management, 
the increase in rates might possibly be avoided. The man 
agement of the two companies was combined in August, 

1908, and every effort has been made to take advantage 

of the economies of joint operation. This joint operation 
has been in force for nearly a year and a half, and since 
Jan. 1, 1909, all of the books, accounts and records of the 
companies have been kept in accordance with the new ac- 
counting system prescribed by law. The results of opera- 
tion have now been so clearly shown that there is no ex- 
cuse for the management to postpone an effort to obtain 
sufficient revenue to give good service and maintain the 
property as it should be maintained. 

"The United States Supreme Court in the Knoxville 
Water Works case, decided Jan. 4, 1909 (see page 13, United 
States Supreme Court Reports, Volume 212), held: 

" 'Before coming to the question of profit at all the com- 
pany is entitled to earn a sufficient sum annually to provide 
not only for current repairs, but for making good the de- 
preciation and replacing the parts of the property when 
they come to the end of their life. The company is not 
bound to see its property gradually waste, without making 
provision out of the earnings for its replacement. It is 
entitled to see that from earnings the value of the property 
invested is kept unimpaired, so that at the end of any 
given term of years the original investment remains as it 
was at the beginning. It is not only the right of the com- 
pany to make such provision, but it is its duty to its bond- 
and stockholders, and in case of a public service corpora- 
tion at least, its plain duty to the public. If a different 
course were pursued the only method of providing for re- 
placement of property which has ceased to be useful would 
be the investment of new capital and the issue of new 
bonds or stocks. This course would lead to a constantly 
increasing variance between present value and bond and 
stock capitalization — a tendency which would inevitably 
lead to disaster either to the stockholders or to the public, 
or to both.' 

"The earnings of the companies have so far been en- 
tirely inadequate to provide for depreciation, and the man- 
agement cannot longer neglect what has been prescribed by 
the Supreme Court of the United States to be 'its plain 

"During the last few years there has been a steady in- 
crease in the price of everything going into railway con- 
struction and operation. Our taxes have been doubled, and 
other public burdens have fallen heavily on the companies. 

"The wages of the conductors and motormen have not 
been increased for several years. The cost of living has 
increased, and, while our trainmen have been patient and 
have not made any request for increase in wages, we feel 
it is only due them to give them such advance as the com- 
panies can afford on account of increased rates, and we are 
putting this increase in wages into effect beginning Dec. 
1, 1909. 

"It is common thought among persons not familiar with 
the operation of electric railways that electric railways 
ought to carry passengers for less fare than steam rail- 
roads. This idea originated in the early days of electric 
interurban railways, when the managements of the com- 
panies were unable to forecast the future and expected that 
lower rates would stimulate business to such an extent that 
low rates would be justified, but they have been disap- 
pointed. At that time steam railroads were receiving 3 
cents per mile. The fare permitted by law is now 2 cents 
per mile. The greater part of the earnings of steam rail- 
ways comes from freight traffic, while the freight traffic of 
electric railways in Wisconsin is so small that it is a ques- 
tion whether or not the expense of carrying it does not 
consume the earnings from that source. 

"While the laws of Wisconsin permit railroad fare of 
2 cents per mile, our new schedule docs not reach that 
average fare. On a 2-cent basis the fare from Fond du 
Lac to Oshkosh would be 40 cents instead of 35 cents; 
the fare from Oshkosh to Neenah would be 30 cents instead 
of 25 cents, and the fare from Oshkosh to Omro would be 
25 cents instead of 20 cents, as established by the new 
schedule, The management is striving to obtain the neces- 
sary income without raising the rates to the limit fixed by 

"No inir lias a deeper interest in the growth and pros- 
perity of the communities served by the Wisconsin Electric 
Railway and the Eastern Wisconsin Railway X' Light Com- 
pany (ban the companies themselves Individuals and 



[Vol. XXXV. No. 2. 

manufacturing plants may move from one community to 
another, but a public service company must continue to 
furnish the best service in its power. We earnestly desire 
and solicit the goodwill and friendship of all who do busi- 
ness with us, and we feel the public will respect us more 
if we establish our properties on a sound financial basis 
than if we allow them to run down and depreciate and 
plainly neglect what the highest court in the land has de- 
clared a duty to the public. 

"In conclusion, we desire to say that the rates established 
by the new schedules are fully justified by the valuation of 
the property made by the Wisconsin Tax Commission for 
taxation purposes, and do not depend upon nor are they 
made necessary by any unfortunate financial operations or 
litigation in the past. The books of the companies will be 
open to the public for inspection at any seasonable time, 
and their examination will convince any of our patrons 
who care to see them that not only is the increase in rate 
well warranted now, but should have been made long ago." 

Promotions from City to Interurban Service and Increase 
in Wages by Ft. Wayne & Wabash Valley Company 

The following bulletin announcing the plans of the Ft. 
Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Company, Ft. Wayne, 
Ind., to advance its employees from city to interurban serv- 
ice, signed by F. Hardy, superintendent of transportation, 
and approved by C. D. Emmons, general manager, was 
issued under date of Dec. 24, 1909: 

"Beginning Jan. 1, 1910, and until further notice, inter- 
urban trainmen as far as possible will be taken from the 
ranks of employees on city lines under the following rules 
and regulations: 

"1. Only men between the ages of 25 and 40 will be pro- 

"2. City men between the ages of 25 and 40 desiring op- 
portunity on interurban line will apply to F. I. Hardy, 
superintendent of transportation; until and including Jan. 
10, 1910, applications will be considered according to se- 
niority of men in city service. After Jan. 10, 1910, applications 
will be considered in order of time application is made. 

"3. Men promoted must learn interurban work on their 
own time. 

"4. City men before being permitted to work on inter- 
urban cars must pass a physical examination for which a 
fee of $1 is charged, and before being turned in as extra 
men must pass examination on interurban rules. 

"5. City men working extra on interurban line will retain 
their positions on city lines until they have a regular run 
on the interurban. 

"6. City men working extra on the interurban will be ex- 
pected to move to another city for regular interurban run 
if open run is not out of the city in which he lives. 

"7. City divisions will carry the following number of 
extra interurban men: Ft. Wayne, 8; Wabash, 1; Peru. 1; 
Logansport, 3; Lafayette, 4. 

"8. City men promoted to interurban will begin on inter- 
urban at same rate of pay that city standing entitles them 
to, and will then be increased according to interurban wage 
scale. A man promoted to interurban drawing 19 cents per 
hour will draw 19 cents until the completion of 19-cent 
year, after which he will draw 20 cents for the next year's 
service, etc., until he draws maximum scale. 

"9. Merit and demerit records of city men transferred to 
the interurban will be kept on the city division until such 
time as men are promoted to interurban for regular run, 
when their records will be transferred to interurban division 
with exact standing as on city line. 

"10. Beginning Jan. 1, 1910, freight, local, work train and 
limited runs will be classed at same rate of pay. 

"11. Beginning Jan. 1, 1910, new men employed on inter- 
urban line or men taken from cities where no employees' 
deposit is required will be required to make a deposit of 

At the time of the posting of the bulletin regarding con- 
ditions of service on the interurban and the city lines, the 
company also announced the following scale of wages 
for motormen and conductors, effective on Jan. 1, 1910: 

Lafayette city division: First year, 17 cents per hour; 
second year, 18 cents per hour; third year, 19 cents per hour; 

fourth year, 19 cents per hour; fifth year and thereafter, 
20 cents per hour. 

Logansport city division: First year, 17 cents per hour; 
second year, 18 cents per hour; third year, 19 cents per 
hour; fourth year, 19 cents per hour; fifth year and there- 
after, 20 cents per hour. 

Peru city division: First year, 17 cents per hour; second 
year, 18 cents per hour; third year and thereafter, 19 cents 
per hour. 

Wabash city division: First year, 17 cents per hour; 
second year, 18 cents per hour; third year and thereafter, 
19 cents per hour. 

Ft. Wayne city division: First year, 18 cents per hour; 
second year, 19 cents per hour; third year, 20 cents per 
hour; fourth year, 20 cents per hour; fifth year and there- 
after, 21 cents per hour. 

Interurban division: First year. 18 cents per hour; second 
year, 19 cents per hour; third year, 20 cents per hour; fourth 
year, 21 cents per hour; fifth year, 22 cents per hour; sixth 
year, 23 cents per hour; seventh year, 24 cents per hour; 
eighth year and thereafter, 25 cents per hour. 

Increase in Wages in New Jersey 

The announcement of the increase in the wages of the 
employees of the Public Service Railway, made on Dec. 
28, 1909, was addressed to the motormen and conductors, 
and was signed by Thomas N. McCarter, president of the 
company. It follows: 

"It is a genuine pleasure for me to be able to announce 
to you at this Christmas season that the company, after long 
deliberation, has settled upon a new scale of wages, effective 
Jan. 1, 1910, which will be of great benefit to you all. The 
new scale is as follows: First-year men, 21 cents per hour; 
second-year men, 22 cents per hour; third-year men, 23 
cents per hour; tenth-year men, 24 cents per hour. 

"191 1. First-year men, 22 cents per hour; second-year 
men, 23 cents per hour; third-year men, 24 cents per hour; 
tenth-year men, 24^ cents per hour. 

"1912. First-year men, 23 cents per hour; second-year 
men, 24 cents per hour; third-year men and upward, 25 
cents per hour. 

"In addition to the foregoing, the company has also de- 
cided upon the two following additional propositions: 

"First: An extra time allowance will be made to such 
men as volunteer for an additional trip after their day's 
work is finished. 

"Second: All men on the extra list who answer all roll 
calls, and perform the work assigned to them, for a period 
of a week, will be guaranteed a minimum wage of $10.50 
per week. 

"I believe that this places the wage scale of this com- 
pany upon the most satisfactory basis of any similarly 
situated corporation in this part of the country, and I re- 
joice that the company's increased prosperity, to which you 
have all contributed, makes this action possible. 

"The company also has under consideration the adoption 
of a benevolent plan for the benefit of its employees, which 
we hope to perfect during the coming year. 

"Of course, it is manifest that the consummation of this 
benevolent plan, and the carrying into effect of the raises 
outlined for future years, can only take place if we con- 
tinue to have the same loyalty and co-operation on the part 
of employees which we have had in the past." 

Pension Plan and New Terms of Service in Philadelphia 

On Jan. 1, 1910, the Philadelphia (Pa.) Rapid Transit 
Company announced in a Transit Talk in the daily press 
new conditions to govern the service of employees with the 
company. The greeting to the employees follows: 

"At a special meeting of the directors of the Philadelphia 
Rapid Transit Compam\ held on Dec. 31, 1909, to con- 
sider the welfare of the employees of the company, it was 
determined : 


"To provide for an insurance of $500 for each employee 
in the transportation (motormen and conductors), shop, 
power house and lines and cables departments — not includ- 
ing officers or clerks. This provision is to take effect im- 

January 8, 1910.] 



mediately with respect to men now in the employ of the 
company; but with respect to men employed after Jan. r, 
1910, it is not to take effect until they have been in the con- 
tinuous employ of the company for two years. 


"To provide for pensions of $20 a month to all employees 
who have arrived at 65 years of age and have been continu- 
ously in the service of the company and its subsidiary com- 
panies for 25 years. 


"The motormen and conductors now in the employ of 
the company, and who remain continuously therein, will re- 
ceive an increase of 1 cent an hour on July 1, 1910; another 
cent an hour on July 1, 1912, and another cent an hour on 
July 1, 1914, making a maximum rate at that date of 25 cents 
per hour. 

"Motormen and conductors entering the service after 
Jan. 1, 1910, will receive the present rate of wages, namely, 
22 cents an hour, until they have served the company con- 
tinuously for two years, and if they remain in the service of 
the company, they will then receive the increase of 1 cent 
an hour each two years thereafter, until the maximum of 
25 cents an hour is reached. 


"Motormen and conductors in the elevated service will 
likewise receive an increase of 1 cent an hour on July 1, 
1910, and further increases of 1 cent an hour at the end of 
each 2-year period, until the maximums of 28 cents an 
hour for motormen and 25 cents an hour for conductors are 

"New men entering the elevated service will be likewise 
increased after each two years of continuous service. 

"Station and train men now in the elevated service will 
receive 19 cents an hour after July 1, 1910, with a further 
increase to 20 cents at the expiration of two years. 

"New employees entering this branch of the service will 
receive i8i/£ cents an hour until they complete two years of 
service, when they will be paid 19 cents, and after two years' 
further service, 20 cents. 

"Arrangements will be made to give the benefit of the 
above insurance and pension features to certain employees 
of the roadway department. 

"A committee of the officials of the company has been 
instructed by the board of directors to work out the details 
of the insurance and pension plans." 

Limited Cars Collide in Indiana. — The eastbound Dayton 
limited and the westbound Newcastle limited of the Terre 
Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company, Terre 
Haute, Ind., were telescoped in a head-on collision at Wil- 
lett's Switch, 3 miles west of Greenfield, at 3:30 p. m. on 
Jan. 1, 1910. Five passengers were seriously injured and 
several were slightly hurt. 

The Question of Car Temperature in Cincinnati. — An in- 
dictment has been returned by the Hamilton County Grand 
Jury against W. Kesley Schoepf, president of the Cincinnati 
Traction Company, on the charge of failure to keep the 
temperature in certain street cars up to the required 60 deg. 
Fahr. The indictment states that on Dec. 20, 1909, the 
temperature in cars on four lines was found to be insuffi- 

New Los Angeles-Pacific Timetable. — The Los Angeles- 
Pacific Company, Los Angeles, Cal., has published a new 
timetable of its suburban and interurban service, a feature 
of which is a condensed statement of the running time be- 
tween various points over the several routes. Special at- 
tention is called to the "Balloon Route Excursion," a trip 
of 100 miles for $1 through picturesque lower California, 
which includes a ride of 36 miles along the ocean shore. 

Long-Distance Service in Ohio. — The Ohio Electric Rail- 
way has established service between Columbus and To- 
ledo, with a change of cars at Lima. The trains run by 
way of Springfield and Lima, 187 miles distant, and the 
schedule time is 5 nr. 15 min. Two trains each way are 
operated daily. The service was established primarily for 
the accommodation of members of the General Assembly. 
The company operates a similar service between Columbus 
and Indianapolis and Cincinnati and Indianapolis 

Conductors Traffic in Car Tickets in Columbus, Ohio. — 
Two conductors in the employ of the Columbus Railway & 

Light Company, Columbus, Ohio, were fined $50 each on 
Dec. 31, 1909, for illegally retaining and selling used tickets 
of the company. They sold tickets which they had failed 
to punch and ring up at the rate of 40 for $1. One of the 
men convicted had been in the employ of the company for 
16 years. He is said to have confessed that he had been 
stealing tickets for the last five or six years. The other 
conductor had been with the company only a year. 

Boston Elevated Railway Distributes Rewards. — The 
Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway made its seventh annual 
distribution of rewards to employees on Dec. 31, 1909, about 
$75,000 in gold being given to 3500 men in the transporta- 
tion service whose records were satisfactory for the year. 
Between So per cent and 90 per cent of the employees in 
each of the company's 10 divisions were eligible for the 
reward, which varied from a minimum of $20 to a maximum 
of $25. Last year the minimum was $15. Since inaugurat- 
ing the custom of giving a bonus in gold to employees with 
exemplary records at New Year's the company has dis- 
tributed $403,785 to men in various branches of its service. 

Toledo, Bowling Green & Southern Traction Company 
Accepts Tariffs. — The Toledo, Bowling Green & Southern 
Traction Company has issued the following notice: "The 
Toledo, Bowling Green & Southern Traction Company 
hereby adopts, ratifies and makes its own, in every respect 
as if the same had been originally filed and posted by it, all 
tariffs, rules, notices, concurrences, traffic agreements, divi- 
sions, authorities, power of attorney, or other instruments 
whatsoever filed with the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion or Railroad Commission of Ohio, by the Toledo Urban 
& Interurban Railway, Harry W. Lloyd, receiver, prior to 
Jan. 1, 1910, the beginning of its possession. By this tariff 
it also adopts and ratifies all supplements or amendments 
to any of the above tariffs, etc., which it has heretofore 
filed with the commission." 

Conference on Weymouth Trolley Freight Situation. — 
The members of the Railroad Commission of Massachu- 
setts conferred with the officers of the Old Colony Street 
Railway and the Selectmen of Weymouth on Dec. 21, 1909, 
relative to the franchise offered by the town to the com- 
pany in connection with the carrying of freight and express 
matter. Bentley W. Warren, of Boston, represented the 
company, and Town Solicitor Worthen the selectmen. Mr. 
Warren stated that the Old Colony Street Railway had 
secured franchises to carry freight in 26 municipalities and 
was now operating such a service in 22 cities and towns. 
The company objected to the franchise offered in Wey- 
mouth on account of its being limited to 20 years, and con- 
tended that the commission should grant it an unlimited 
franchise. Chairman Hall of the commission informed the 
Selectmen that under the laws the commission possessed 
the right to change the regulations at any time, but that it 
was doubtful if the commission had authority to approve 
such a franchise with a time limit. He felt that if the 
Weymouth charter was allowed it would enable a municipal- 
ity to grant or withhold franchise rights independently of 
the State authorities. 

Injunction to Increase in Fare Denied. — Judge Swearingen 
has handed down an opinion in the suit brought in the 
Borough of Turtle Creek against the Electric Avenue Street 
Railway, the Ardmore Street Railway, the Consolidated 
Traction and the Pittsburgh Railways, refusing to grant an 
injunction to prevent the latter, as lessee, from operating 
cars over the borough streets or to charge a fare of 10 cents 
from 1 he east line of Turtle Creek to Pittsburgh. It was 
alleged by borough officials thai the original franchise pro 
vided that the Ardmore Street Railway should haul passen 
gers over its own lines, those of the Electric Avenue Street 
Railway and the Consolidated Traction Company from 
Turtle Creek to Pittsburgh for a maximum fare of 10 cents. 
The Pittsburgh Railway afterward leased the lines and 
raised the fare to 15 cents between the points, and it was 
alleged it had no right to charge this rate nor to use- the 
tracks of the company running into Turtle Creek without 
the consent of the borough officials. An injunction was 
asked. Judge Swearingen held that tin company was under 
no obligations to carry passengers from Wilkinsburg for 5 
cents, and thence t'l Pittsburgh for another 5 cents. The 
courl further held thai the fare of [5 cents for the trip was 

not proved excessive. 



[Vol. XXXV. No. 2. 

Personal Mention 

Mr. H. M. Dowling has resigned as a member of the 
Railroad Commission of Indiana. 

Mr. J. C. Forester has resigned as general freight agent 
of the Ohio Electric Railway, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Mr. Frank E. Payne has been appointed a member of the 
Railroad Commission of Indiana to succeed Mr. H. M. 
Dowling, resigned. 

Mr. J. R. Harrigan, superintendent of the Columbus, 
Delaware & Marion Railway, Columbus, Ohio, has been 
appointed general manager of the company. 

Mr. C. O. Sullivan, traffic manager of the Winona Interur- 
ban Railway, Winona Lake, Ind., has been appointed general 
freight and passenger agent of the company. 

Mr. R. T. Gunn has resigned as vice-president and gen- 
eral manager of the Eastern Wisconsin Railway & Light 
Company, Fond du Lac, Wis., and of the Wisconson Electric 
Railway, Oshkosh, Wis., on account of ill health. 

Mr. O. S. Newton has resigned as chief engineer of the 
Mansfield Railway, Light & Power Company, Mansfield, 
Ohio, to become electrical engineer of the Buckeye Mining 
& Smelting Company, with properties at Big Pine, Col. 

Mr. G. A. Harvey has resigned as electrical engineer of the 
International Traction Company, Buffalo, N. Y., after serv- 
ing six years in that capacity and has gone to Colorado 
Springs, Cal., for a short respite before taking up work in 
the Central West. 

Mr. John F. Lahrmer, chief train despatcher of the Colum- 
bus, Delaware & Marion Railway, Columbus, Ohio, has 
been appointed superintendent of the company, to succeed 
Mr. J. R. Harrigan, who has been appointed general man- 
ager of the company. 

Mr. E. G. Howard has resigned as general superintend- 
ent of the Pensacola (Fla.) Electric Company, which fur- 
nishes power for lighting in Pensacola and operates 20.5 
miles of electric railway in that city. Mr. Howard has not 
yet announced his plans for the future. 

Mr. Clement C. Smith, president of the Eastern Wisconsin 
Railway & Light Company, Fond du Lac, Wis., and the 
Wisconsin Electric Railway, Oshkosh, Wis., has assumed 
the duties of manager of the companies, relinquished by 
Mr. R. T. Gunn, whose resignation is announced elsewhere 
in this column. 

Mr. W. S. Bourlier has been appointed electrical engineer 
of the Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Electric Rail- 
way, with headquarters at Odenton, Md., in charge of rolling 
stock and the power department of the company. Mr. 
Bourlier was formerly with the construction department of 
the Genera! Electric Company. 

Mr. J. P. Pulliam, general superintendent of the Eastern 
Wisconsin Railway & Light Company, Fond du Lac, Wis., 
and the Wisconsin Electric Railway, Oshkosh, Wis., has 
been appointed manager of the railway department and 
assistant general manager of the companies in charge in 
the absence of Mr. Clement C. Smith. 

Mr. W. J. Kelsh, master mechanic of the Eastern Wis- 
consin Railway & Light Company, Fond du Lac, Wis., and 
the Wisconsin Electric Railway, Oshkosh, Wis., has been 
appointed superintendent of rolling stock of both companies 
and assistant manager of the railway department of the 
Eastern Wisconsin Railway & Light Company, with head- 
quarters in Oshkosh, Wis. 

Mr. M. B. Osborne has recently been appointed master 
mechanic of the Galveston (Tex.) Electric Company. Mr. 
Osborne has been a shop employee of the company for 
several years,, and his appointment as master mechanic is 
in recognition of his seniority, attention to the interests of 
the company and his capabilities, in accordance with the 
policy of the company to advance men in its service. 

Mr. J. H. Brinkerhoff has resigned as superintendent of 
the Rio Grande Junction Railway, Grand Junction, Col., to 
become general superintendent of the Grand Junction & 
Grand River Valley Railway, Grand Junction, Col. Mr. 
Brinkerhoff has been in steam railroad service continuously 

since 1891. For 15 years he was connected with the Union 
Pacific Railway and for the last 3J/2 years he has been con- 
nected with the Rio Grande Junction Railway as superin- 

Mr. John C. Brackenridge, formerly chief engineer of the 
Brooklyn (N. Y.) Rapid Transit Company, has been elected 
vice-president of the Manhattan Bridge Three-Cent Line, 
which has been incorporated with the intended purpose of 
building a 4-mile railway from Brooklyn across the Man- 
hattan Bridge, which is soon to be opened, into New York. 
Mr. Brackenridge served as commissioner of public works 
under Mr. Martin W. Littleton, president of the Borough of 
Brooklyn, several years ago, and has recently been acting 
in an independent consulting capacity with offices in New 

Mr. John A. Jones, city engineer of Lewiston, Maine, has 
been appointed a member of the Railroad Commission of 
Maine to succeed Mr. Parker A. Spofford. Bucksport, whose 
term of office expired on Nov. 24, 1909. Mr. Jones is a 
native of Lewiston and was graduated from Bates College 
in 1872. While in college, he was engaged in the Bangor 
and Piscataquis survey and has been in railroad work practi- 
cally ever since. In 1874, Mr. Jones was elected city engi- 
neer of Lewiston, a position he has held under different 
administrations. Mr. Jones helped to build the horse railway 
in Lewiston and has laid out more than 400 miles of electric 
railway, including the Lewiston, Bath & Brunswick Street 
Railway and the Lewiston, Augusta & Waterville Street 

Mr. E. Keller, for the last three years foreman of in- 
spection of the eastern division of the elevated lines of the 
Brooklyn (N. Y.) Rapid Transit Company, has resigned 
from that company to become connected with the engineer- 
ing department of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufac- 
turing Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. Mr. Keller entered the 
employ of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company in May, 
1897, as a stock clerk and was advanced rapidly through 
the mechanical department. In June, 1899, he was appointed 
wireman's helper and continued in this capacity until Janu- 
ary, 1900, when he was appointed road inspector. In 
February, 1903, Mr. Keller was appointed wireman and on 
Feb. 22, 1905, he was appointed controller man. On Nov. 
23, 1906, he was appointed assistant foreman of the eastern 
division of the elevated lines and was advanced from this 
position to that of foreman on May 31, 1907. During his 
connection with the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company, Mr. 
Keller took the evening course in applied electricity at Pratt 
Institute, Brooklyn. 

Mr. F. E. Reidhead, whose retirement as manager of the 
Paducah (Ky.) Traction Company to return to the home 
office of the Stone & Webster Management Association 'in 
Boston was announced in the Electric Railway Journal 
of Jan. 1, 1910, is a graduate engineer and has been in the 
employ of Stone & Webster since 1897. During his con- 
nection with Stone & Webster Mr. Reidhead has served 
as general superintendent of the Minneapolis (Minn.) Gen- 
eral Electric Company, manager of the Columbus Railroad, 
Columbus Power Company and Gas Light Company of 
Columbus, Columbus, Ga., and for two years as manager of 
the Paducah Traction Company and the Paducah Light & 
Power Company. Mr. Reidhead made many friends in 
Paducah, and the News-Democrat of that city upon learning 
that Mr. Reidhead was to leave Paducah published an edi- 
torial complimenting him on the results he achieved which 
it concluded as follows: "Under Mr. Reidhead's manage- 
ment we understand the company's interests in Paducah 
have arrived at a very satisfactory degree of development 
and this should in itself be a measure of great satisfaction 
to both the retiring manager as well as those interested in 
the company." 

Mr. A. B. Wells has been appointed superintendent of the 
local lines of the Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, 
Cal., in Pasadena and vicinity' and the Mt. Lowe division 
of the company, with offices in Pasadena. Mr. Wells began 
his railway career with the Brooklyn (N. Y.) Rapid Transit 
Company in 1896 as a clerk. His service with this company- 
continued until 1904, during which time he acted as chief 
clerk to the dockmaster in charge of track supplies, general 
timekeeper of the maintenance of way department, chief 
clerk to the chief engineer, assistant chief clerk to the- 

January 8, 1910.] 



general manager and payroll accountant in charge of the 
time of the whole system. Mr. Wells resigned from the 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company to accept a position as 
operating superintendent with the Mexico City Tramway, 
Mexico City, Mex., and remained with the company two 
years, during which he had charge of all the divisions of the 
company at different times. Shortly after leaving Mexico 
Mr. Wells became chief clerk to Mr. Joseph McMillan, 
general manager of the Pacific Electric Railway, and con- 
tinued in this position until his appointment as superintend- 
ent of the lines of the company in Pasadena and the Mt. 
Lowe division on Dec. 15, 1909. 

Mr. W. F. Towne, who. as noted in the Electric Railway 
Journal of Dec. 25, 1909, page 1284, has been given the title 
of general freight agent of the Pacific Electric Railway, Los 
Angeles, Cal., has been engaged in railroad work for 20 
years. Mr. Towne started 
as a telegrapher and sten- 
ographer in Massachusetts. 
Subsequently he filled sev- 
eral representative traffic 
positions with steam rail- 
roads in the East and later 
served as commercial agent 
of the Colorado & Southern 
Railroad and the Denver & 
Rio Grande Railroad in 
Colorado. Mr. Towne next 
became foreign freight 
agent of the Southern Pa- 
cific Company, San Fran- 
cisco, and later accepted the 
position of auditor of the 
Tonopah (Nev.) Railroad. 

He has been connected W. F. Towne 

with the Pacific Electric 

Railway, Los Angeles, Cal.. which operates more than 550 
miles of line, since Jan 1. 1908. 

Mr. M. W. Glover has been appointed auditor of the Mo- 
bile Light & Railroad Company, Mobile, Ala., to succeed 
Mr. Lloyd Lyon, who as announced in the Electric Railway 
Journal of Dec. 11, 1909, has been appointed treasurer of 
the Mexico Tramways and the Mexican Light & Power 
Company, Ltd., Mexico City, Mex. Mr. Glover relinquished 
the position of assistant to the traffic manager of the Illi- 
nois Traction System to accept the appointment to the 
Mobile Light & Railroad Company. He was formerly 
auditor of the Ohio Electric Railway, in which capacity he 
served from July 1, 1906, until Oct. 31. 1909. Mr. Glover 
began his railroad career on Dec. 1, 1889, in the local freight 
office of the Southern Carolina Railway, which at that time 
was in the hands of a receiver. He was subsequently trans- 
ferred to the auditor's office where he handled freight, 
passenger and other accounts.' The Southern Carolina & 
Georgia Railroad succeeded to the property of the Southern 
Carolina Railway and the receivership was terminated prior 
to July, 1895, when Mr. Glover was appointed traveling 
auditor of the Southern Carolina & Georgia Railroad. In 
May, 1899, the Southern Carolina & Georgia Railroad was 
absorbed by the Southern Railway. Mr. Glover was re- 
tained as traveling auditor by the Southern Railway and 
continued in that capacity until June, 1901. when he was ad- 
vanced to chief traveling auditor of the Southern Railway. 
In June, 1903, he resigned from the Southern Railway to 
become chief clerk to the auditor of the Atlanta & West 
Point Railroad and the Western Railway of Alabama and 
continued with that company until July 1, 1906, when he 
accepted the position of auditor of the lines comprising tin 
Ohio Electric Railway. Mr. Glover has been president of 
the Central Electric Accounting Conference since the for 
mation of the organization in 1907. 


James W. Friend, Pittsburgh, Pa., died on De< 26, 1909, 
after a lingering illness. He was 64 years old. Mr. Friend 
was vice-president of the Pressed Steel Car Company, the 
Western Steel Car & Foundry Company, one of the owners 
of the Clinton Iron Xi Steel Company, vice president of tin 
German National Bank, Allegheny, ami a director in tin 
Farmers Deposit National liank, Pittsburgh Tin- funeral 
took place on Dee ji). fQOQ, 

Construction News 

Construction News Notes are classified under each head- 
ing alphabetically by States. 

An asterisk (*) indicates a project not previously 


San Jose (Cal.) Railroads. — Incorporated for the purpose 
of taking over the San Jose & Los Gatos Interurban Rail- 
way and the San Jose (Cal.) Railway. It is the intention 
to construct other lines within the corporate limits of San 
Jose, East San Jose and Santa Clara, as well as in the im- 
mediate outskirts of San Jose. The total length of the sys- 
tem, when extensions are completed, will be 23 miles. Capi- 
tal stock, $5,000,000. Incorporators: L. E. Hanchett, W. R. 
Lawson, E. M. Rea and F. E. Fitzpatrick. 

*Beech Grove Traction Company, Indianapolis, Ind. — In- 
corporated in Indiana for the purpose of building an electric 
railway from Indianapolis to Beech Grove, also to build and 
operate power plants. Capital stock, $10,000. Directors: 
W. H. Ogan, M. T. Hawkins and S. E. Hamlin. 

*Somer, Poison & Missoula Electric Railway, Kalispell, 
Mont. — Incorporated for the purpose of building an electric 
railway between Kalispell and Poison, and eventually to 
make a connection with the Northern Pacific Railroad on 
the south and with Whitefish and Columbia Falls on the 
north. Capital stock, $50,000. Incorporators: J. A. Coram, 
F. H. Nash, T. D. Long, E. R. Gay and A. L. Jacquit, all of 
Kalispell; James A. Talbott, Columbia Falls. 

*Whitefish & Poison Electric Railway, Kalispell, Mont. — 
Incorporated to build an electric railway from Kalispell 
northward to Whitefish and southward through Somers to 
Poison, on the west shore of Flathead Lake. Headquarters, 
Kalispell. Capital stock, $200,000. Incorporators: G. H. 
Adams, J. H. Stevens, Joseph Edge, D. Ledgerwood, O. P. 
Mosby and Peter Nilson. 

*Manhattan Bridge Three-Cent Line, Brooklyn, N. Y.— 
Incorporated for the purpose of building a 4-mile street 
railway from the junction of Flatbush Avenue and Fulton 
Street, Brooklyn, over the Manhattan Bridge and through 
Canal Street, Manhattan, to the Hudson River. The en- 
gineering details are all in the hands of John C. Bracken- 
ridge. The company proposes to charge a 3-cent fare. 
Principal office, Brooklyn. Capital stock, $50,000. Officers: 
Frederick W. Rowe, president; John C. Brackenridge, vice- 
president; Walter Hammit, secretary; Edward T. Horwill. 

*Niagara Falls, Welland & Dunnville Electric Railway, 
Welland, Ont. — Application has been made by this com- 
pany, through its solicitor Hugh A. Rose, Welland, for a 
charter to build an electric railway from Niagara Falls to 
Allenburg, then along the east side of the Welland Canal 
to Port Robinson, then west by the Forks road to Dunn- 
ville. It will be about 50 miles long. Capital stock, $1,- 
000,000. Directors: J. Cralton Gardner, Niagara Falls, N. 
Y.; William Maxwell and George H. Burgar, Welland; 
F. S. Buell, Buffalo, N. Y.; F. R. Lalor, M. P.. Dunville, 
and George Arnold, Ridgeville. 

*Sunbury & Freeburg Street Railway, Sunbury, Pa. — 
Chartered to build a 15-mile electric railway from Selins 
grove to Freeburg via Kantz. A section of the line in 
Selinsgrove will be over the right-of-way of the Sunbury 
& Selinsgrove Electric Railway. Capital stock, $30,000. 
Directors: W. H. Lyons, Sunbury, president; Guy Webster, 
Boyd A. Musser, C. M. Clement and W. H. Greenough 

Mill Mountain Incline, Inc., Roanoke, Va. — Chartered to 
build an electric railway from Roanoke to the summit of 
Mill Mountain. Preliminary capital stock, $5,000 to $20,000. 
Officers: A. II. Hammond, president; C. Markley, vice- 
president; O. I.. BottOmley, secretary and treasurer, all of 

Oregon & Washington Traction Company, Walla Walla, 
Wash. — Incorporated in Oregon to build an electric railway 
from Walla Walla to Pendleton, Ore., a distance of 53 
miles. Principal office. Walla Walla. Capital stock $500,- 
000. Incorporators: Max Baumeister, E. S. Isaacs. A. II. 
Reynolds, John Smith, W. A. Kit/, S. I.. Sharpstein, Samuel 
Drumheller and (' K. Holloway. \JL. R. J., Nov. 20, 'on | 

9 2 


[Vol. XXXV. No. 2. 

Alameda, Cal. — The Southern Pacific Company, San Fran- 
cisco, has applied to the City Council for a franchise for 
about 400 ft. of track to extend from the east end loop of 
the new electric system to the south end of High Street 
Bridge across the Tidal Canal. It is stated that the com- 
pany plans to extend its Alameda system to connect with 
the suburban line projected east of Fruitvale and on to 
San Jose. 

Los Angeles, Cal. — The City Council has granted a fran- 
chise to Fred W. Forrester for a street railway on Vermont 
Avenue from Muth Street to Eighth Street. Property 
owners have already raised $12,000 as a bonus to the Los 
Angeles Railway for the construction of the line. The 
City Council has also sold a franchise to the Edwards & 
Wildey Company for a line on Melrose Avenue from Helio- 
trope Drive to Normandie. 

Cceur d'Alene, Idaho. — It is stated that the Spokane, 
Wallace & Interstate Electric Railway will apply for an 
electric railway franchise at the next meeting of the City 
Council. Surveys have been completed and options have 
been obtained on much of the right of way between Cceur 
d'Alene and Wallace. F. F. Johnson, president. [E. R. J., 
Jan. 30, '08.] 

*Twin Falls, Idaho. — A franchise has been granted to the 
Twin Falls Electric Railroad, Light & Power Company to 
establish a street railway in Twin Falls. The company is 
represented in Twin Falls by George F. Sprague and W. P. 

Auburn, 111. — The City Council has granted a franchise 
to the Illinois Traction Company to construct its system 
through that city. Service to Springfield in the future will 
be through Auburn. 

East St. Louis, 111. — The City Council has granted an ex- 
tension of time to the Southern Traction Company of Illi- 
nois in which to complete its electric railway between 
Belleville and East St. Louis. W. E. Trautman, president. 
[E. R. J., Aug. 21, '09.] 

^Indianapolis, Ind. — The Beech Grove Traction Company 
has applied to the County Commissioners for an electric 
railway franchise over Churchman Pike between Indian- 
apolis and Beech Grove. A similar franchise has been ap- 
plied for by the Shore Line Traction Company which pro- 
poses to build over the same route. 

St. Joseph, Mo. — The City Council has passed two ordi- 
nances granting franchises to the St. Joseph Railway, 
Light, Heat & Power Company. One grants a 30-year fran- 
chise for an extension of the Frederick Avenue line from 
Twenty-sixth Street to a point several hundred yards east 
of State Hospital No. 2. The other ordinance grants a 
35-year franchise for a line into Northwest St. Joseph. 

Baker City, Ore. — The City Council has granted to the 
Baker Interurban Railway a six-months' extension of its 
franchise in which to begin work on its street railway in 
Baker City. The company also plans to build an interur- 
ban railway from Baker City to North Powder and Rock 
Creek. Anthony Mohr, Baker City, treasurer and pur- 
chasing agent. [E. R. J., Sept. 11, '09.] 

Donora, Pa. — The Borough Council has annulled the fran- 
chise of the Donora & Eldora Street Railway and has given 
a contract to put streets in same condition as when the com- 
pany entered upon them. The railway was recently taken 
over by the Pittsburgh, McKeesport & Westmoreland Rail- 

Austin, Tex. — The Austin Electric Railway has made a 
proposition to the County Commissioners for a 20-year 
franchise to operate three cars over the Colorado Bridge 
to serve the people of South Austin, offering to pay an 
annual rental of $1,150 for the use of the tracks over the 


*Bridgeport Electric & Railway Company, Bridgeport, 
Ala. — This company has been organized to build a 5^4-mile 
street railway in Bridgeport. A 250-hp power plant will 
also be built. Officers: W. D. Scarbrough, president; L. W. 
Rorer, vice-president; A. L. Atwood, secretary; J. P. Scar- 
brough, treasurer and manager, all of Bridgeport. 

Troy, Ala. — Surveys are being made under the direction 
of W. VV. Lotspeich, Atlanta, Ga., for the route for the pro- 
posed street railway in Troy. W. R. White is the holder of 
the franchise. [E. R. J., Aug. 14, '09.] 

California Midland Railroad, San Francisco, Cal. — John 
Martin, president of this company, is said to have announced 
that the line would be completed to Mamonton by spring 
and Grass Valley in the fall, connecting Grass Valley and 
Marysville. The route will be changed somewhat from the 
original plan by taking in Spenceville, Iron Mountain and 
ihi Penn Valley country west of Grass Valley. The line 
as planned will reach Marysville, Grass Valley, Nevada 
City and Auburn, a distance of 70 miles. 

Atlanta, Ga. — Louis B. Magid, president of the Piedmont 
Power Company, Atlanta, denies the report that he is in- 
terested in a street railway project at Tullulah Falls. Mr. 
Magid states, however, that the Piedmont Power Company 
is about to develop a large water power of 20,000-hp ca- 
pacity. [E. R. J., Dec. 25, '09.] 

Macon Railway & Light Company, Macon, Ga. — This com- 
pany expects to place contracts during the next two months 
for the construction of 4 miles of new track and overhead 
work. About 8 miles of track and overhead construction 
will be rebuilt. J. T. Nyhan, general manager. 

East St. Louis, Columbia & Waterloo Railway, East St. 
Louis, 111. — This company expects to start work during the 
spring on its proposed railway, which is to connect East 
St. Louis, Dupo, Bixby, Columbia and Waterloo, a distance 
of 24 miles. Nearly all the rights-of-way have been secured, 
and steel and other material has been ordered for two over- 
head crossings near Columbia. Capital stock, authorized 
and issued $750,000. Headquarters, Metropolitan Building, 
East St. Louis. H. Reichenbach, Columbia, secretary and 
treasurer. [E. R. J., Aug. 7, '09.] 

Belleville & Pinckneyville Traction Company, Pinckney- 
ville, 111. — This company has completed the preliminary 
work and secured all the franchises in connection with its 
proposed electric railway between Belleville and Pinckney- 
ville, 46.5 miles. Financial matters, however, have not as 
yet been closed up. The projected line will pass through 
Freeburg, New Athens, Lenzburg, Marissa, Tilden, Coulter- 
ville, Swanwick, and Winkel. Locations for the power 
plant and repair shop have not as yet been definitely decided 
upon by the company. Capital stock, authorized, $100,000, 
to be increased to $2,500,000. Bonds, authorized, $2,500,000. 
Officers: L. D. Turner, Belleville, president; E. R. Hincke, 
Pinckneyville, vice-president; George F. Mead, Pinckney- 
ville, secretary; J. A. Hamilton, Marissa, treasurer; Harper 
Bros., East St. Louis, chief engineers. [S. R. J., May 2, '08.] 

Indianapolis, Crawfordsville & Western Traction Com- 
pany, Indianapolis, Ind. — This company will reballast its 
track from Brownsburg, Ind., to Crawfordsville, Ind., 31 
miles, beginning work early this spring. C. E. Morgan, 
general manager. 

Tippecanoe & Monticello Interurban Company, Monti- 
cello, Ind. — W. R. White, secretary, announces that this 
company expects to have construction under way on its 
projected railway in the early spring. The line will connect 
Monticello, Idaville, Sitka, Buffalo, Hedley, Pulaskiville and 
Winamac, a distance of 36 miles. The motive power will 
be either gasoline or electricity. It is planned to operate 
four cars. Capital stock, authorized, $100,000. Officers: 
Wm. R. Felker, president; Thos. W. O'Connor, vice-presi- 
dent and treasurer; W. R. White, secretary and general 
manager, all of Monticello. [E. R. J., 'Sept. 11, '09.] 

Des Moines & Sioux City Railroad, Des Moines, la. — 
A meeting of the directors of this company was recently 
held to consider a new proposition for financing the pro- 
posed electric railway to Sioux City. The board passed a 
resolution to issue its debentures in the denomination of 
$50 to the amount of $100,000, payable in three years, at 6 
per cent interest. This amount is required in the prelimi- 
nary work of financing the line. [E. R. J., Nov. 20, '09.] 

Marengo & Midland Railway, Marengo, la. — It is re- 
ported that the project of building an electric railway from 
Marengo to Cedar Rapids is being revived by this company. 
Meetings have been held between representatives of the 
towns along the route, and the matter is again being taken 

January 8, 1910.] 



up by the Commercial Clubs of the two cities. D. C. Mott 
and C. M. Breen, Marengo, are interested. [S. R. J., 
Jan. 16, '07.] 

Kansas Union Traction Company, Altamont, Kan. — At an 
election held on Dec. 28, three townships of Labette County 
voted bonds to aid the Kansas Union Traction Company, 
making a total of $31,500 for the three townships. The 
company proposes to build a 90-mile railway from Coffey- 
ville to Cherryvale. Barney McDaniel, secretary. [E. R. J., 
Dec. 18, '09.] 

Twin City & Lake Superior Railway, Minneapolis, Minn. 

— This company has filed a mortgage in favor of the Ameri- 
can Trust & Savings Bank, Chicago, 111., as trustee, to 
secure an issue of $4,000,000 of bonds. Of this amount 
$250,000 of bonds is to be issued at once. The company 
is building a 130-mile electric railway from Minneapolis to 
Duluth and Superior. About one-half of the route has been 
graded. [E. R. J., Jan. 1, '10.] 

Interstate Railway, Kansas City, Mo. — The Electric Trac- 
tion Construction Company, Commerce Building, Kansas 
City, Mo., is in the market for electrical machinery, sewer 
pipe, cement, cars, bridge material, etc., for the Interstate 
Railway which is now building an electric railway from 
Kansas City to St. Joseph, Mo., a distance of 48^ miles. 
[E. R. J., Nov. 20, '09.] 

Kansas Traction Company, Kansas City, Mo. — This com- 
pany advises that it has not decided upon a definite date 
for beginning work on its projected railway. Financial 
arrangements are pending. The line will be about 200 miles 
in length and will extend from Kansas City, Mo., to Coffey- 
ville, Kan., via Lawrence, Topeka, Ottawa, Garnett, Iola and 
Cherryvale, Kan. The third-rail system will be used. 
Capital stock, authorized, $25,000. Headquarters, 1631 Penn 
Avenue, Kansas City, Mo. Officers: F. B. Shirley, Kansas 
City, Mo., president and general manager; Charles Rpszie, 
Liberty, Kan., vice-president; George W. Boyd, Coffeyville, 
Kan., secretary; W. C. Hall, Coffeyville, Kan., treasurer; 
Paul Julien, Indianapolis, Ind., chief engineer. fS. R. J., 
May 9, '08.] 

Hornell-Bath Interurban Railway, Hornell, N. Y. — The 

Public Service Commission of the Second District has 
authorized this company to issue $250,000 capital stock and 
$450,000 of 40-year 5 per cent gold bonds for the construc- 
tion of its proposed railway between Hornell and Bath, 24 
miles. [E. R. J., Jan. 1, '10.] 

*Hudson, Center & New Salem Electric Railway, Schafer, 
N. D. — Press reports state that this company has been 
formed at Schafer for the purpose of building an electric 
railway to connect the three points. It is planned to build 
a power plant at Center. The proposed line is to parallel 
at some distance the extension the Northern Pacific Rail- 
road is building north from Mandan. 

Ottawa & St. Lawrence Electric Railway, Ottawa, Ont.— 
J. McFarlane, a director of this company, is quoted as saying 
that arrangements would be made with the New York Cen- 
tral & Hudson River Railroad for a direct connection with 
its system. Options had been secured on several falls on 
the Ottawa River, west of the city, from which the neces- 
sary power would be developed for the operation of the 
company's lines. The location surveys had been completed 
for 18 miles, and estimates were in preparation, so that the 
grading could be started at an early date. The preliminary 
surveys showed the line would be almost straight from 
Ottawa to Morrisburg. [E. R. J., Oct. 9, '09.] 

♦Toronto, Ont. — W. H. Price, Toronto, is said to be con- 
sidering a proposition to organize a company to build an 
electric railway from Toronto to Barrie, with branches to 
Orillia and Owen Sound via Meaford, a distance of over 150 
miles. Application will be made at the next session of the 
Legislature for a charter. 

Pittsburgh (Pa.) Railways. — This company will build 
about I2J/2 miles of new track during 1910. C. W. Lcpper, 
purchasing agent. 

Clarksville Railway & Light Company, Clarksville, Tenn. 
— It is stated that this company, which is reported to have 
been purchased by interests represented by E. I- Fischer, 
Danville, 111., will extend its lines In New Providence and 
Dunbar's Cave. 

Lakeview Traction Company, Memphis, Tenn. — This com- 
pany has applied for an amendment to its charter to enable 
it to run four lines through Memphis, namely, two north 
and two south, crosstown. The company is now building 
its line to Lakeview, Miss. W. W. Hayden, chief engineer. 

San Antonio (Tex.) Traction Company. — This company 
is now building a 3^-mile extension to Lakeview, a suburb. 
All material is on the ground. J. J. King, general superin- 

El Paso & Fort Hancock Railway, El Paso, Tex.— This 
company advises that it has done considerable grading work 
on its projected railway between El Paso and Ysleta, 10 
miles. It is the intention to complete preliminary arrange- 
ments so as to begin work Feb. 1. Three small culverts 
will be built along the route. The motive power has not 
yet been decided upon. Capital stock, authorized. $100,000. 
Officers: C. N. Bassett, president; Felix Martinez, vice- 
president; Thos. O'Keeffe, Chamber of Commerce, secre- 
tary; Winchester Cooley, treasurer, all of El Paso. [E. R 
J., Oct. 2, '09.] 

Rutland Railway, Light & Power Company, Rutland, Vt. 

—This company is said to be making surveys for an exten- 
sion to be built during the summer to Lake St. Catherine, 
about 23 miles distant from Rutland and southwest of Fair 

Seattle-Tacoma Short Line Electric Railway, Tacoma, 
Wash. — This company has filed for record at Tacoma a 
mortgage in favor of the Fidelity Trust Company, Tacoma 
as trustee, to secure an issue of $3,500,000 of 6 per cent 
bonds, dated July 1, 1909. The company has projected an 
electric railway from Seattle to Tacoma, 65 miles. [E. R. J.. 
Dec. 25, '09.] 

*Middlebourne, W. Va. — I. M. Underwood, Middlebourne. 
is reported to be interested in a plan to build an electric 
railway to connect Middlebourne and Sistersville. 

Cincinnati Construction Company, Janesville, Wis. — The 

Rate Commission has granted this company a certificate of 
public convenience and necessity permitting it to proceed 
with the construction of its electric railway between Madi- 
son and Janesville. Joseph Ellis, chief engineer. [E. R. J. 
Dec. 5, '08.] 


Bowling Green (Ky.) Railway. — This company will build 
a new concrete car house and repair shop. Work will be 
started early in the spring. H. D. Fitch, president. 

Tidewater Power Company, Wilmington, N. C. — This 
company expects to begin work within the next 30 days on 
a new repair shop to be 50 ft. x no ft. The building will 
be of corrugated iron and heavy mill construction. 

Grand Forks (N. D.) Street Railway. — This company is 
building a new brick car house in Grand Forks to be 50 ft 
x 100 ft. in size. 

Bridgeport Electric & Railway Company, Bridgeport, 
Ala. — This company, which has just been organized to 
construct a street railway in Bridgeport, also plans to con- 
tract, during the next few weeks, for apparatus for a 250-hp 
power plant. 

Pensacola Electric Company, Pensacola, Fla. — This com- 
pany has purchased a 300-kw motor generator set and a 
500-kw turbine and auxiliaries. 

Chicago, Aurora & De Kalb Railroad, Aurora, 111. — This 
company advises that it expects to build two substations. 

Maysville Street Railroad & Transfer Company, Mays- 
ville, Ky. — This company has purchased one 3-panel switch 
board from Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Com- 

St. Louis & Kansas City Electric Railroad, St. Louis, Mo. 

— This company is said to have completed negotiations for 
a power plant situated one-half way between its terminals. 
Kansas City and St. Louis. The company contemplates 
building an electric railway between the two points. 

Tidewater Power Company, Wilmington, N. C. — This 
company is considering the purchase of a 500-kw rotary 
converter and two 125-kw, 375-1000-volt transformers. A. 
B. Skelding, Wilmington, purchasing agent. 



[Vol. XXXV. No. 2. 

Manufactures & Supplies 


Rome Railway & Light Company, Rome, Ga., it is re- 
ported, will soon order two cars. 

Quincy Horse Railway & Carrying Company, Quincy, 
111., will be in the market for eight single-truck cars this 

Grand Forks (N. D.) Street Railway will buy two new 

double-truck cars and four second-hand, single-truck cars in 
the near future. 

Little Rock Railway & Electric Company, Little Rock, 
Ark., expects to buy 10 double-truck, semi-convertible cars 
some time this year. 

Compania Electrica y de Ferrocarriles de Chihuahua, 
Chihuahua, Mex., will buy four semi-convertible pay-as-you- 
enter cars within the next two weeks. 

Omaha, Lincoln & Beatrice Railway, Lincoln, Neb., has 
ordered 16 rolled-steel wheels and eight axles, assembled, 
from the Standard Steel Works Company. 

Chicago, Aurora & De Kalb Railroad, Aurora, 111., is in the 
market for four interurban cars, one motor express car, one 
60,000-lb capacity box car and one 80,000-lb capacity gon- 

Laredo Electric & Railway Company, Laredo, Tex., will 

buy two closed cars equipped with single motors and con- 
trollers within the next two weeks. The company will also 
buy one extra truck and motor for a work car.. 

Illinois Traction System, Peoria, 111., has ordered four 
new eight-wheel caboose cars mounted on 50,000-lb capacity 
freight trucks from Hicks Locomotive & Car Works, Chi- 
cago, III. The cars are to be of the standard railway 
type; 34 ft. over end sills; 40 ft. over platforms; 9 ft. wide 
over side sills; 8 ft. 4 in. wide inside; 13 ft. 8 in. high over 

Hess-Bright Manufacturing Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 

will open a Chicago branch at 1800 Michigan Avenue, about 
Jan. 20, 1910. 

Mount Vernon Car Manufacturing Company, Mount Ver- 
non, 111., has let the contract for its new steel car plant to 
the McClintic-Marshall Construction Company. 

QMS Company, Plainfield, N. J., has removed its Chi- 
cago office from 1775 Old Colony Building to 737 First 
National Bank Building. John C. Hoof is the company's 
representative in the Western territory. 

George L. Kippenberger, who for the last seven years has 
been purchasing agent of the St. Louis Car Company, en- 
tered the service of Forsyth Brothers Company, Chicago, 
111., on Jan. 1. 

Roberts & Abbott Company, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, an- 
nounce that Walter Loring Webb has become associated 
with it and will represent the company in Philadelphia and 
vicinity. Mr. Webb's office will be in 1026 Real Estate 
Trust Building. 

McKeen Motor Car Company, Omaha, Neb., received 
orders during 1909 from 17 steam railroads for a total of 31 
gasoline-motor combination passenger cars. The company 
also received orders for one gasoline-motor switching en- 
gine and two weed burners. 

Chicago Bearing Metal Company, Chicago, 111., has 
opened offices at 400 Od Colony Building, where it is pre- 
pared to take orders for manganese bronze castings, elec- 
tric brass castings, steam metal castings and locomotive 
bearings. The company's factory is located at the Union 
Stock Yards, Chicago. 

Wesco Supply Company, St. Louis, Mo., announces that 
R. C. Mellor, who has been connected with the company 
for a long time, has been appointed manager of the ad- 
vertising department of the company to succeed Edward J. 
Jeep, who has resigned after 2^4 years' service to become 
business manager of the Classified Ad. Company, St. Louis, 

American Creosote Works, Inc., New Orleans, La., has 

elected E. L. Powell vice-president and W. Scott Bryan 
secretary. A new plant will be completed at Bossier, La., 

by Jan. 15, 1910. The new plant, which will occupy 35 acres 
of ground, will have a capacity of about 30,000,000 ft. per 
year and will have direct track connections with the rail- 

Milliken Brothers, Milliken, S. I., New York,. N. Y., the 

affairs of which were placed temporarily under the pro- 
tection of the Federal Courts on June 11, 1907, have had the 
receivership terminated and the entire plant and all its 
assets having been restored new officers and directors have 
taken control as follows: Edward C. Wallace, president; 
Gilbert G. Thorne, Gates W. McGarrah, E. C. Wallace, 
A. A. Fowler, Clarence M. Lewis, Wm. Barclay Parsons, 
C. H. Zehnder, directors; Francis Dykes, general manager. 
Milliken Brothers announce that the structural steel busi- 
ness established 50 years ago will be continued in all its 
branches, including ornamental iron work and galvanized 
steel towers for electric transmission, in the most active 
and efficient manner and the company's foreign business 
will be carried on and extended. 

Nachod Signal Company, Philadelphia, Pa., exhibited its 
type C signal for single-track trolley roads at the Denver 
convention, and since that time has delivered signals to a 
number of roads in various parts of the United States, 
among which are: Mahoning & Shenango Railway & Light 
Company, Youngstown, Ohio; Public Service Railway, 
Newark, N. J.; Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Railroad, 
Highwood, 111.; Spokane & Inland Empire Railroad, Spo- 
kane, Wash.; Fort Smith Light & Traction Company, Fort 
Smith, Ark.; Little Rock Railway & Electric Company, 
Little Rock, Ark.; Chattanooga Railway & Light Company, 
Chattanooga, Tenn.; Los Angeles Pacific Company, Los 
Angeles, Cal. The type C signal is an automatic signal, 
as distinguished from a dispatcher's signal system, and is 
operated by a trolley contact switch. But one line wire is 
required, and the system of signalling is what is known as 
permissive -or car counting, indications being given by both 
lamps and semaphores simultaneously. 

United States Electric Signal Company, West Newton, 
Mass., installed a large number of its automatic block sig- 
nals on electric railways during 1909. The roads equipped 
and the number of blocks installed were as follows: Boston 
(Mass.) Elevated Railway, 4; Mattoon (111.) City Railway, 
3; Boston (Mass.) Suburban Railways, 16; Aurora, Elgin 
& Chicago Railway, Wheaton, 111., 2; New Jersey & Hudson 
River Railway & Ferry Company, Edgewater, N. J., 19; 
Northampton (Mass.) Street Railway, 15; Joliet & Southern 
Traction Company, Joliet, 111., 3; Holyoke (Mass.) Street 
Railway, 7; Tampa (Fla.) Electric Co., 2; Charlestown 
(S. C.) Railway, Gas & Electric Company, 5; Savannah 
(Ga.) Electric Company, 2; Rio de Janeiro Light & Tram- 
way Company, 6; Worcester (Mass.) Consolidated Street 
Railway, 6; Chicago & Joliet Electric Railway, Joliet, 111., 1; 
Birmingham (Ala.) Railway, Light & Power Company, 2; 
Fairmont & Clarksburg Traction Company, Fairmont, W. 
Va., 2; United Traction Company, Albany, N. Y., 1; Elmira, 
Corning & Waverly Railroad, Waverly, N. Y., 8; Knoxville 
(Tenn.) Railway & Light Company, I. 

Western Electric Company, New York, N. Y., has pub- 
lished a pamphlet in which are illustrated and described a 
number of types of portable telephone sets for railway 

Kilby Frog & Switch Company, Birmingham, Ala., has 

issued Catalog No. 5 for 1910, in which is listed the com- 
pany's complete line of frogs, switches, crossings and spe- 
cial work for steam and electric railways. 

American Wood Working Machinery Company, Roches- 
ter, N. Y., has issued a wall calendar 15 in. high x i6j4 in. 
wide. The calendar proper is Z X A m - high x 9 in- wide. The 
same views of the company's works appear at the top of 
each sheet, but views of different machines made by the' 
company serve to decorate the sides and bottom of each 

Calendars for 1910 have been received •from the Buda 
Company, Chicago, 111.; Ohmer Fare Register Company, 
Dayton, Ohio; H. B. Underwood & Company, Philadelphia, 
Pa.; Duff Manufacturing Company, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Samson 
Cordage Works, Boston, Mass.; American Wood Working 
Machinery Company, Rochester, N. Y. 

Electric Railway Journal 


Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 

Vol. XXXV. 


No. 3 


McGraw Publishing Company^ 

239 West Thirty-ninth Street, New York 
James H. McGraw, President. 
J. M. Wakeman, ist Vice-President. A. E. Clifford, 2d Vice-Presi 

Curtis E. Whittlesey, Secretary and Treasurer. 
Telephone Call: 4700 Bryant. Cable Address: Stryjourn, New York. 

Henry W. Blake, Editor. 
L. E. Gould, Western Editor. Rodney Hitt, Associate Editor. 

Frederic Nicholas, Associate Editor. 

Chicago Office 590 Old Colony Building 

Cleveland Office 1015 Schofield Building 

Philadelphia Office Real Estate Trust Building 

European Office Hastings House, Norfolk St., Strand, London, Eng. 


For st weekly issues, and daily convention issues published from time 
to time in New York City or elsewhere: United States, Cuba and Mexico, 
$3.00 per year; Canada, $4.50 per year; all other countries, $6.00 per 
year. Foreign subscriptions may be sent to our European office. 

Requests for changes of address should be made one week in advance, 
giving old as well as new address. Date on wrapper indicates the month 
at the end of which subscription expires. 

Changes of advertising copy should reach this office ten days in advance 
of date of issue. New advertisements will be accepted up to Tuesday 
noon of the week of issue. 

Copyright, 1910, by McGraw Publishing Company. 
Entered as second-class matter at the post office at New York, N. Y. 

Of this issue of the Electric Railway Journal 9000 copies 
are printed. 



Annual Reports of Commissions 95 

The Proper Type of Car for Short Interurban Roads 95 

Trespassing on Private Right-of-Way 96 

Sectionalizing Distribution Lines 96 

Loose Ends in Maintenance Work ,. 96 

Membership in the Association 97 

Large Cars Built by the Key Route, Oakland, Cal 98 

Annual Report of the Massachusetts Railroad Commission 100 

The Visalia Fifteen-Cycle, Single-Phase Railway 101 

Accidents Keduced by Pay-As- You-Enter Cars in Chicago 102 

Present and Proposed Berlin Subways 103 

Painting fenders and Trucks with an Air Brush 104 

Testimony on Valuation of Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad 104 

Effect of Improvements in Old Types of Electric Railway Equipment 

on Maintenance 106 

Report of Public Service Commission of New York, First District.... 108 

Official Valuation of Private Property 1 10 

United States Supreme Court Decision Nullifying Minneapolis Low 

Fare Ordinance 112 

Meeting of Executive Committee of Engineering Association 114 

Gyroscopic Car in Brooklyn 116 

Transfer Table at Syracuse 119 

Barrier Switches for Lamp and Heater Circuits 120 

Special Controller Handle for Auxiliary Contactor Control 120 

Combined Hot Air Heating and Ventilating System 121 

News of the Week 122 

Financial and Corporate 125 

Traffic and Transportation 126 

Personal Mention 129 

Construction News 131 

Manufactures and Supplies 1 33 

Annual Reports of Commissions 

Reports of two of the principal commissions of the country 
having jurisdiction over electric railways are presented in 
abstract in this issue. The most important feature of the report 

ofp<ne New York Public Service Commission, First District, 
is the recommendation as to legislation concerning the railroad 
law and the public service commissions law. Concerning the 
existing railroad law the commission would evidently like an 
amendment that would give it clear authority over the subject 
of transfers on surface lines. The commission appears to 
believe that amendments of the Public Service Commission's 
law are necessary in order to accomplish the original intent of 
the law. It states that the phraseology employed in several 
important respects has nullified the general purposes of the 
enactment. The completion of 40 years of service by the 
present Massachusetts Board of Railroad Commissioners is 
made the occasion for a brief review of the increase of mileage, 
capitalization, etc., of the properties over which jurisdiction is 
exercised. It is suggested by the board that power be given to 
order the installation of safety devices or other changes that 
promise increased safety in operation. This would substitute 
mandatory for recommendatory powers in respect to the ques- 
tions of operation involved. 

The Proper Type of Car for Short Interurban Roads 

In theory, the type of car chosen by an interurban line is sup- 
posed to be the outcome of a long study of speeds, stops per 
mile, power equipment, schedules, seating capacity, etc. In 
practice the problem often is solved summarily by taking a 
group of well-worn cars from some allied system or going to 
the other extreme of purchasing a lot of luxurious over- 
powered cars, the chief merit of which is their advertising 
value. At this time there are quite a number of interurban 
lines ranging in length from 20 miles to 40 miles which give 
a similar service, yet the rolling stock embraces everything 
from the ordinary city car to the 60-ft. interurban. Usually 
if the interurban railway is built as a branch of the city system, 
the management naturally will give the larger city cars a trial 
on the new road before investing in strictly interurban coaches. 
Experience has shown in many of these cases that a well-built 
city car is perfectly capable of running 30 to 40 m.p.h. on good 
track and is certainly more economical than the large cars in 
current consumption per passenger carried. No good is to be 
gained in running big cars unless they are really needed, and in 
any event heavy travel could be handled by operating more 
cars, either singly or in trains. 

The folly of using big cars for many short interurban rail- 
ways is illustrated by the case of a certain Eastern line which 
is about 25 miles long. The road was opened as a cut-o(T be- 
tween two large towns and the management hoped to secure all 
the commercial travelers then using Ihc more expensive and 

9 6 


[Vol. XXXV. No. 3. 

roundabout steam line. The great reduction in distance and 
cost via the new route would have attracted this class of riders 
in any event, but the promoters thought it necessary to buy the 
finest type of interurban rolling stock. Under these condi- 
tions the company bought only enough cars to maintain an 
hourly schedule which has easily sufficed to carry all the 
through business offered. On the other hand, the company 
could have worked up a fine suburban development within the 
first 10 miles of its line if it has bought smaller cars and given 
a 15-minute service on that section alone. With the present 
large, high-powered cars it cannot afford to encourage a short- 
haul, frequerrtPstop service and hence will be obliged to change 
its rolling stock standards entirely if it desires to get the full 
earning value of the line. 

Trespassing on Private Right-of-Way 

Special efforts are made occasionally by various railways, both 
electric and steam, to overcome the extensive and dangerous use 
of their private rights-of-way by trespassers. The practice of tres- 
passing is so liable to result in death or serious injury that the 
action of the railways, designed to lessen the unwarranted use 
'of their tracks, is laudable, not only from the standpoint of their 
own interest, but from those of the community. Efforts of this 
nature, however, represent the expenditure of considerable 
time and money on the part of the companies, and it is therefore 
discouraging to find that when an attempt is made to measure 
the results of such movements, it is difficult, and sometimes im- 
possible, to trace them satisfactorily. One interurban company 
tried recently the experiment of having its motormen throw 
circular letters of warning to trespassers on private right-ofr 
way, but subsequent inquiries among the trainmen made it un- 
certain whether sufficient notice was taken by the trespassers 
to compensate for the effort. It may be stated that if the 
movements of this nature deter any number of people, no 
matter how small, from following the dangerous habit of walk- 
ing on private rights-of-way, some good will have been done, 
but it is evident that steps of this character, when initiated by 
railways, deserve the cordial support of newspapers and in- 
fluential organizations. The Railroad Commission of Indiana 
has not lessened the activity of its campaign to eliminate this 
source of trouble and its work has been effective in directing 
wide-spread attention in that State to an evil which should be 

Sectionalizing Distribution Lines 

We discussed in these columns recently the question of the 
practical value of insurance against breakdown by duplication 
in substation switchboard and machinery, and expressed doubt 
as to whether the costly methods frequently employed were 
warranted from an economic or engineering standpoint. The 
same question arises with duplication to insure against break- 
down in the case of the distribution system and has a present 
application because of a suggested arrangement for sectional- 
izing the trolley and high potential transmission lines of a pro- 
posed long interurban single-phase road. On this road the 
trolley wire is divided into eight sections which are connected 
in series by time limit relay circuit-breakers. The trolley sec- 
tions, grouped in four pairs, will be fed at the common points 
by duplicate stepdown transforming and switching apparatus. 
Each station will in turn be connected with the power house 
by an independent single-phase transmission line. The separate 

transmission lines for feeding the four stepdown transformer 
stations will probably be equipped at suitable points with line 
switches so that in event of breakage or leakage on one circuit 
its load may be transferred to a neighbor and thus it will 
rarely be necessary to cut the current off the line when 
making repairs to the high-tension transmission system. It 
should be stated that the road is designed for 24-hour traffic 
and these elaborate precautions may be necessary in the opinion 
of the consulting engineers for this reason, but we believe local 
conditions must be more than usually imperative to make such 
a plan as that outlined justifiable. 

The plan emphasizes the fact, however, that engineers can 
well give greater attention to the efficient performance of the 
distribution systems of their railways than is often the case. 
While we are somewhat sceptical of the value of great refine- 
ments in sectionalization, we have no doubts as to the import- 
ance of careful design in laying out a distribution system, or 
of the economy of having plenty of feeder capacity. A reen- 
forcement or a reorganization of the distribution system is one 
of the first matters to be undertaken after a revival of traffic, 
such as many roads are now enjoying, but too often it is the 
last. The necessity for it is perhaps not quite so apparent as in 
the case of overloaded generators and cars or worn-out track, 
or perhaps it would be more correct to say that improvement to 
the distribution system can be more easily postponed without 
immediately disastrous results. But an overloaded feeder, or 
an inadequate return system, constitutes a continuous drain 
upon the power station and throws a burden upon the motors, 
which they ought not to be called upon to bear, besides dissipat- 
ing energy in the final form into which it has been transformed 
in the power station. 

Loose Ends in Maintenance Work 

In the maintenance of apparatus having a multitude of 
detail parts constant vigilance is necessary to avoid the occur- 
rence of operating troubles arising from defects in minor 
features of the equipment. This is forcibly emphasized in the 
case of electric railway rolling stock. One particular "loose 
end" in maintenance work which often causes repeated trouble 
is the failure of car-house employees, inspectors and others in 
close touch with the causes of car defects on the tracks to 
make sufficiently detailed reports of the conditions surrounding 
each trouble observed. For instance, a simple report "coil 
grounded" is an inadequate one in a case where the insulation 
of such a coil shows that the covering is injured more at the 
middle than at the ends. The natural inference in such a case 
would be that trouble existed between the core and the motor 
pole pieces, and if an armature rubs and is then grounded, a 
proper report should state the cause of the faulty clearance. 
The tendency is always for a busy maintenance man to make 
his report as brief as possible, but unless all the important 
facts are supplied, the repair work done may have to be re- 
peated and the company may find it difficult to study in close 
detail the fitness of specific apparatus for its service. 

Another small matter which is often the source of trouble 
is the detachment of traveling records from armatures, car 
bodies or other equipment. In some companies whenever an 
armature is removed from a motor for repairs and sent from a 
car house to a shop, a card is also sent with the armature 
giving the history of it with reference to repairs and defects 
for a period of many months. Wheel mileage may be tab- 

January 15, 1910.] 



ulated in the same manner. Unless cards so used are kept 
in close association with the equipment which they cover, judg- 
ment on the qualities of apparatus becomes inaccurate through 
the lack of quantitative data, and the determination of costs 

Two other points may be mentioned in illustrating the im- 
portance of the little things in operation. Before gears are 
bored out and finished they are put together with small pieces 
of tin between the halves, later being bored out to the axle 
size with as close a fit as possible. If the pieces of tin are left 
between the halves through oversight in the shop or on account 
of haste it is impossible to get a proper clamping fit when the 
gear goes upon the shaft, and the resulting looseness is most 
objectionable. In boring out a gear, a feathery edge is 
usually left between the halves as a result of the action of the 
tool, and unless this edge is cleaned off it militates against 
the halves coming properly together and may lead to mis- 
adjustment and troubles in service. The second point relates 
to the inspection of sign lights on single-color cars. When 
in the interests of economy and interchangeability a company 
decides to paint all its cars alike the sign question becomes of 
even more importance than in cases where different colors 
indicate destinations and routes. Whenever a single color cat- 
leaves a car house, therefore, it is of paramount importance 
to ascertain that the sign lights are clean and free from burned- 
out filaments; that their working is not interefered with by 
the handling of the trolley cord and that the destination indication 
is in every way unobscured. These points are obviously un- 
related, but they suggest the importance of perpetual vigilance 
in keeping car equipment up to the highest pitch of efficient 

Membership in the Association 

The personnel of the members of the different committees of 
the American Street & Interurban Railway Association are an- 
nounced in this issue, and the names themselves are a surety 
that valuable work will be accomplished by the association dur- 
ing the coming year. We could discuss at length the import- 
ance of the topics to be considered by the different committees 
and the ability of those to whom their investigation has been 
intrusted, but mean in this issue to refer only to the work of the 
two largest committees and the facts which their appointment 
indicate. We refer to the committee on active and associate 

The number of members on both of the committees on mem- 
bership is much larger than that on any committee previously 
appointed by the association, and in their selection a geographi- 
cal plan has been followed. This will facilitate the work of 
-each member, because he will know in advance just the field for 
which he is responsible, and all companies and individuals in 
that territory will understand to whom they can apply for in- 
formation as to the benefits which they will derive from mem- 
bership in the association. No such comprehensive plan has 
■ever before been adopted by the association for increasing its 
membership and good results should be expected. 

A plan of this kind would not be warranted if the association 
was not giving value received for membership, but a record of 
the past four years since the association was reorganized is 
ample warrant that the benefits of both company and individual 
membership are worth the membership fee, whether the mem- 
ber is a large company and is paying large annual dues or is a 

smaller company or an individual and the dues paid are nominal. 
It is true that it is also desirable for the association to in- 
crease its membership, partly because of the dues received, but 
still more because of the larger number of individuals which it 
thereby enlists in the general work. A vigorous campaign for 
membership, therefore, indicates not weakness, but strength in 
the merit of the proposition made to those who are not asso- 
ciated with the association. In the first place it shows that at 
least the members of the committee believe they have a good 
proposition to submit to others, and from their standing in the 
industry their opinion is well worth consideration. They have 
110 ulterior object to gain; their only purpose is the good of 
those to whom they suggest membership and the betterment of 
the industry at large. In the second place, the fact that a con- 
siderable number will undoubtedly join the association this 
year is in itself an argument for others to join now, because the 
larger the association and its revenues, the greater its value to 
its members. 

A novel feature of the organization of the committee on asso- 
ciate membership is that a similar committee with the same 
number and same territorial distribution is being organized by 
the Manufacturers' Association, so that there will be a represen- 
tative in each territorial subdivision to whom members of rail- 
way companies or outside firms and corporations can apply if 
they wish to join the association as associate members. 

The question is sometimes raised, and it is a legitimate one, 
as to the advantages which officials of a member-company 
secure by joining as associate members. It might appear at 
first sight that because they already have the privilege of at- 
tending the conventions of the various associations and be- 
cause their company receives one or more copies of the pro- 
ceedings of the association there is not the same reason for 
their joining the association as if their company was not a 
member. In a sense this is true, but it does not tell the whole 
story. There is a satisfaction in the individual recognition of 
each associate member by the association, which does not come 
from company membership, and there are also more substantial 
benefits which, in the opinion of a great many officials, are 
worth more than the fee of $5 per year required for associate 
membership. One of these, of course, is the receipt and indi- 
vidual possession of the bound copy of the proceedings of the 
association with which the associate member has allied him- 
self. The second is the privilege of wearing the pin of the 
association. This is confined to associate members of the asso- 
ciation. The pin not only is a badge of personal loyalty to the 
members of the association, but, like the pin- of any fraternal 
body, gives a sense of comradeship with others who wear it. It 
also shows to the outsiders who know the significance of the 
badge the fact that the wearer is allied with the electric rail- 
way industry, and to those who are not acquainted with it, gives 
the person who possesses it an opportunity of discussing the 
objects and purposes of the association. 

We have purposely confined these remarks to a discussion of 
the benefits to be derived by officials of member-companies in 
joining the association as associate members. Undoubtedly 
slill others could be given than those mentioned above, but 
the question is raised so often on this point that it is worth 
while to speak of it at the lime of the announcement of the 
committee on associate membership. To those who arc in- 
terested in the industry, bul are nol connected with member 
companies, there arc many other advantages. 

9 8 


[Vol. XXXV. No. 3. 


A brief account of 16 unusually long cars being built by the 
San Francisco, Oakland & San Jose Consolidated Railway, 
popularly known as the "Key Route," was presented in the 
twenty-fifth anniversary issue of the Electric Railway Jour- 
nal, dated Oct. 2, 1909. At the time this article appeared 
these cars were in process of construction in the railway 
company's shops. The new cars have been completed re- 
cently, and are now operating very satisfactorily. Probably 
the most interesting feature of these new cars is their 
extreme length of 70 ft. over couplers. The service of this 
road is operated with trains of from 5 to 10 cars, each 
running on short headway between Oakland and several 
nearby cities located on the east side of San Francisco Bay 
and a ferry terminal at the west end of a pier extending 
3 miles from Oakland into the bay toward San Francisco. 
At morning and night it is necessary to handle especially heavy 
peak loads, and therefore long cars with generous standing 
room space are desirable. The standard motor car operated in 
the suburban service of the Key Route is 60 ft. long, built 
largely according to steam-railroad coach design. At first the 
new cars will be operated as trailers mixed in trains with motor 
cars handled with type M control. The trains are made up so 
that there is never less than the capacity of one GE-66 motor 
per car. 

The new cars, including the trucks and all castings, were 
designed and built in the Oakland shops of the Key Route. As 
shown in the accompanying plan and elevation, the body length 
of these cars is 55 ft. 10 in. over bulkheads. The vestibules are 
6 ft. long and built practically as a part of the main body struc- 
ture. End doors are provided for passage from car to car, and 
the platforms are equipped with Gould steel buffers and stand- 
ard M. C. B. couplers. The underframing of the car body 
comprises 7-in. channel-iron side sills filled and reinforced with 
8 in. of wood ; 7-in. 20-lb. I-beam center sills blocked 6 in. be- 
tween flanges and 4 I /2-in. x 5^-in. wooden intermediate sills 
reinforced with steel plates. The underframing is tied to- 
gether with cross-ties spaced 3 ft. 2 in. on centers. The width 
over sills is 8 ft. % l A in. 

Platforms with step openings 4 ft. 4% in. wide in the clear 
are provided at both ends of all cars. The platforms are sup- 
ported by the center and intermediate sills, and the principal 
members are substantially reinforced with plates at the points 
of maximum stress. The platform floors are on a level with 
the car floor, and are reached by three steps of 11 in. rise each 
and a rise of 15 in. from the level of the top of the rail to the 

steadily at high speeds without undue shocks at starting and 
stopping. The close coupling of the cars does away with the 
usual discomfort experienced by passengers on loosely coupled 
trains, and passage from car to car is rendered safe. An ac- 
companying illustration shows the ends of two car platforms 
as coupled. In addition to the spring buffer platforms and the 
M. C. B. couplers, the other coupling connections include two 

Key Route Cars — Interior View 

safety chains, motor control cables, bus cable and hose for the 
brake reservoir, air-brake, train and air signal line. 

The sliding gate used at the step opening is another detail 
that has been carefully worked out. After experience with 
heavy gates a light wire mesh carried in an iron frame has 
been adopted. This gate is supported from below by rollers 

Key Route Cars — Exterior View 

top of the first step. The top of the bumper is 3 ft. nj^ in. 
above the rails, and the curved headblocks are formed of 3-in. 
plank sheathed with J^-in iron. 

The means of coupling and the arrangement of the buffers 
used on this road are worthy of mention. In practice the cars 
are coupled so that they operate very satisfactorily, running 

which ride on an angle iron under the edge of the step anc 4 the 
top is guided by means of a channel held against the side of 
the car. The gates do not lock shut, but in the closed position 
drop into depressions in the carriers and at the same time en- 
gage V-shaped fittings at the corner vestibule posts. These 
fittings are a part of the grab handles. Illumination of the 

January 15, 1910.] 



steps is provided by incandescent lamps carried under the 
stanchion which divides the steps midway. Additional illumi- 
nation is provided by lamps supported under the headblock. 
These lamps serve to illuminate the ground about the steps and 
are favored as a means of reducing boarding and alighting ac- 
cidents, as well as facilitating night traffic by making it possible 
for passengers to see where they step when leaving the car. 

The 16 new car bodies are mounted on trucks built in the 
company's shops. These trucks are of the M. C. B. type, with 
36-in., 912-lb. Midvale rolled steel wheels. A saving in weight 

Key Route Cars — Ventilating Duct in End of Deck 

of 536 lb. per car is said to have been made by the use of this 
wheel in place of steel-tired wheels with cast-iron centers, 
which are used on some of the other cars. The truck center 
distance is 43 ft. 8V 2 in., and the overhang from bolster to face 
of bumper is 12 ft. 3 in. Westinghouse standard steam rail- 
road passenger train brake equipment is used. A 350,000 circ. 
mil power bus is installed from end to end of each car, and all 
cars are provided with bus couplers, so that all the motors in 
a train may receive power from the trolley on any car. 

Because of the comparatively short run from the ferry ter- 
minal to the end of any of the five branches of this road, it was 
deemed unnecessary to build the side framing so that the win- 
dows would raise. The omission of this feature in connection 
with the windows made possible a considerable saving in weight 
in the car body and economy in the cost of construction. The 
side framing also is narrower than it would be if the windows 

Key Route Cars — Sliding Platform Gates 

were movable, and thus the overall width of the car was re- 
duced somewhat without decreasing the available interior space. 
The interior of the car-body is finished in natural mahogany. 
Illumination is provided by four arc lamps in the body of the 
car and a series of six incandescent lamps on eacli platform, 
which series includes two lamps in the vestibule deck, two di 
rectly above the steps and two under the bumper block. 


The ventilation of these cars, which have stationary deck 
sash as well as stationary windows, is effected by four Globe 



[Vol. XXXV. No. 3. 

ventilators. One ventilator is installed in the side of the ex- 
tended monitor over each corner of the car. These ventilators 
are 10 in. in diameter and are connected by sheet-steel ducts 
with ornamental openings in the ends of the clerestory. While 
the train is moving the ventilators draw the vitiated air through 
the openings in the ends of the clerestory and discharge it out- 
side. To insure circulation, two deck sash at the center of the 
car are made adjustable. The use of stationary deck sash 

Key Route Cars — Train Connections 

reduces the breakage of glass and largely prevents any damage 
that might be caused by the leakage of rain. 

These 70-ft. cars with bodies 55 ft. 10 in. long have a seating- 
capacity for 88 passengers and a generous amount of standing 
room. An idea of the capacity of one of the cars for handling 
peak loads is obtained from the statement that on one occasion 
300 passengers were carried on one car. It is said that 200 
passengers are not an exceptional load. As these cars were 
completed they were weighed, and the average of the actual 
weight was found to be 58,800 lb., or 668 lb. per passenger seat. 
This figure, of course, does not include any motor equipment. 
If the amount of electrical equipment necessary to operate one 
car as usually connected for train service is considered as 9000 
lb., the weight per passenger is 770 lb., which is thought to be 
low for the class of service in which these cars operate. The 
large amount of standing room afforded by large, aisles and 
platforms reduces the weight per passenger carried to a very 
low figure. 

Acknowledgment is made to J. Q. Brown, assistant general 
manager and engineer, San Francisco, Oakland & San Jose 

Key Route Cars— M.C.B. Type Truck 

Consolidated Railway, for information used in the preparation 
of this article. Mr. Brown has stated that these cars, although 
of unusual length and capacity, are proving to be successful, 
and are much appreciated by the public on account of the con- 
venience and comfort which they afford. Their fine appear- 
ance will be noticed from the illustrations. 

The Toronto National Exhibition Association has been suc- 
cessful in inducing Louis Brennan, inventor of the monorail 
car, to make an exhibition of his system at the Toronto Expo- 
sition to be held in September, 1910. A short section of track 
will be constructed and a nominal fee charged for riding on 
the railway. 


The annual report of the Massachusetts Railroad Commis- 
sion for the year ended Sept. 30, 1909, was submitted to the 
State Legislature which convened on Jan. 5. An abstract of 
some of the features of the report follows: 

The present commission has completed 40 years of service 
in the State. The report briefly reviews some of the more 
important tasks of the commission during this period. When 
the board commenced its duties, in 1869, 22 horse railroads 
were operated in the State, with a paid in capital of $4,649,930 
and debts of $962,573. There are now 2,869 miles of street rail- 
way single track with a total capital of $80,728,880, and a total 
funded and floating debt of $87,899,271. 

The original members of the board were embarrassed for 
means of enforcing their decisions. Forty years of service 
have proved, however, that while on many occasions an exer- 
cise of the recommendatory powers of the board is quite suffi- 
cient to secure needed changes in facilities and operation, 
there are certain cases, such as the equipment of railroads and 
railways with safety devices, where the power should be and 
has been given to the board to directly order the installation 
of such devices or other changes which look to the safety of 
the traveling public or of employees. The powers placed in 
the hands of the board in relation to the issue of stock and 
bonds are of the broadest character, and are to-day possessed 
by the commissions of less than six States in the Union. In 
the first year of the board's service 140 cases occupied its at- 
tention. Last year 709 cases were heard. 

The board has acted favorably upon five petitions for issues 
of preferred stock by street railway companies. The attorney- 
general of the State was requested to give his opinion whether 
a street railway company organized under the laws of Massa- 
chusetts could issue preferred stock under the provisions of 
this act, and his report was affirmative. The board states that 
if peculiar reasons exist for the passage of special legislation 
permitting a company to issue bonds in excess of its capital 
stock (as in the case of the Connecticut Valley Street Railway 
Company), it is reasonable to assume that similar conditions 
may arise in the case of some other company, and that the 
passage of general rather than special laws is to be desired. 

The actual construction of the Cambridge subway by the 
Boston Elevated Railway was begun in August, 1909, according 
to plans approved by the board. The work is now in full prog- 
ress and on Dec. 20 the company reported that 1575 ft. of the 
subway had been completed. The Forest Hills elevated ex- 
tension in Boston was opened by authority of the commission 
in. November. Revised plans for the Maiden extension of the 
Boston Elevated system are now before the board. 

In its last annual report the board called the attention of 
the Legislature to the fact that the constitutionality of the act 
relative to the transportation by street and elevated railway 
companies, of pupils of the public day and evening schools and 
private schools had been put in issue by the Boston & Northern 
Street Railway, and that the board had referred the matter to 
the attorney-general of the State. During the present year a 
further question has arisen with respect to the application of 
the half-fare provisions to both day and evening pupils of the 
industrial schools, so-called. In the opinion of the board such 
pupils are not within the provisions of this act. 

Special reports to be made by the board to the Legislature 
of 1910 will cover a number of important transportation mat- 
ters not dealt with in the annual report. Among these are the 
proposed consolidation of the West End and Boston Elevated 
Railway companies ; proposed tunnels and subways in Boston ; 
the Boston & Eastern Electric Railroad tunnel and subway 
plans ; and public improvements in the Boston metropolitan 
district. , 

Annual returns were received from 81 companies, three of 
which — the Natick & Cochituate, the Westborough & Hopkin- 
ton, and the Newton — were absorbed into the Middlesex & 

January 15, 1910.] 



Boston system. Of the 78 companies at the end of the year, 
59 operated their railways; 16 were operated under leases or 
contract agreements, and three had organized and paid in a 
portion of their capital stock, but had not begun construc- 
tion. The net increase in new mileage during the past year in 
Massachusetts electric railway lines was 4.656 miles of track 
and 6.05 miles of second track, making 10.706 miles of addi- 
tional main track. There was also a net increase of 16.764 
miles of side track, making a total net increase of 27.47 miles 
of single track. The Massachusetts companies now own 
2,238.501 miles of street railway line, 447.092 miles of second 
main track, and 183.464 miles of side track, making a total 
single track length of 2,869.057 miles, exclusive of 3.2 miles 
of the Rhode Island Company, from which no return was re- 
ceived. All the track owned is surface street railway track, 
with the exception of 9.983 miles of elevated line and 9.809 
miles of elevated second track. There are 4.295 miles of 
elevated side track. All the elevated track in the State is 
located in Boston. 

The Boston & Northern Street Railway now leases the 
Nashua company, having 14.898 miles of track located in New 
Hampshire ; and the Old Colony leases and operates the New- 
port & Fall River, having 20.632 miles, located in Rhode Island. 
There are now 35.530 miles of track operated outside the State. 
There was a gain of 27.47 miles of single track during the year. 

The gross receipts of the street railways on Sept. 30 last were 
$177,745,988. an increase of $7,591,079 over 1908. The gross 
liabilities, including capital stock but not sinking and other 
funds, were $168,628,151. The surplus was $9,117,837, or 11.29 
per cent of the capital stock. The aggregate capital stock of 
the 78 companies was $80,728,880. The total amount of divi- 
dends declared was $4,120,223 — an increase of $432,570 over 
1908. Forty out of the 81 companies paid dividends ranging 
from 2 to 10 per cent, and 41 companies paid no dividends. 
The average rate of dividend was 5.1 per cent. 

The average cost of the street railways of the State per mile 
of main track, was: Construction, $31,746.92; equipment, $11,- 
076.17; lands, buildings, parks, power plants and other per- 
manent property, $15,757.48; total, $58,580.57, compared with 
$57,676.62 a year ago. The total income of the companies for 
the year was $33,657,478, and the total expenses, including divi- 
dends, were $33,250,154, giving a net surplus of $407,324. The 
cost of operation alone was $20,915,728. 

The total number of passengers carried, computed on a 5-cent 
fare basis, was 624,532,753, compared with 602,400,874 in 1908. 
The total car mileage was 117,493,499, compared with 116.982.- 
089 a year ago. 

Operating expenses amounted to 65.45 per cent of the gross 
earnings, representing a reduction in the operating ratio of 
about 1.3 per cent over the previous year. 

Gross earnings per mile of track were $11,899, an< I the net 
earnings, $4,111, compared with $11,507 and $3,828 a year ago.. 

Gross earnings per car-mile were 27.19 cents and t'he oper- 
ating expenses 17.8 cents, leaving net earnings of 9.39 cents. 
The net earnings in 1908 per car-mile were 8.75 cents. 

The average gross revenue per passenger was 5.12 cents and 
the operating expense, 3.35 cents, leaving net earnings of 1.77 

The number of employees increased from 17,267 in 1908 to 
'7,575 in 1909. The number of cars decreased from 7618 to 
7546, and the motors owned were 16,649 in 1908 and 16,526 
in 1909. 

The number of persons injured was 6,003, of whom 89 re- 
ceived fatal injuries. The number of passengers injured was 
4, 360, of whom 17 were fatally hurt. The number of em- 
ployees injured was 292, of which 21 were fatal injuries. The 
number of injuries in travelers and others on the street was 
1351, of which 51 were fatal. These figures include a very 
large number of injuries of a trivial character which have been 
returned by the companies. Altogether there have been in 
jured, fatally and otherwise, 25 less passengers, 7 less employees, 
and 158 less travelers and other persons, making 190 less acci- 
dent ^ in 1909 than in the preceding year. 


The first purely single-phase, 15-cycle railway in the United 
States is the Visalia Electric Railroad, running from Visalia 
to Lemon Cove, in California, which has now completed two 
years of successful operation. For jo miles, between Visalia 
and Exeter, the electric railway traverses the main track of 
the Southern Pacific Railroad, which has been electrified over 
this section by the addition of rail bonds and the 3300-volt 
trolley. Twelve miles farther, from Exeter to Lemon Cove, 
a new roadbed has been constructed, making the total length 
of the Visalia-Lemon Cove electrified route 22 miles. The 
road is single tracked throughout, with the exception of the 
switching and freight yards at Visalia, Exeter and Lemon 
Cove. The trolley construction is of the single catenary type, 
suspended from brackets on poles spaced 120 ft. apart. 

Ground was broken for the Exeter and Lemon Cove ex- 
tension in March, 1905,, and the road was operated by steam 
locomotives in December, 1905. In March, 1908, the steam 
service was discontinued, and since then the road has been 
operated by electricity. From Visalia to Exeter the country is 
practically level. Between Exeter and Lemon Cove the land is 
of a rolling nature, but the maximum gradient on the road 
has been kept clown to 0.9 per cent, and the curves are of long 

Visalia Single-Phase Railway — Locomotive 

radius. The worst conditions are met on a combined 10-deg. 
curve on a 0.9 per cent grade. 


For this electrification three-phase, 60-cycle power is pur 
chased at 35,000 volts from the Mt. Whitney Power Company, 
which operates a hydro-electric generating plant on the Ke- 
weah River. At the Exeter substation, located nearly at the 
center of the present railway line, the 60-cycle power is stepped 
down to 2200 volts, and then converted to 15 cycle, 1 1,000-volt, 
single phase current by a synchronous motor-generator set. 
From the main frequency changing substation at Exeter the 
15-eycle, 11,000 volt feeder lines, made up of a pair of No. 4 
hare copper conductors, transmit S miles in cub direction to 
the substations on the Lemon Cove and Visalia divisions. 
Transformers in these stations reduce the 15 cycle, 11,000 volt, 
single-phase supply to the trolley pressure of 3300 volts. 

The frequency changer substation contains six 150-kw oil- 
insulated, water-cooled, 35,000-2200-volt, 60-cycle transform- 
ers anil two two-bearing motor-generator sets, each composed 
<>f a 540 lip synchronous motor wound for 2200 volts, 60 cycles, 
with .in induction motor for starting, direct connected to a 375- 
kw rotating field, single phase alternator, delivering 11,000 
volts, 60-cycle current ["he 60-cycle incoming transmission 


line is protected by low-equivalent lightning arresters, complete 
with oil-insulated choke coils and disconnecting switches. 
Three 15-kw, 2200-200-volt, 60-cycle transformers are sup- 
plied for lighting service and for operating the motor-gen- 
erator exciter set. On the extended shafts of each motor- 
generator set are mounted 125-volt d.c. generators, which fur- 
nish excitation current, in addition to a similar d.c. exciter 
driven by a three-phase, 60-cycle induction motor supplied from 
the incoming transmission lines. The outgoing 11,000-volt, 15- 
cycle feeder circuits are protected against lightning discharges 
by complete arrester apparatus, and are controlled by oil 
switches. The Exeter substation also feeds the trolley wire 
through two 300-kw, oil-insulated, self-cooling, is-cycle, single- 
phase transformers, reducing the potential from 11,000 to 3300 

The two 15-cycle transforming substations, each located 
about 8 miles from Exeter in the direction of Lemon Cove 
and Visalia, respectively, contain a 300-kw, oil-insulated, water- 
cooled, 15-cycle, single-phase transformer, reducing from 11,000 
volts to the trolley pressure. Lightning protective apparatus, 
choke coils and high-tension circuit breakers are included in 
the 11,000-volt apparatus, while the 3300-volt trolley feeders 
are controlled by oil circuit breakers. All the conversion ap- 
paratus was furnished by the Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Company. 


The 15-cycle, 3300-volt, single-phase trolley construction is 
of the single catenary bracket type, comprising a 7/16-in. steel 
messenger suspended from poles 120 ft. apart, and supporting 
No. 000 trolley wire. The redwood poles, 36 ft. long, are set 
6 ft. in concrete. 

The rolling stock comprises a 47-ton Baldwin-Westinghouse 
electric locomotive equipped with four 125-hp, series, compen- 
sated motors ; four 40-ton passenger cars, each equipped with 
four 75-hp motors; two 28-ton trailer cars of construction 
similar to the motor cars. The cars and locomotives are all 
supplied with unit switch control and automatic air-brake equip- 
ment. The trailer cars as well as the motor cars are fitted 
with brake valves and master controllers, so that three-car 
trains can be operated from a trailer car at the head of the 
train if desired. The motor cars and locomotives are supplied 
with power through pantograph trolleys, and carry auto-trans- 
formers arranged with taps for reducing the trolley pressure 
to voltages suitable for supplying the motors, car lighting and 
air compressors. The motor cars have oil-insulated, self-cooled 
auto-transformers, while that on the locomotive is air-cooled 

Visalia Single-Phase Railway — Combination Passenger and 
Baggage Car 

from the motor-driven blower equipment furnished for the 
forced ventilation of the motors. 

The 45-ton electric locomotive is of the double swivel truck 
class, provided with car type of cab, and has the following 
general over-all dimensions : Length over bumpers, 29 ft. ; 
extreme width, 9 ft. 6 in.; height, rail to top of cab, 11 ft. 7 

VAY JOURNAL. [Vol. XXXV. No. 3. 

in. ; rigid wheelbase, 7 ft. 4 in. With its four 125-hp motors 
connected to 36-in. wheels through a gear reduction of 66 to 17, 
this locomotive is capable of developing a continuous drawbar 
pull of 4500 lb. at 20 m.p.h. on level track. The full-load draw- 
bar pull is 9000 lb. at 17 m.p.h. on the level. The maximum 
starting drawbar pull is 17,000 lb. 

The capacity of each substation was designed to take care 
of the electric locomotive fully loaded, or one train of two 
motor cars and one trailer. In general service only single- 
motor cars are operated, without trailers; but when crowds 

Visalia Single-Phase Railway — Frequency Changer and 

are to be handled or the traffic conditions warrant, three-car 
trains are run. As an operating test, a six-car train has been 
successfully operated over the entire system. The maximum 
regular operating speed is 45 m.p.h., although a single-motor 
car has developed 62 m.p.h. The fast cars of the system run 
from Visalia to Exeter in 23 minutes, and from Exeter to 
Lemon Cove in 21 minutes, equivalent to a schedule speed of 
31 m.p.h. 

A recent incident provides evidence of the ample tractive 
power of the locomotive. While doing some switching around 
the yard at Exeter, in order to get hold of a certain car it was 
necessary for the electric locomotive to move a train of 40 
standard refrigerator cars standing in the way. Twenty-eight 
of these were loaded, making the total weight of the train 1044 
tons, which was handled and switched around the yards by the 
electric locomotive without special effort. 


The following figures will afford some idea of the economy 
with which this single-phase road is operating. During a 
period of 40 days over which readings were taken the average 
power consumption of the locomotive was 72.4 watt-hours per 
ton-mile. During 60 days the average output of the frequency 
changer substation was 70.25 watt-hours per ton-mile, although 
during another period of 30 days, when operating conditions 
were better, the average station output was 66.6 watt-hours 
per ton-mile. During 60 days of operation of the motor cars 
the actual power consumption at the car was found to be 55.9 
watt-hours per ton-mile. 

— : 


The Chicago City Railway has compiled comparative statistics 
of accidents before and after the introduction of pay-as-you- 
enter cars on its principal lines. Comparing the period from 
Nov. 24, 1906, to Jan. 31, 1908, which included but two months' 
operation of pay-as-you-enter cars on one line only, with the 
period from Nov. 24, 1907, to Jan. 31, 1909, during which pay- 
as-you-enter cars were in service on all trunk lines, the number 
of boarding and alighting accidents, accidents due to falling 
while the cars were rounding curves and accidents to persons 
stealing rides on cars was reduced 31.9 per cent. 

JaNTjary 15, 1910.] 




The wonderful growth of Berlin in the last decade has led to 
the formulation of a bewildering array of rapid transit schemes. 
The situation is rendered extremely complicated in a political 
sense also because the suburbs of Berlin are self-governed while 
the royal government itself cannot act in an entirely unbiased 
manner since it is the owner of the local steam lines. Hence, 
even if the municipalities agree upon a certain plan of con- 
struction and operation, the routes may have to be changed if 
the steam lines would be seriously affected. Furthermore, the 
Berlin municipality would have to reimburse the Great Berlin 
Street Railway Company for any traffic losses incurred through 
the building of competitive lines. 


Outside of the Government's steam lines, known as the Stadt- 
bahn, which passes through the center of the city on an ele- 
vated structure, Berlin now has but one railway system besides 
the surface lines. This is the combined underground and ele- 
vated, owned and operated by a company known as the Gesell- 
schaft f fir elektrische Hoch-und-Untergrundbahnen. The line 
runs as a double-track route practically east and west, except 
for a one-station stub in the western end of the city and a 
northern branch in the central business district. Of the total 
route length of 17.8 km (11 miles) only the eastern, or work- 
ing, district section is elevated throughout. Through trains 
are operated over the triangular junction shown on the map be- 

Map of Berlin, Showing Present Elevated-Subway Line 
and Other Routes Proposed or Under Construction 

tween the western stations to the northern terminal at Spittel- 
market and the eastern terminal at Warsaw Bridge ; and also 
between Spittelmarket and Warsaw Bridge. No transfers, 
therefore, are necessary. In any event, there is little likeli- 
hood of boarding the wrong cars as the destination of the next 
train is always indicated by sliding metal signs hung out by 
the station despatches Each car also contains a conspicuous 
map of the system, so that a passenger can quickly rectify his 
mistake should he be on the wrong car. 

The cars, which have longitudinal seating throughout, have no 
platforms, but are entered by two side doors which usually are 
opened by the passengers and closed by station platform men. 
This door-opening practice is not as dangerous as it would be in 
the United States, as the German passenger has acquired the 
habit from traveling in the compartment cars on t he steam rail- 
roads. Nevertheless, the absence of train guards makes the stops 
appreciably longer than they would otherwise be, especially in 
periods of heavy service. The drawback of the custom was very 
apparent on Aug. 28, 1908, when the expected arrival of Zeppe- 
lin's airship at Berlin brought out vast numbers of people to 
coigns of vantage. On this occasion there were considerable de- 
lays in starting the trains and even the well-drilled Berliner was 
in danger of riding second-class on a third class ticket. An- 
other drawback to the rapid handling of large crowds arises 

from the system of zone fares, because every passenger must 
stop to have his ticket punched on entering the platform and 
to have it collected when leaving his terminal station. 

The use of the zone-fare system on the Berlin rapid transit 
lines is in direct contrast to the practically universal 2^-cent 
fare of the street-railway company. As a result it has been 
necessary to give a frequent service with two- to four-car 
trains, and even to include smoking cars or smoking compart- 
ments to induce the public to patronize the service. The fares 
are based on the number of station stops made after the first 
station has been left. When riding third class, the fares are as 
follows: Four stops, 2^2 cents; seven stops, 2H cents; 10 stops, 
S cents ; 13 stops, 6%. cents ; 16 stops, 7^ cents. The correspond- 
ing second-class fares are : 2>Y\ cents, 5 cents, 7^ cents, 8^4 
cents and 11% cents. The only reductions from these fares are 
made on certain early trains, on which the highest third-class 
fare is 6*4 cents and the highest second-class fare 7^2 cents. 
As it has been found that these fares are rather high for Ber- 
lin conditions, it is proposed to modify the zone system in such 
a way that instead of charging 1% cents more for every three sta- 
tions, the additional charge will include more stations the fur- 
ther out the passenger rides. For instance, this addition could 
cover three stations in the first extra fare zone, four in the sec- 
ond, five in the third, etc. One of the regulations of the com- 
pany permits passengers to have their money refunded for any 
delays exceeding 10 minutes. 

The experiment of having two classes of cars in city service 
was introduced because it was already in vogue on the local 
steam lines or Stadtbahn. While this provision satisfies the 
caste feeling of a portion of the public, it is hardly a financial 
success, for not more than 15 per cent to 20 per cent of the 
passengers pay the higher fare. As a matter of fact, the second- 
class cars on the eastern or workmen's section are practically 
empty, so that the second-class cars have a great deal of dead 
mileage. Both classes of cars are clean and comfortable and 
offer no material difference except in the seating, which is of 
wood in the third-class and of leather in the second-class. Dur- 
ing 1908 the company carried 44,639,029 passengers, an increase 
of about 3,000,000 over 1907. The income for the later year 
was 5,763,396 marks ($1,440,849), an increase of $125,646. The 
heaviest traffic on any one day was 200,000 passengers. The 
total number of train-miles in 1908 was 1,980,830, made up 
chiefly of three and four-car trains. According to Councillor 
Kemmann (retired), of Berlin, the density of travel was 4^2 
passengers per car-kilometer (2.79 per car-mile), exceeding that 
of most of the London underground railways. The rolling 
stock at the end of the year 1908 comprised 114 motor-cars and 
87 trailers, but 25 cars more were recently placed in service. 

It may be interesting to mention that about one-sixth of the 
cardboard fare tickets are sold through slot machines similar 
to the American chewing-gum delivery devices. Although the 
machines will respond to slugs or to other coins of like weight, 
the losses from this source do not amount to more than $37.50 
a year out of 7,500,000 sales. In one instance, where many slugs 
were being used at a certain station, the petty swindlers were 
caught in the following ingenious manner: The coin tube of 
the machine was prolonged so that the inserted piece would fall 
into a small room behind occupied by a watchman. As soon as 
a false coin or slug appeared, the watchman rang a bell and the 
malefactor was promptly captured by the nearest station guard. 


The northern or Spittelmarket extension of the underground 
railway was opened in October, 1908, and permission has been 
obtained to extend this route northwesterly, as shown on the 
map previously mentioned. The authorities have also re- 
quested the company to four track the section between the 
triangle and Wittenberg Platz, thereby changing the triangle 
into an ordinary crossing. 

This project is intimately connected with the recently started 
subway of the Wilmersdorf municipality for the tracks of the 
latter to join the underground railway company's extension 
from Wittenberg l'latz to Niirnberg Platz, as shown on the map. 



[Vol. XXXV. No. 3. 

The Wilmersdorf line is 10 run underground for 3.1 miles to 
Rastatter Platz, whence a shuttle service will be operated for 1.6 
miles. Thus this line will work in harmony with the present 
underground system and the tunnel and car dimensions will be 
practically alike. 

The municipality of Schoneberg is building a subway 2.17 
miles long which will run at first only to Nollendorf Platz, 
where there is an elevated station of the present rapid transit 
company. Should Schoneberg build a station at this site, passen- 
gers who desired to go down town would have to ascend over 
32 ft. No provision has been made for transfer or interchange 
of traffic at this point because the municipality could not be 
made to understand that the introduction of a connection point 
so far downtown would necessitate an extra charge by the 
private subway company on account of the mileage lost in 
bringing empty cars from the end of the line. 

The suburb of Charlottenburg also desires to have a subway, 
but is undecided whether it shall have a shuttle service or join 
the Schoneberg line at Nollendorf Platz and thence proceed 
downtown over a new and common route, which would termi- 
nate at Friedrichstrasse, a main thoroughfare. 

The Berlin municipality has received approval to build a 
north-south underground railway, which will be 5.11 miles long. 
It is proposed to have a wider tunnel than those used in the 
other projects. The cars will also be wider, and it is quite pos- 
sible that they will be furnished with automatic doors. The 
design of the Illinois Central car is being studied in this con- 
nection. The Berlin municipality is also planning a subway 
6.01 miles long to join the working districts of Rixdorf and 


The accompanying illustration shows an economical method 
of painting fenders by coating them with a tar varnish as 
sprayed from an air brush at 80 lb. to 90 lb. pressure. The 
fender is set up under a hood which is provided with air-blow- 
ing connections for drawing up the varnish vapors. The air 
brush enables two men to paint 16 fenders an hour, as against 
three fenders painted by hand in the same time. The air 

Painting Car Fenders a Varnish Color with Compressed Air 

painting is also superior to the old hand method as there is 
no tendency for the paint to gather in lumps. The varnish 
which gets by the grids is caught in catchpans, the contents 
of which are afterward removed for re-use. 

The same method has been applied to truck painting with- 
out using an exhaust hood. First the trucks are thoroughly 
scraped and cleaned with compressed air. By using the air 
brush, one man can coat a truck with a mineral quick-drying 
paint in one hour or about one-fourth the time required by hand. 


Statements showing the deficits from early operation of the 
Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad have been presented be- 
fore the New York Public Service Commission, Second Dis- 
trict, by Frank R. Ford, in the case involving valuation of the 
property of the company. These statements supplement the 
testimony of Mr. Ford, of which an abstract was given in the 
Electric Railway Journal for Dec. 25, 1909, page 1263. At 
the hearings intervening between the completion of his direct 
testimony and the present time Mr. Ford has been cross- 
examined by G. H. Backus, assistant counsel for the Commis- 
sion. The cross-examination, however, has brought out few- 
points that were not covered in the direct testimony. 

A statement published in this issue shows the net income of 
the company as stated in reports to State engineers from 
1862 to 1882, to the State Railroad Commission, from 1883 to 
1906, and to the Public Service Commission from 1907 to 1909. 
Against the net results for these years there is charged the 
actual interest paid on funded and floating debt. Dividends 
on the capital stock were deducted at what Mr. Ford assumed 
to be a reasonable rate, 8 per cent from 1862 to 1884, and 6 per 
cent after 1884. The larger rate assumed prior to 1884 was 
based on the fact that before that year the bonds of the com- 
pany bore 7 per cent ' interest and it was Mr. Ford's opinion 
that 8 per cent would represent the usual rate during that 
period for stock of the character under consideration. With 
these interest and dividend charges a deficit was shown for 
every year of operation of the horse period. The total deficit 
for the period was $846,856. In applying the same process to 
the transition period from horse to electric power, a net deficit 
was shown of $74,161, making a cumulative deficit of $921,017. 
During the electric period the surplus over the assumed reason- 
able rate of dividend was $783,119, so that at the end of the 
electric period the cumulative deficit as of June 30, 1909, was 
reduced to $137,898. If the argument was carried a little fur- 
ther and it was assumed that as the rates of dividend stated 
had not been paid and the stockholders therefore had not re- 
ceived the use of the dividends, an additional deficit could be 
added. If the use of the dividends was assumed at 7 per cent 
interest compounded annually up to 1884 and 6 per cent interest 
after that date the cumulative deficit with interest for the 
horse period amounted to $2,945,085, increasing to a total of 
53,799,246 at the end of the transition period and to $7,663,654 
at the end of the electric period. 

Other statements presented by Mr. Ford showed that for 
the period of horse car operation the average rate of dividend 
was 1.2 per cent on the capital stock; for the transition period 
3.7 per cent and for the electric period 8.6 per cent, giving an 
average for all the periods from 1861 to 1909 of 5.9 upon the 
outstanding stock. 

Mr. Ford had been unable to find the original contract for 
the construction of the road, but checked the amount of the 
property account at the end of the year 1862, $501,364, by an 
estimate of the probable cost of construction of the amount of 
property which the records showed the company had on hand 
at the time. The physical property then consisted of 15 miles 
of track, of which approximately 6 miles was a graded right- 
of-way; 20 cars; approximately 80 horses and 30 sets of har- 
ness ; barns, shops, office and real estate. By applying the 
unit costs of construction of horse railway and equipment, al- 
lowing a reasonable contractor's profit, costs of engineering 
and superintendence, interest and taxes during construction 
and costs of organization and obtaining franchises, an approx- 
imate estimate of $516,900 was made, comparing with $501,364, 
as shown in the statement. 

The development of the property account, as shown on one 
statement, included a reduction of the total to the cost per 
mile of track owned. Starting with the initial cost of $501,364, 
or $33400 per mile of track owned, the cost per mile reached 
$47,400 in 1890, the end of the horse period. During the 
transition period the cost rose to $63,800 per mile, standing at 

January 15, 1910.] 



that figure in 1894. From that time, with electric operation, the 
cost increased rapidly, reaching $112,100 in 1898 and $164,000 
on Aug. 1, 1909. 

A statement was presented by Mr. Ford to show that no 
large street railway company in America had accumulated a 
depreciation or renewal reserve fund covering both wear and 
tear and obsolescence of more than approximately 3 per cent 
of the cost of property. B. J. Arnold's estimate of obsolescence 
of the Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad property was about 
20 per cent of the cost of the property. Mr. Ford desired to 

fiscal year was that of the Milwaukee company, $2,641,707, or 
7.8 per cent of the total cost of the property, but the cost of 
property in this case included the lighting and heating business 
and the fund represented largely reserves for fire insurance, 
injuries and damages and miscellaneous, so that but a small, 
part of this fund was represented by the reserve for obso- 
lescence of the street railway property. The Twin City Rapid 
Transit Company, of Minneapolis, showed the largest street 
railway depreciation reserve of 2.75 per cent of cost of prop- 


DEFICIT FROM EARLY OPERATION. — Presented by Mr. Ford. ' 

_ Net 

1862 $6,874 

1863 — 4,233 

1864 9,148 

1865 4.127 

1866 — 3,638 

1867 — 236 

1868 — 18,049 

1869 13,067 

1870 12,897 

1871 » 10,144 

1872 27,699 

1873 '. 20,567 

1874 43,094 

1875 25,091 

1876 24,427 

1877 35.713 

1878 48,980 

1879 43,176 

1880 43,782 

1881 51,640 

1882 56,800 

1883 60,393 

1884 53.650 

1885 10,100 

'886 35.357 

1887 36,306 

1888 28,234 

1889 20,073 

1890 20,080 

Total $717,263 

189.1 $33,968 

1892 60,185 

1893 59.570 

1894 66,861 

Total $220,584 

1895 $105,536 

1896 119,319 

1897 99.017 

1898 324.721 

1899 408,776 

J900 470.639 

1901 536,473 

1902 527.044 

1903 489.083 

1904 471.914 

"90S 424,750 

1906 397.605 

1907 273.649 

1908 164.735(B) 

■909 323,813 

Total $5, 137,074 

Horse car operation... $717,263 
Transition p e r i d — 

horse to electric 

operation 220,584 

Electric operation 5,137,074 

Total $6,074,921 

Dividends — 
Reasonable rate 
Interest paid — -8 per cent 
on funded and to 1884, 6 per 
floating debt cent after 1884 

















1 7,280 












21,41 1 






















1 5,000 


1 5,000 






Total charges 
for capital 


61,41 1 


for year 

70, 1 ? 




















1 20 
I 20, 
I 20, 
1 20, 







,9 1 6 










1 13.752(A) 
160,561 (A) 








$1,564,1 19 







466,1 56 




1 16,749 


Annual interest 
on cumulative 
deficit — 7 per cent 
to 1884, 6 per 
cent after 1884 

$373,1 19(A) $137,898 




1 12,136 
1 54,486 




32S, 4 88 
390,41 1 





Cumulative def- 
icit with interest 






















(A) Surplus. (B) After including in operating expenses the following renewals shown as betterments in company's balance sheet: 1908, $86,498; 
1909, $101,316; total, $187,814. 

Note. — The first two columns of this statement were prepared from reports to Slate Engineers from 1862 to 1882, to State Railroad Commission 
from 1883 to 1906 and to Public Service Commission, 1907 to 1909. 

show that the deduction of an allowance for obsolescence 
in a rate case was purely a theory and one that had never 
been substantiated by the current practice of the industry in 
this country. Of the 20 largest companies in the United 
States and Canada, seven showed the accumulation of de- 
preciation funds from earnings, the systems of Minneapolis, 
St. Louis, Milwaukee, Montreal, Buffalo, Brooklyn and Bos- 
ton. The largest amount of credil to depreciation or re- 
newal reserve shown on the balance sheet at the end of the 

During the cross-examination, Mr. Ford reiterated his testi- 
mony that sooner or later fares would have to be determined 
on a passenger mile or length of ride basis. He said that pro- 
vision was made for obsolescence in the manufacturing in- 
dustry in the selling prices of the products sold, but that the 
rates charged for street railway service had never been high 
enough t<> provide for this element of depreciation. The re- 
tirement ol obsolete equipment was always accompanied by 

increased economy <>r efficiency through the adoption of ini 


[Vol. XXXV. No. 3. 

proved standards, but the great transitions from horse to cable 
and cable to electricity had to be made by increase in the 
property account, as the earnings were not large enough to 
provide the necessary funds for such improvements. 


At the December meeting of the Boston section of the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Paul Winsor, chief 
engineer of motive power and rolling stock, Boston Elevated 
Railway Company, gave a talk on' improvements in old types 
of equipment. Mr. Winsor stated that the company was one 
of the first in the country to be equipped with electric trac- 
tion, and this gave it experience with the earliest forms of 
railway motors, including the F-30, S.R.G., W.P.'s, etc. The 
company still has many W.P. motors in operation, and it now 
has 500 GE-800 motors, with later types which have super- 
seded the older machines. In the power station work of the 
company the first machines used were the old Thomson-Hous- 
ton D-62 type, and some of these are still in actual operation 
every night during the peak load at the Allston power station. 
Later the company used some 300-kw machines, replacing them 
by 500-kw multipolars. Some of the latter are in use at 
present in the East Cambridge station. One is running as a 
booster with series fields only. Engine type machines followed 
and the latest generators are of the interpolar type. 

Referring briefly to the system of analyzing car defects in 
Boston Mr. Winsor stated that in the past three years these 
have been cut down from about 50 per day to 17 per day. 
The details of this system have been fully described in the 
Electric Railway Journal. Passing to power station ques- 
tions, the speaker spoke of a 1500-kw generator which had 
given trouble from sparking and was improved somewhat by 
slowing down the engine. Special care was taken to secure 
proper brush-holder operation. On some of the older machines 
the company has entirely changed the type of brush-holders 
to conform with the practice in later-designed generators. 
Emery cloth is no longer used in dressing down commutators 
and very little sandpaper is employed. One thing which helped 
is the method of cleaning a machine in shutting down. The 
company had a d. c. turbine machine which was very sensi- 
tive on the commutator, and it learned much from that. Be- 
fore shutting down the machines are thoroughly cleaned, 
all the oil and lubrication being taken off the com- 
mutator, so that when the machines cool off the oil 
does not harden and injure the commutators. Without 
thorough cleaning there will be gum on the commutator, which 
is blotchy, and which starts sparking as soon as operation 
begins again. The 1500-kw machine was tested for distribu 
tion of voltage around the commutator. In some cases the 
balancing rings were disconnecting entirely ; in other machines 
tested it was found that the brushes should not be set on the 
diameter — that the machine was enough out of balance on the. 
different poles to require brushes not to be placed an equal 
number of bars apart. Again, in handling the machines, it 
was the tendency of the operator to adjust too much for the 
load, and the result was that instead of getting the spark from 
the top of the brush, there would be a spark under the brush, 
which tended to honeycomb the brush and give a bad-running 
commutator. The company has also gone carefully over the 
equalizing and compounding of its generators, so that the ma- 
chines are very much more in harmony, which has been strik- 
ingly evidenced this winter in the loads which have been car- 
ried with much more ease than in past years. 

Taking up the car equipment problem, Mr. Winsor stated 
that the older apparatus is not being used in as hard service 
as formerly, but it is still actively employed. The single 
item of broken car glass has been greatly reduced by holding 
somebody responsible for broken panes. It was found that 
the motormen had been breaking the glass by dropping the 
windows, largely because of the absence of proper latches, and 

this has been remedied to a great degree. Motormen do not 
now report as many cars as being defective when there is 
nothing the matter with them, as formerly, for if they report 
that the brake is out of order, for example, the motormen are 
required to show wherein the trouble lies. 

The defects per 10,000 motor miles with the W.P. motors 
have dropped from 4.5 to 0.7 or 0.8. The company has im- 
proved this type of motor. The commutator has been under- 
cut, and where the life of the commutator was formerly nine 
months, it now promises to be four or five years or over. 
This is partly due to slotting the mica bars, partly to a more 
satisfactory quality of brush, partly to turning the commutators 
often to keep them in good condition, and also because the 
motors are used on more suitable runs. These motors were 
originally equipped with thirteen-turn armatures, which gave a 
speed of 15 m.p.h. The demand for higher speed led to the 
removal of two turns, and when the second was taken off the 
motors became overloaded. They have since been put on 
lighter service, with better results. These motors were not 
very well bolted together in the frames, and they rub and 
pean each other out. The company has had to throw shells 
away because they were peaned out and did not give room 
for the armatures between the pole pieces. It was found that 
the foremen had put washers on the bolts in some cases, and 
this gave a considerable air gap. The motormen liked such 
equipments on account of their high speed. Mr. Winsor said 
that better results were obtained from the GE-800 
motor than from the W.P.-50's, but the latter was im- 
proved poroportionately. The Westinghouse 12-A and 
the 68 were next used. The GE-58 is by no means a modern 
motor, but two years ago the company bought another thou- 
sand of these motors. The reason was that such good results 
were obtained from the GE-58 that, although their efficiency 
was not so high as might be expected from the most modern 
machines, it was desirable to install the older ones. Mr. Win- 
sor stated that the company had 1000 Westinghouse-121 mo- 
tors, and that the latest that has been in service any length of 
time is the GE-202 motor. 

About two years ago the company started to put in West- 
inghouse-301 motors in the elevated service in place of some 
of the old types. Certain troubles were experienced with 
those first received, but for the last 18 months not one 
winding has been lost and but one armature. The latter was 
lost shortly after being installed on account of some fault 
under the pan. The latest motors which the company is in- 
stalling are the GE-68, which is not an interpole motor, and 
the Westinghouse-312, which is of the interpole type. One 
thing which helped these motors was to go over the resistances 
and control connections. The equipments bought from time 
to time were originally set as the manufacturers advised, 
and in other instances the company made its own setting. 
A reduction in power required during acceleration was secured 
in several instances by modifications of the resistance setting 
made by the company. 

The traveling armature tags used in Boston help a great 
deal. If an armature is reported to a car house foreman 
for flashing and the tag shows that the armature gave long 
service in another car house without trouble, the man who has 
it last is more likely to overhaul the armature and try to 
locate the trouble himself rather than to send it into the 
shop. The question of fields is a very important one in con- 
nection with armature trouble. It is very easy to take an 
armature out because it is burned or flashes, put another one 
in and have the same trouble. A few years ago that hap- 
pened repeatedly. The same car would change armatures per- 
haps three times in one week. It is doubtful if that would 
happen to-day under the system of maintenance records and 
their study which is in vogue. Certainly after the second time 
the car house foreman would know there was something 
wrong with the motor, probably with the fields, and he would 
try to find what the field situation was. The old cotton fields 
charred out with the service which the company gave them. 
Within the past two years the company has had over 2000 

January 15, 1910.] 


motor fields on which the cotton was charred, and the coils 
would have been condemned under the old arrangement. The 
company now fills these with compound and has not lost one 
of the reclaimed fields. It has no impregnating plant. In 
winding the new coils very much the same result is obtained 
by using a mixture of japan and French chalk, and really 
filling the space up and making a solid field, so that, although 
the cotton chars, the wires cannot come together. The first 
mixture the company used was japan, simple varnish, and 
ordinary portland cement ; but it was found that the portland 
cement had no effect except as a filler, and japan and French 
chalk are now being used. The japan divides the chalk up 
into thin layers so that it dries and the whole makes a very 
solid mass. 

In the company's efforts to teach its men how to handle 
the cars in a better manner some interesting demonstrations 
have been made. One of these was to show the proper way 
to speed up, without skidding the wheels. The temptation 
on a bad rail is to speed up, and if the wheels spin, to speed 
up more. A car was put on a short piece of track, and the 
instructor then asked the men to see how quickly they could 
move that car from one point to another 150 ft. away. In- 
variably they all spun the wheels. One of the company's 
engineers then took the car and made the quickest time of 
all without spinning the wheels, simply feeding the controller 
handle slowly. Mr. Winsor said that one might talk all night 
to the motormen on the theory that as long as one spins the 
wheels progress cannot be made, but that it would not appeal 
to them as it does to see the actual result tried out on the 
track. Within six months the company has put an instruction 
car on the road, with a schoolmaster. It is too early to see 
the results, but it is expected to be of benefit to the company. 
The schoolmaster understands thoroughly that his whole busi- 
ness is personal work with the men. He cannot give them 
lessons to learn, but he must get them interested, and in this 
he is succeeding very well. A recent experience with a motor- 
man who had been on the road for many years is representative. 
The motorman had been reported for using too much power at 
electric track switches. These switches are operated by cur- 
rent from the trolley wire. To throw the switch in one direc- 
tion the car passes under it with the power on, and to throw 
it the other way, the car coasts under the switch. The 
motorman had been sent to the schoolmaster for instruction, 
and had declared that the switch could not be thrown short of 
three notches of power. The schoolmaster went out on the 
car with this motorman on his last trip, and demonstrated on 
the spot that the switch could be thrown with a single notch, 
and the lesson was thus driven home in a practical way. 

In conclusion the speaker described the monthly meetings 
of the car house foremen in Boston and showed how the rec- 
ords in the car defect analysis system are transcribed on large 
sheets, and curves plotted, showing on a large scale the vari- 
ation in defects from different causes from month to .month 
and year to year. The car house foremen have complete record 
blanks starting with a daily log sheet on which troubles are 
put down. If a car misses a trip because of some fault it is 
called a defect. The car houses also keep mileage records. 
All their repairs are kept on a mileage basis. A certain kind 
of equipment has to be inspected every 1000 miles, etc. These 
log sheets come to headquarters and the information is posted 
there, so that finally the company establishes its records for 
the entire system. Tabulations are made on cards for differ- 
ent classes and types of equipment and the most accurate in- 
formation concerning troubles is thus constantly at hand. 
Thus, there is a motor card for each type of motor, 50-C, 
202, etc. The number and kind of failures each day are tab- 
ulated and these are footed up for the month. From the 
monthly records the company knows what is the most fre- 
quent kind of trouble and goes after it. Sometimes the trouble 
can be remedied and sometimes not. These monthly meetings 
have done a great deal of good. Sometimes a man gets 
"hauled over the coals" and does not have a happy time that 
evening, but most of the meetings are noi of that nature. 

The men talk over things and tell their experience. Very 
good results have come from giving a man, a certain subject 
to post himself on and have him give a talk. It is surprising 
how many of the foremen have risen to that point. These 
talks are often very interesting and have done a great deal 
toward making the men interested in their work. At first 
the meetings were considered a great hardship, but as time 
went on the results began to be clear. The men see the re- 
sults of their past two or three years' work and are becoming 
more and more interested. Mr. Winsor closed with a brief 
reference to the company's standardization of brake shoe 
heads. These now take in practically every case a standard 
shoe, instead of having a large variety of shoes which had to 
be bolted on. Before, it was often necessary to break the bolt 
in order to take off the shoe. It is now held in place by a 
key. The number of resistance grids has been cut down from 
14 to 3. These old equipments cannot be made as good as new 
ones, but much can be accomplished in the way of improve- 
ment with a little care and knowledge of what one is doing. 


In the discussion of Mr. Winsor's remarks, M. V. Ayres, elec- 
trical engineer of the Boston & Worcester Street Railway Com- 
pany, stated that the work of the Boston Elevated Railway 
Company well illustrated the saying that a problem once stated 
was half solved. By finding out what the matter was and the 
nature of the particular troubles the company has enormously 
reduced their frequency. Thus, tests on the car resistances 
showed that much motor trouble was due to the comparatively 
simple matter of irregularly adjusted resistances. Mr. Ayres 
said that the causes of motor troubles in his opinion fall into 
three classes: overheating, which is due to continuous overload; 
commutator troubles, which are due in a considerable degree to 
momentary overloads ; and vibration, which is principally due 
to the way in which the motors are mounted on the cars. Com- 
mutator trouble is the thing which has been particularly reme- 
died in Boston by resistance adjustment. Simply by cutting off 
the high peaks the trouble is greatly reduced. Overheating 
due to continuous overload can be reduced only by using a 
larger motor or using blowers to cool off the motor. The 
latter is not common practice except in the case of certain 
large locomotives. In the future it will probably be done fre- 
quently. The tendency is likely to be in the direction of using 
smaller and lighter motors cooled artificially. 

Mr. Ayres stated that in his opinion vibration is responsible 
for a large portion of modern motor troubles, since stationary 
motors last much longer without repairs than car motors, even 
if the latter have the best of treatment. This is due largely to 
carrying the weight of the motor on the axle. It may be 
possible to devise some method of suspending the motor without 
mounting it directly on top of the car axle, perhaps spring- 
mounting it so that the present severe pounding will be de- 
creased. Something of this sort with artificial ventilation will 
result in greatly reduced size and weight of parts and a greater 
life with less trouble. 

Mr. Hamill, Schenectady, voiced his surprise at the success 
of the Boston Elevated Railway in modernizing the old" "WP" 
motors, which have been obsolete for some 15 years. He stated 
that a railway motor has a remarkable life in the face of its 
conditions of operation. The armature trouble is often found 
to originate from something wrong with the fields and com- 
mutator trouble more often than anything else indicates brush 
holder difficulties. Excess of lubrication may cause sticking 
of brushes or holders. All this appears at the commutator and 
not at the brush-holder, so troubles are very much isolated. 
Defects may also arise from the springs. 

Prof. A. S. Richey, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, stated 
that the three most important things relating to the maintenance 
of car equipment and the reduction of cost, outside the shop, 
arc the proportioning of resistances, the selection of proper 
gear ratios, and the proper instruction of the motormen. Tin 
matter of gear ratios deserves more attention and there are 
undoubtedly many eases where 50 hp motors are pretty well 
loaded which could be handled by 40 hp motors equipped with 



[Vol. XXXV. No. 3. 

gears of the proper ratio. Properly instructed motormen can 
save a great deal of power, perhaps more than in certain fine 
power station economies. A saving of a fraction of a kw-hour 
per car-mile is better than saving a fraction of a cent per 
kw-hour in the station, and it can be done by teaching the 
motormen. On one road about 10 recording wattmeters were 
installed to each 100 cars. It was at first planned to switch 
these wattmeters around from car to car, but the motormen 
became interested and the cars were switched around to differ- 
ent runs instead. The motormen paid no attention to the con- 
stant of the meter, but called the plain figures watts, reporting 
that they had made a certain run on 231 watts where they used 
to take 245. The officials of the company did not care how the 
figures were read so long as the power consumption was cut 
down. There was a good deal of rivalry between the motor- 
men to see who could make the runs with the least power. 


The address by Paul Winsor was followed by a short 
talk by Prof. I. N. Hollis, of Harvard University, on Power 
Station Economy. Professor Hollis commented upon the tran- 
sition state in which prime movers now find themselves, and 
passed to a broad discussion of the evils of underload opera- 
tion. He reviewed the conditions surrounding the exhaust 
steam turbine installation of the Interborough Rapid Transit 
■Company, New York, as discussed before the Boston section of 
the American Society of Mechanical Engineers recently, and 
abstracted in the Electric Railway Journal. The importance 
of a good load factor in relation to station economy was the 
principal theme, the desirability of cutting down the stand-by 
losses in the boiler room being specially emphasized. 

Jas. D. Andrew, Boston Elevated Railway Company, referred 
to the importance of having apparatus of high quality installed 
in a plant with plenty of working space. Equipment should 
lie kept up to its guarantees after it is put into permanent 
service. All equipment will degenerate if not kept up, and no 
company should hesitate to put all the improvements it can into 
the older machinery. Improvements in electrical apparatus 
are largely matters of detail, and these details can frequently 
"be applied to old machines. Mr. Andrew did not consider the 
•exhaust steam turbine applicable to Boston Elevated plants 
at present on account of their use of direct current. The com- 
pany has found it impossible to run a turbine-driven generator 
at 550 volts direct current. An alternating current machine 
could not be put on the system to act as an independent unit 
without a governor, and even then it would not work out at all 
well, as it would have to be tied to the rest of the system 
through substations. In the Interborough installation, spoken 
■of by Professor Hollis, the conditions were ideal for exhaust 
turbine operation. 

M. V. Ayres, Boston & Worcester Street Railway Company, 
called attention to the difficulties of securing operation of gen- 
erators at rated load. Hardly anybody has this load upon his 
plant. In the Boston & Worcester work the most economical 
load has been found to be the largest load which can be put 
upon a single unit, the machines being of the alternating cur- 
rent type, and the load fluctuating. The greatest station 
economy on this road is obtained when the engines are slowing 
■down every little while on the peak of the load and simply 
carrying all they can. It does not pay to start another engine 
until the engines running are repeatedly slowing down under 
the load. This could not be done in lighting service. In regard 
to power station equipment, Mr. Ayres stated that he no longer 
favors the general installation of electrical auxiliaries. They 
should never be used in any place where the failure of an 
auxiliary will cause the shut-down of the main machines. 
Small steam turbines are preferable, notably in the driving of 
circulating pumps for condensers. 


In order to comply with the terms of the recent concession 
to electrify the tramway system in Constantinople, the entire 
trackage is being completely rebuilt at a cost of $1,000,000. The 
cost of new cars, overhead lines and power distribution network 
is estimated at an additional $1,400,000. 

The report of the New York Public Service Commission, 
First District, for the year ended Dec. 31, 1909, has been sub- 
mitted to the Legislature. An abstract of the features of the 
report relating to street railways discussed in the preliminary 
chapter follows : 

"During the year the commission has considered 271 formal 
cases, of which 57 were not yet determined at the end of the 

"The applications relating to securities concerned principally 
the issue of stock and bonds. The largest amount involved was 
in connection with the pending reorganization of the Third Ave- 
nue Railroad. Due application of the committee of bondholders 
of this company was denied and another application, asking the 
approval of $54,916,000 of securities, is now before the com- 

"Experience has shown that most matters relating to conduct 
of employees, minor defects of cars or tracks, and even de- 
ficiencies in service, will be determined satisfactorily by the 
companies when their attention is called to them, without the 
necessity of a hearing and a formal order. During the year 
: 335 informal complaints relating to railroad, street railway and 
express companies have been handled, of which 73 were not 
concluded at the end of the year. 


"The equipment of the railroad systems in the City of New 
York is now in better condition than ever before. The cars 
are less noisy and they are cleaner and better heated, and, be- 
cause of the thorough overhauling of the cars, required by the 
commission, there are fewer breakdowns and blowouts of motor 
boxes and fuses. A great reduction of such accidents on the 
Brooklyn Bridge has made possible considerably better service 
on that structure. 

"The Brooklyn Union Elevated Railroad, under the direction 
of the commission, is changing the type of air brake on its ele- 
vated cars; the New York & Queens County Railway has been 
ordered to double-track its system and all the companies in the 
city have been required to adopt fenders and wheelguards of an 
approved type. Good equipment well maintained not only makes 
better service possible, but also reduces the number and serious- 
ness of accidents. The following, figures are of interest : 

1908. 1909. 

Total number of accidents on street, "L" and subway 

and steam railroads within New York City 56,481 52,618 

Number of persons killed 444 325 

Number of persons and vehicles struck by cars 11,405 11,426 

"The service rendered by transportation companies is also 
now better than ever before in proportion to the physical condi- 
tions and the volume of travel. Due to the orders of the com- 
mission, the maximum service is continued for a much longer 
period that heretofore, and the rush-hour service has been in- 
creased. Upon the Manhattan surface lines, for example, as 
to which service orders have been issued, a comparison of 
service rendered before and after the orders shows an increase 
varying from 11 per cent to 57 per cent. 

"The matter of adequate service is a serious problem, for 
during each 24-hour period passengers equal in number to about 
85 per cent of the entire population must be carried. Fully one- 
third of all the passengers traveling in one direction during the 
day are carried in two hours out of the 24; that is, one-third of 
the traffic comes in one-twelfth of the time. 

"An annual count is made of the number of persons who 
cross the East River between Brooklyn and Manhattan and re- 
turn during a 24-hour period. The following schedule shows 
the figures of travel in both directions for three years: 

Travel Travel Travel 

to and from to and from to and from 

Long Island, Long Island, Long Island, 

1907. 1908. 1909. 

423,000 309.783 323,006 

163,000 183,233 206,606 


Brooklyn Bridge 

Williamsburg Bridge... 

Queensboro Bridge .... Not open for traffic Not open for traffic 26,300 

Ferries 120,000 I75>749 120,841 

Interborough subway . .Not open for traffic 159,708 193,784 





January 15, 1910.] 



"The following figures indicate the extent of the transporta- 
tion problem in New York City : 

Year ending June 30. 1907- 1908. 1909. 
Number of operating companies: 

Street or electric railway 29 3° 33 

Steam railroad (Staten Island) 222 

Miles of (singie track) i,597 1,636 1 >°4o 

Number of passenger cars 10,062 11,049 11,623 

Number of officers and employees *34>"3 39.839 37,6°9 

Miles run by passenger cars 252,783,198 273,788,406 272,369,956 

Revenue passengers carried 1,322,816,965 1,365,169,472 1,409,132,118 

Revenue passengers per day 3,624,156 3.729,971 3.860,635 

Revenue for transportation 66,838,721 68,461,349 70,732,928 

Total revenue from rail operations 68,318,881 69,941,968 73,646,417 

Total expense of rail operations. 37,779,099 43,087,446 44,022,578 

Net revenue from rail operations. 30,539.782 26,854,522 29,623,839 

Operating ratio, per cent 55.3 61.6 59.8 

Per car mile, cents: 

Revenue 26.1 25.3 26.8 

Expenses 14-1 15-6 160 

Net revenue 12-0 9-7 I0 - 8 

*An average for the year. 


"A number of additions to the subway now in operation have 
been constructed or are under construction under Contracts 
Nos. 1 and 2, under authorization by the commission. The 
shuttle service between the Bowling Green and Battery Park 
stations has been completed and is now in satisfactory use. The 
work of enlarging the Ninety-sixth Street subway station has 
not been completed, because the company has been required to 
•develop a speed-control system which promises to afford the 
necessary relief to the train congestion at this point. On the 
tipper portions of the lines the rapid growth of population and 
travel has necessitated additional station facilities. The com- 
pany, under orders from the commission, is equipping its sub- 
way express service cars with side doors. This improvement 
is affording material relief, for a gain of four seconds in re- 
ducing station stops means the possibility of an extra 8-car train 
per hour. With 17 side-door trains in operation, the company's 
general manager states that there has been a 20-second saving. 
In addition, the station platforms on both express and local 
tracks are being lengthened at an expense of $1,500,000. This 
-will allow a 25 per cent increase in the size of trains, that is, 
allowing 10-car express trains instead of 8 cars as at present. 

"The commission has given exhaustive attention to plans for 
additional rapid transit routes. 


"Railroad Law. — The subject of transfers on surface lines in 
•cities cannot be rightly adjusted until the railroad law is 
amended. Out-of-date provisions in the railroad law regard- 
ing changes are entirely discordant with the rate-making pro- 
visions of the later law. 

"Without going into detail at this time regarding the many 
needed amendments to perfect the railroad law, the commis- 
sion desires to call especial attention to the imperfections of 
the grade-crossing provisions. 

"Public service commission law. — The ability of the com- 
mission to prescribe reasonable joint rates, including transfers, 
should be made clear and effective, especially since transfers 
have been so largely abolished by the various operating. com- 
panies in Manhattan. Experience has shown that numerous im- 
provements can be made in the law which will be equally bene- 
ficial to the public and the public-service corporations. 

"Apart from such particulars as can now be adjusted in the 
light of actual experience, it has been found that in three most 
important features the phraseology employed fails to carry out 
the general purposes of the enactment. This has been brought 
about by the interpretation placed upon the law by the State 

"r. It seems to have been the intention of the law that the 
commission should be an administrative body with power to 
prescribe rates and facilities in accordance with a rule laid 
down for guidance in each case. For instance, rates should be 
just and reasonable; service and facilities should be safe, ade- 
quate and in all respects just and reasonable. This commission 
considered that, when it made a careful inquiry into the facts 
of each case and gave a fair hearing to all interested parties, its 
conclusion embodied in an order should go into effect the same 
as an enactment of the Legislature. The State courts have de- 
clared, however, contrary to the holding of the United Stales 

Supreme Court, that the words employed in the act make the 
commission a judicial or quasi-judicial body in respect to rates, 
and it would seem to follow in respect to service and facilities. 
Accordingly, the courts have declared that the propriety of an 
order of the commission in these respects can be considered and 
decided by the courts, which thus become substituted for the 
commission just as if the acts of the Legislature could be re- 
viewed by the courts, and set aside because the record of evi- 
dence was not sufficient to support or validate a statute. The 
result is that orders of the commission which are contested do 
not go into effect at once, but can be kept in litigation for a 
long time, their efficacy thus being made to depend, not upon 
their correctness, but upon a written record of evidence. 

"2. The public-service commissions law requires that, before 
construction or operation of a railroad under a franchise can 
begin, the approval and permission of the commission must be 
granted. As all franchises proceed directly or indirectly from 
the State, it was understood and expected that the commission 
would perform a useful State function in preventing franchises 
that disregarded the public interests. It is of the greatest im- 
portance that franchise terms should be harmonious in the 
cities of the State, and that extravagant and perpetual rights 
should not be granted to public-service corporations. The courts 
have held, however, that, inasmuch as the section in question 
provides that the commission shall determine whether a railroad 
is convenient or necessary, it is limited to a consideration of the 
present convenience and necessity of a railroad, quite regard- 
less of the franchise terms that may be inserted by the city, and 
which may be considered by the commission as hostile to the 
public interests. The result is that the public-service law does 
no more than the railroad law, which has for many years re- 
quired the State railroad board to pass on the question of pub- 
lic convenience and necessity. 

"3. One of the main purposes of the law was supposed to be 
the prevention of stock-watering. The courts have held, how- 
ever, that the words used in the section relating to this subject 
only require the commission to determine whether stock and 
bonds sought to be issued come within one of the four pur- 
poses stated in the section, i.e., the acquisition of property, con- 
struction of its facilities, improvement and maintenance of its 
service, or the discharge or refunding of its obligations. The 
result is that this construction of the words used in the act de- 
prives the commissions of power to stop stock-watering, for it is 
easy for the companies to bring within the four legal purposes 
sums that never should be capitalized, as, for instance, expenses 
of operation, taxes, replacements, or even dividends. Capitali- 
zation except for proper capital purposes should not be allowed, 
but the present section as interpreted by the courts leaves the 
law ineffective in this regard. 

"Although these decisions of the court have devitalized the 
public service commissions law, they serve to indicate the 
changes which should be made by the Legislature to bring the 
law back to its original intention. Powers in the commissions to 
regulate rates and service, to prevent construction under fran- 
chises that do not safeguard the public welfare, and to prevent 
stock-watering, have been considered the main advantages of the 
new law. Without them the commissions can hardly touch 
foundamental evils. It is highly desirable that the essential pur- 
poses of the law be re-established." 

The Western New York & Pennsylvania Traction Com- 
pany, of Olean, N. Y., recently announced that the 46-trip 
monthly commutation ticket books, good to the purchaser 
for passage between any two local points in New York State 
where (he regular one-way fare is 10 cents or more, will be 
sold to persons between the ages oi 5 years and 20 years 
at one half the regular one-way fare. Heretofore the use 
oi these books has been restricted to scholars, Monthly 
commutation books containing 52 coupons each good for 
passage between Portville and Olean, sold at $3.25 per 
book, are good for passage to the purchaser only; hercto- 
fore the use has not been restricted to purchaser. 



[Vol. XXXV. No. 3. 



Some years ago a very rich man who proposed to found a 
great institution of learning in one of the Far Western cities 
went to Cambridge to see what was being done at Harvard. 
He passed a day or two looking at its buildings, libraries and 
museums, and inquiring into the courses of study and the work 
carried on. At the end of that time he turned to those who 
were showing him about, and said: "Well, gentlemen, what is 
your whole plant worth?" They looked blank, and the million- 
aire reiterated: "What is the value of it— how much did it 
all cost?" The notion that Harvard University, the product 
of two centuries of time and of the lives and labors of thou- 
sands of good men, could be valued in money was strange ; but 
the millionaire was insistent upon an answer, and one official 
finally said : "I suppose it cost perhaps so and so many mil- 
lions" ; and the plutocrat turned to his wife, who happened to be 
with him, and said : "Well, mother, I guess we can do better 
than that," and went away quite confident that it was within his 
power, by the mere expenditure of money, to at once produce 
an institution more valuable than Harvard University. 

The Harvard representative at this conversation could not 
have been more aghast at the millionaire's question than I was 
when, some months ago, I received from the Public Service 
Commission of this district notice that it had undertaken the 
valuation of the property, tangible and intangible, of the street 
railways of this city, including one of which I happen to be the 

I asked how it was proposed to make the valuation and what 
was the purpose for which it was to be made. In various forms 
I repeated these questions for more than a year, without any 
answer, until one of the commissioners, perhaps inadvertently, 
said that the purpose of the commission was, in brief, "to 
secure reliable information as to the value of the physical prop- 
erties of the company for the purpose of being in possession of 
the facts necessary or important for its discharge of the duties 
devolving upon it in connection with issues of securities, pas- 
senger rates, etc.," and that I must be aware of it. That state- 
ment, if you please, being made with reference to a company of 
which all the securities had already been issued, and to a rail- 
road and a community where the most widely known and uni- 
versally accepted fact in respect to street service is that the fare 
of every passenger is fixed at 5 cents ! This statement did not 
enlighten me, and for a long time I could not conceive what the 
commission was driving at. I have, however, now discovered 
what I suppose the most of you knew long ago — that the notion 
of a valuation of public-service properties originated in the 
State of Wisconsin, although it was first attempted to be ap- 
plied in Texas, and that in Wisconsin there is a statute which 
provides for such valuation, primarily for the purpose of en- 
abling the State to fix rates on the steam railroads, which would 
be more acceptable to the shippers ; and in a recent address by 
Mr. Roemer, a member of the Wisconsin commission, I find the 
whole philosophy of a . State valuation of public utilities ex- 

The New York commission for this district has apparently 
swallowed the Wisconsin doctrine whole, and is undertaking to 
apply it in a State where' the Wisconsin statutes do not run. 
Mr. Roemer says that the duty of the valuation imposed upon 
the commission is the gravest and most important of all its 
functions, and asserts that "the value of every security of a 
public-service corporation in this State will be determined and 
perhaps irrevocably fixed by the appraisal made by the com- 
mission of such corporation, upon the credit of which such 
security will be issued. There can be no escape from this con- 
clusion. Fair and reasonable as such appraisal may be, it will 
signify to the world that, in the future, public utilities in this 
State will cease to be a subject for speculative investment. It 

* Abstract of an address presented before the American Economic 
Association, New York, N. Y., Dec. 30, 1909. 

will also indicate that which is more important, to wit, that 
actual bona-fide investments in such concerns, when providently 
made, will be secure under State supervision, and the adequacy 
of the security will be maintained by strict enforcement of the 
law." These views I shall not undertake to discuss. Anybody 
who holds them is as much beyond the reach of any argument 
at my command as were those persons who some years ago be- 
lieved that the relative value of two metals could be fixed by 
act of Congress. Mr. Roemer, however, goes on, as I under- 
stand him, to point out that the method of valuation— as if 
there were no other — is to have the engineering staff determine 
the "cost of reproduction." 


But Mr. Roemer omits to notice that besides the "cost of re- 
production" there are other measures of value, such as market 
price, original cost, the rental value, all quite as efficient as the 
cost of reproduction. The salient fact about all but one of 
these methods of valuation is that, after all, they rest upon the 
testimony of experts. It is all very well to talk of a valuation 
by the State. That has an august sound, but when we come 
to examine the statement it shrinks, so that your State valua- 
tion is only the unsifted judgment or guess of one or more in- 
dividual experts. 

Now, with every respect in the world for science of every 
kind, and for those who are expert in it, I cannot but recall a 
remark made to me by Professor Huxley, of whom I was ask- 
ing an expert opinion of our Government on a subject of which 
he had studied profoundly, and he said to me : "My dear 
Whitridge, there are, you know, three kinds of liars— liars, 
damned liars and experts." 

I remember, also, in my early days at the Bar, I was directed 
to prepare a brief, based wholly upon expert opinions, to show 
that the Brooklyn Bridge would fall down, and in that brief I 
proved that the molecular rearrangement caused by the impact 
of the heavy traffic on the steel of which the bridge was con- 
structed would result in a disintegration of that metal and the 
collapse of the bridge. If the theories of molecular action which 
then prevailed still hold true, that bridge may fall down at any 
moment, but fortunately I did not fix a date for the catas- 

I am personally quite unable, therefore, to look upon any 
valuation of anything with the complacency with which Mr. 
Roemer and his school regard a valuation of public utilities 
which rests entirely upon the judgment of experts. Assum- 
ing, however, that experts are to be depended upon absolutely, 
and that it is possible for a public body, speaking in the name 
of the State, to be willing to shelter itself behind expert 
opinion, it is quite evident, from the merest enumeration of the 
methods of valuation, that the conception of value is a very 
complex one, and it is easy to point out the inadequacy of any 
particular abstract method of reaching it. 

The State has thus far generally undertaken to make a valua- 
tion of private property only for the purposes of various kinds 
of taxation, and it is important to note how it is made. In the 
first place, take the valuation of land, of real estate generally. 
In this country and in others where land is freely sold, valua- 
tions not only for the purposes of taxation, but for the pur- 
poses of sale, are very common ; but such valuations are, so far 
as I know, invariably made with reference to the supposed 
present or prospective market value. 

In the second place, take the valuation of personal property, 
for the purposes of transfer, inheritance and direct personal 
property taxes or the collection of duties. I believe that valua- 
tion for the purposes of the first three of these taxes is in- 
variably fixed by reference to the market price ascertained from 
the dealers or published quotations, and for the purposes of 
customs duties the valuation is almost invariably fixed by the 
cost price, although in the case of personal effects where the 
cost price obviously no longer represents present value, our 
Government makes itself ridiculous at least 1,000,000 times a 
year — or would do so if it complied with the law — in the en- 
deavor to have an official value such effects on the dock or in 
the public stores. 

January 15, 1910.] 



In the third place, take the State valuation of intangibles like 
franchises and good-will — for if competition in public utilities 
can be conceived under the Wisconsin doctrine, good-will must 
be recognized as an element of value — and it appears plain that 
the attempt to m|ike such a valuation of franchises for the pur- 
pose of taxation has resulted in this State — and I know nothing 
of it elsewhere — in nothing short of a monstrous scandal. We 
have a State board of three persons whose sole duty it is to 
appraise franchises for taxation, which has been at work for 10 

The appraisals by this board of the street railway fran- 
chises in this city have been in litigation for nine of these 
years. The valuations have been reduced by the courts about 50 
per cent. The board has gone gallantly on making its appraisals 
year after year, as if the courts had not spoken, and the courts 
will doubtless continue to perform their appointed task of cor- 
recting those appraisals. The theory on which this board of 
valuers proceeds I do not know, because they have not an- 
nounced it, but I know of one instance in which the value of the 
franchises of a railroad was appraised by it as $40,000. Just after 
that appraisal was made the railroad, franchise, cars, roadbed 
and all appurtenances sold at auction for $500. The board of 
appraisers was furnished with an affidavit of the sale at that 
price, and a copy of the decree confirming it, and they there- 
upon reduced the value of the franchise, not to nothing, but 
from $40,000 to $20,000. The labors of this particular body of 
State functionaries instead of fixing values irrevocably, as Mr. 
Roemer dreams the State will do, have only opened a vista of 
litigation, apparently as long before as it is behind. 

All the cases I have so far touched are comparatively simple, 
but when we come to the valuation of a public utility containing 
so many different elements as a street railway, an electric light, 
powei or water plant the problem is vastly complicated and it is 
not surprising that the Wisconsin philosophers have frankly 
"funked" the whole thing and sought shelter for themselves be- 
hind the experts, and those gentlemen have in turn taken the line 
of least resistance, and say the value of a public utility is what 
it would cost to reproduce it. Is it? Is it? 

If all experts agreed there would be less difficulty in ac- 
cepting that measure of value, but I see no reason to suppose 
that experts in the employ of the State are any more nearly in- 
fallible than the experts in the employ of the great contractors, 
and the merest tyro in affairs knows that if bids were asked 
for the construction of a large public utility to-day the best con- 
tractors you could find would vary from 10 per cent to 50 per 
cent in their bids, and in this city I doubt if you could get any 
bid except for a percentage on cost. Nor is this remarkable in 
respect to railways, for the actual cost of a mile of under- 
ground electric trolley has varied from $64,000 in Washington 
to about $1,000,000 in New York. 

"irrevocable" costs 

Let us suppose, however, that the present cost of reproduc- 
tion can be got at, it would obviously be unjust, either to the 
investors in the enterprise or to the public, unless it could be 
shown that the march of science had been stayed, and the prices 
of materials and the cost of labor had been as "irrevocably" 
fixed as they are in Mr. Roemer's vision of the world that is to 
be, and had not, therefore, changed since the date of produc- 
tion. The cost of reproduction, moreover, takes no cognizance 
of obsolete portions of a plant which contributed to its earn- 
ing capacity and, therefore, as I contend, to its present value. 
The Third Avenue Railroad, for instance, was a horse rail- 
road, then it was a cable railroad, now it is an electric rail- 
road, and its security holders paid their money to construct 
those roads. The first two served their purpose and have ceased 
to exist. The Western Union has, I am informed, several mil- 
lions of bonds outstanding which were issued for the money 
wherewith to lay cables, some of which have been lost in the 
primeval ooze at the bottom of the sea. 

Now, if the cost of reproduction is the measure of the value 
of a property, and the aggregate of its securities is to be con- 
tained within that valuation, I suppose it must he a corollary of 
that proposition that the $5,000,000 of bonds issued by the Third 

Avenue for its cable plant and the other millions of Western 
Union bonds issued for its extinct cable should be surrendered 
by their owners, and perhaps filed with the statisticians of the 
Public Service Commission. 

Finally, if we suppose that all the proposed valuations have 
been satisfactorily made, we must also suppose that civilized 
society has crystallized, as Mr. Roemer with his irrevocability 
would have us believe or Mr. Bellamy in his romance long ago 
imagined. If we do not so suppose, it must be conceded that 
the expiration of valuable patents, a decrease in population, bad 
times, increased prices of commodities or competition which 
might lead to the building of a new public utility alongside of 
an old one, may entirely alter the position of a public-service 
corporation and change every kind of value it may have except 
that fixed by the State. 

Above all things, science must be chained, otherwise after the 
Public Service Commissions have got everything comfortably 
and "perhaps irrevocably" valued, somebody like Mr. Brennan 
with his monorail and gyroscope car — the most wonderful thing 
I have ever seen — may come along and, so far as railways are 
concerned, upset the whole official edifice by revolutionizing the 

Notwithstanding all these considerations, it is urged as a 
general principle that it is essential to have an authoritative 
valuation of public-service corporations, first, to determine the 
reasonableness of the price paid by the public for services ren- 
dered, i.e., to fix rates; second, to enable the laws for the con- 
trol of the issue of securities to be equitably administered; 
third, to determine the amount to be paid over to the public by 
way of taxes, which cannot be reached without an analysis of 
the value of the industry considered as a commercial concern. 
Professor Adams, who states these propositions fairly and 
moderately, unblushingly dodges the details and the methods of 
valuation, but rests his case upon the necessity for an authorita- 
tive valuation for the purposes specified. This view of the mat- 
ter rather suggests the reply of Lord Chesterfield to the quack 
who was explaining by way of apology that "he must live," and 
Lord Chesterfield answered cheerfully: "I do not recognize 
the necessity." 

Certainly the necessity for valuation for any of those purposes 
is as yet far from general recognition. Only two or three States 
have authorized it, and I had supposed the notion that valuation 
of a common carrier, however it might be measured, or the 
notion that capitalization, based upon such valuation, was a 
factor in fixing rates, was now an expiring delusion. It is the 
demand for a commodity and the price of it which mainly de- 
termine the freight rate for it, and thus, as a distinguished 
economist has said, the market price of wheat in Liverpool has 
more to do with fixing the freight on wheat between St. Paul 
and New York than the capitalization of the railroads between 
those points. It is quite possible that in a virgin land rates 
might be fixed with a view in part to a return on the cost of a 
newly constructed railroad, or to paying interest on the securi- 
ties which represented that cost; but in this country there is no 
longer any such case, and a moment's reflection is sufficient to 
show that if two points are connected by two railroads, one of 
which cost or is capitalized at $10,000,000 and the other at 
$25,000,000, the rates must be the same on each railroad be- 
tween those two points. 


As respects the second necessity for a valuation mentioned 
by Professor Adams, I agree that in the case of a new enter- 
prise the laws in respect to the issue of securities cannot be ad- 
ministered without regard to the value of the property, but the 
measure of value in that case is the original cost — there can be 
no other. To undertake, however, to apply that Standard to a 
public utility with a long history and a demonstrated earning 
capacity is absurd and impracticable. The measure of value in 
such case is the income or yield, having regard to ils perma- 
nence and possible increase, and it is the proved or probable in- 
come of a property also which, in the long run, establishes its 
market price, and, for that mailer, the market value of every- 
thing else in the world, except merchandise and works of art, 

1 12 


[Vol. XXXV. No. 3. 

as to which the demand, together with considerations of rarity, 
beauty and taste or sentiment intervenes. 

If the value of a property measured by the cost of reproduc- 
tion is less than the value of a property measured by its fruit 
or its income, any attempt to limit the securities to the amount 
shown by the first method is tantamount to confiscation, which 
our Constitution and laws do not yet allow. Furthermore, any 
proposal to limit the amount of the income of a property, by 
cutting down the amount of its securities on which the income 
is to be paid — -and this, I am informed, is the theory of the arch 
and senatorial Wisconsin philosopher — appears to me to be 
undiluted nonsense. 

As to the valuation of a public service industry for pur- 
poses of taxation, I understand that Professor Adams's "analy- 
sis of the value of the industry considered as a commercial 
concern'' means exactly what I mean by saying that the value 
of an industry is measured by its product or income, and I 
only wish the laws in respect to taxation recognized that prin- 
ciple. They do not. These are the three purposes for which 
Professor Adams says we must, as a matter of general prin- 
ciple, have a system of valuation, and the Interstate Commerce 
Commission solemnly asked for an appropriation of $3,000,000 
with which to "value" all the interstate railroads in the United 
States ! 

There is something fascinating about general principles, and 
I can understand how a man may persuade himself that, as a 
matter of principle, there must be a valuation to save the courts 
and officials trouble in doing what he thinks they ought to do. 
It certainly would be a convenience to have a bureau of values, 
like the standard measures in the mint, to which you could go 
and find out what everything was "perhaps irrevocably" worth. 
But the individual must wither indeed before the State can be 
sufficiently reorganized to offer such conveniences. I can only 
say here, "Beware of general principles." They can only be 
attained through patient and laborious years. They cannot be 
reached merely by the expression of vague desires. They are 
not to be promulgated by every weakling who wants them to 
lean upon. And remember that one of the things which most 
clearly marks the transition from youth to maturity is the wil- 
lingness to formulate offhand "general principles." 

The whole problem of the possibility and desirability of mak- 
ing a valuation of a public service corporation resolves itself 
into questions of the method of the valuation and the purpose 
for which it is made. 1 regret that it should be gravely dis- 
cussed merely as necessary for the accomplishment of other 
purposes, because that appears to me to be a result of the un- 
American and, I hope, temporary tendency which now prevails, 
to run to the Government with every project and every con- 
ceivable grievance, like my landlady in Berlin 30 years ago, 
ivho cried out: "The price of meat is frightful, and the police 
Dught to do something about it." 

The people of this country have, I think wisely, made up 
their minds, in consequence of great corporate abuses, that 
public service corporations should be subject to regulation and, 
in some respects, control by the State ; but when I see the laws 
showered from the Legislatures, and the indiscriminate volleys 
of rules and general principles from public officials, usually 
fired through an intellectual fog, I cannot help thinking that 
the heads of the commissioners, State and interstate, are addled 
by power, or the lust for it, as much as the head of the million- 
aire who wanted a price on Harvard University, was addled 
by his money. 

These officials have great powers and most useful functions. 
They are trying to exercise them with zeal and honesty, and so 
far, I believe, desire nothing but the public good. As I con- 
sider their labors, however, I remember that the great Morara- 
sen once said to me : "Your people play pranks in politics and 
would excuse them by their youth"; and really, in many of their 
endeavors, particularly in this matter of valuation, with its 
irreverence for facts, they seem to be singing the song of the 
Banderlog who dreamed of 

"Something noble, grand, and good 
Won by simply wishing we could." 


The decision of the United States Supreme Court upholding 
the 5-cent rate of fare stipulated in the ordinance passed by 
the City Council of Minneapolis, Minn., on July 9, 1875, was 
mentioned in last week's issue. A full copy of the decision, 
which was delivered by Justice Day on Jan. 3, 19 10, is now 
available. It discusses a number of points bearing on the rela- 
tions of the municipality and the Minneapolis Street Railway, 
the subsidiary property of the Twin City Rapid Transit Com- 
pany which was directly involved in the case. 

The Court says in its decision : 

"This is an appeal from a decree of the Circuit Court of the 
United States for the District of Minnesota, enjoining the city 
of Minneapolis from enforcing, as against the Minneapolis 
Street Railway Company, appellee, a certain ordinance of the 
city of Minneapolis, passed Feb. 9, 1907, prescribing the rate of 
fare for the transportation of passengers over any street rail- 
way line, or lines, of the company in the city of Minneapolis. 

"The case was tried upon amended bill and answer. The 
ground alleged for injunction in the amended bill was in sub- 
stance that the ordinance of Feb. 9, 1907, violated the terms of 
a previous and subsisting contract, prescribing the rates of fare 
to be charged by the company in the city of Minneapolis. It ap- 
pears in the record that the railway company was organized 
on July 1, 1873, and that its alleged contract arises from an 
ordinance of the city of Minneapolis passed July 9, 1875, ratified 
by an act of the Legislature of the State of Minnesota passed 
March 4, 1879. 

"It is sufficient for the present purpose to say that it is the 
contention of the company that by the ordinance of July 9, 1875, 
and the ratifying act, it became the owner of an irrepealable 
contract for the term of 50 years from the date of its organiza- 
tion, by the terms of which it had the right to charge a fare not 
exceeding 5 cents for each person carried on any continuous line 
which might be designated by the city council of the city, such 
continuous line, however, not to exceed 3 miles in length. 
The contract, it is alleged, is violated by the ordinance of Feb. 
9, 1907, requiring the sale of six tickets for 25 cents. 

"The existence of the alleged contract is denied by the city 
upon several grounds. It is urged that the complainant com- 
pany was so organized that its charter, and consequently its 
corporate life, expired 30 years after the date of its incorpora- 
tion, that is, on July r, 1903, and, therefore, its contract rights 
ceased and terminated at that time. This contention is based 
upon the incorporation of the company, which, it is insisted, 
could only be under Title II of the laws of Minnesota, which 
includes transportation and other lawful business, and limits 
corporations organized thereunder to a' continuation for not 
more than 30 years." 

The decision discusses the contention of the company that it 
was organized under Title I of the laws of Minnesota for a 
term of 50 years, stating: 

"Much of the elaborate briefs of counsel in this case is de- 
voted to a discussion of the question of the organization of this 
corporation, and as to whether it was under the one title or the 
other. This is not a proceeding in quo warranto, and the juris- 
diction of the Federal Court rested upon the contention that 
the company has a contract right protected from impairment 
by a legislative act of the State. It is only necessary to exam- 
ine the question of the incorporation and organization of the 
company so far as is required to determine whether or not this 
alleged contract right exists, and whether it has been violated 
by the ordinance of the city of Minneapolis, attacked in the 
amended bill. 

"There can be no question that the attempted incorporation of 
this company was under Title I of the statutes. * * * The 
corporation has continued to act since the expiration of the 30 
years which would have been its corporate life had it been 
organized under Title II. There have been no proceedings, so 
far as the record shows, to inquire into its corporate existence 
since the expiration of the 30 years, and this record discloses 

January 15, 1910.] 



that a number of ordinances have been passed by the city of 
Minneapolis since July 1, 1903, requiring of the corporation the 
construction of additional lines of railway upon certain of the 
streets of the city of Minneapolis, and to otherwise discharge 
its duties as a continuing corporation. 

"This record therefore shows that the company undertook to 
organize under Title I, for the period of 50 years, has continued 
to act as such corporation, and was so acting at the time of the 
passage of the ordinance of Feb. 9, 1907." 

The Court then proceeds to examine the question, Did the 
ordinance of July 9, 1875, together with the ratifying act of 
1879, make a contract between the city of Minneapolis and the 
street railway company, which would endure for the period of 
50 years? Sections I, VIII and XVII of the ordinance of July 
9, 1875, are quoted, and it is s